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Enabling access to Linked Media with SPARQL-MM

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The amount of audio, video and image data on the web is immensely growing, which leads to data management problems based on the hidden character of multimedia. Therefore the interlinking of semantic concepts and media data with the aim to bridge the gap between the document web and the Web of Data has become a common practice and is known as Linked Media. However, the value of connecting media to its semantic meta data is limited due to lacking access methods specialized for media assets and fragments as well as to the variety of used description models. With SPARQL-MM we extend SPARQL, the standard query language for the Semantic Web with media specific concepts and functions to unify the access to Linked Media. In this paper we describe the motivation for SPARQL-MM, present the State of the Art of Linked Media description formats and Multimedia query languages, and outline the specification and implementation of the SPARQL-MM function set.

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Enabling access to Linked Media with SPARQL-MM

  1. 1. Enabling access to Linked Media with Thomas Kurz, Kai Schlegel, Prof. Dr. Harald Kosch 3rd International Workshop on Linked Media,WWW 2015, Florence
  2. 2. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 The MICO Project and me • www.mico-project.eu • 36 Months Project • started 10/13 • 3.4 Million Euro Project • 7 Partners
  3. 3. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 The MICO project idea
  4. 4. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 The MICO project idea
  5. 5. Semantic Web Multimedia Linked Media Media Fragment Identifiers Media Annotation Ontologies 5
  6. 6. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Multimedia Retrieval on theWeb of Data is finding (fragments of) resources of an structured and unstructured nature (text, image, video, concepts etc.) that satisfy an information need. Extension of the standard definition of information retrieval in: Christopher D. Manning and Prabhakar Raghavan.An Introduction to Information Retrieval. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  7. 7. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Multimedia Query Languages 1. SQL-like approaches (WebSSQL or SQL/MM) 2. Object oriented approaches (MOQL or POQLMM) 3. Focusing XML metadata (MMDOC-QL or XQuery) 4. Visual Query Languages, like (MQueryVisual-MOQL) 5. Query-By-Example approaches, like WS-QBE 6. Metadata agnostic like MPQF A Survey with ~40 MM Query Languages is coming soon …
  8. 8. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Multimedia Query Languages: Requirements and Features • Spatial Operation • Temporal Operation • Freetext Search • Functions: Aggreg., Sort., Group., Set-Fnct. • Similarity Search (Top-k) • Event / Object Concept • Presentation Part General Requirements: Application Independency, Formal Semantics, Extendability, Closed, etc. Specific Features: • Fuzzy terms • Relevance Feedback • Camera Motion • Object Motion (Trajectory) • Query by Example (Image, Video, Sketch, Humming) • Condition Weighting • Low-Level-Features (Audio, Video)
  9. 9. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Semantic Web Query Languages • There has been many in the past, but SPARQL (SPARQL Query Language for RDF) is the winner of the "natural selection". • With SPARQL 1.1 many missing features have become part of the standard. • SPARQL is pretty good to extend (even without changing the basic syntax) BUT: It's missing some important features
  10. 10. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 What we want to reach "Find scenes where Barack Obama is left beside the Greenpeace Managing Director during an UN climate conference ordered by length." Features needed: • Object Identification • Temporal Operation • Spatial Operation • Freetext Search • Sorting by Temporal Selector
  11. 11. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 How could it look like? "Find scenes where Barack Obama is left beside the Greenpeace MD during the UN climate change summit ordered by length." SELECT ?scene WHERE { ?a3 oa:hasBody ?event; oa:hasTarget ?s3. # there are resources about an event ?event schema:Event; schema:summary ?description.# which has a description FILTER mm:fulltext-search(str (?description), "UN climate conference","en") # about 'UN climate conference' ?a2 oa:hasBody :Barack_Obama; oa:hasTarget ?s2. # and there are resources about Obama ?a1 oa:hasBody ?p1; oa:hasTarget ?s1. # and there are resources ?p1 :ceo_of dbpedia:Greenpeace. # about the MD of Greenpeace. FILTER mm:leftBeside(?s2,?s1) # Obama has to be at the left of the MD and FILTER mm:intersects(?s3,?s2) # has to be appear at the same time like the event. BIND (mm:boundingBox(?s1,?s2) AS ?scene) # Wrap the results to scenes ORDER BY DESC(mm:duration(?scene)) # and show the longest first.
  12. 12. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Goals • Bring Multimedia Functionalities to SPARQL (especially spatio-temporal support) • Give transparent access to common Metadata Models (Web Annotation Selectors, Media Fragment URIs) • Provide efficient evaluation • Make it more easy for users
  13. 13. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Spatio-Temporal Object Model
  14. 14. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Spatio-Temporal Object Model: Example: Rectangle
  15. 15. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Supported Standards • Media Fragment URIs • Spatial Fragment (currently Rectangle) • Temporal Fragment (currently Interval) • Web Annotation Model • Media Fragment Selectors (http://www.w3.org/TR/media-frags/) • SVG Basic Shapes (http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/shapes.html) http://example.org/video.mp4#t=1,5&xywh=10,20,30,30
  16. 16. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2012. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 SPARQL-MM Functions Spatial Topological Relations Spatial Predicates based in the Dimensionally Extended nine-Intersection Model +(DE-9IM)
  17. 17. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2012. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 SPARQL-MM Functions Spatial Directional Relations
  18. 18. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2012. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 SPARQL-MM Functions:Temporal Relations
  19. 19. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Multimedia Tests and Accessors (not complete yet) xsd:boolean mf:isMediaFragmentURI(Resource r) xsd:boolean mf:isMediaFragmentSelector(Resource r) xsd:boolean mf:isSVGSelector(Resource r) mo:Rectangle mf:getBoundingBox(mo:SpatialEntity e) xsd:double mf:getArea(mo:SpatialEntity e) mo:Point mf:getXY(mo:Rectangle r) xsd:double mf:getWidth(mo:Rectangle r) xsd:double mf:getWidth(mo:Rectangle r) xsd:double mf:getDuration(mo:TemporalEntity e) xsd:double mf:getStart(mo:TemporalEntity e) xsd:double mf:getEnd(mo:TemporalEntity e)
  20. 20. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Fulltext Search Based in Apache Marmotta Fulltext Search* • mf:fulltext-search(text, query, [language]): searches “text” for the words occurring in “query”, optionally applying the language-specific processing for the given language; query is a simple text literal (list of words) without any boolean connectors; words are AND connected, i.e. all words have to be found in the text for a successful match. • mf:fulltext-query(text, query, [language]): searches “text” using the boolean query string passed in “query”, optionally applying language-specific processing for the given language; query is a boolean query string following the syntax used by PostgreSQL. * http://marmotta.apache.org/kiwi/sparql.html
  21. 21. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Status of Implementation • SPARQL-MM 1.0 is out for a while, but: • it is slow (based on Sesame Function Extensions) • it is reduced • it is very prototype (therefore still Snapshot) https://oss.sonatype.org/content/repositories/snapshots/com/github/tkurz/sparql-mm/ • SPARQL-MM 2.0 will be available soon (planned for 8/2015) • it is much faster (based on SQL-MM using PostGIS) • it will be available as Open Source Marmotta Module* • is has a big feature set * maybe we should create a LIME Module that include implementations for various Linked Media related things like Web Annotation endpoints etc. ?
  22. 22. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Short Demo <repositories> <repository> <id>oss-sonatype</id> <name>oss-sonatype</name> <url> https://oss.sonatype.org/content/repositories/snapshots/ </url> </repository> </repositories> <dependency> <groupId>com.github.tkurz</groupId> <artifactId>sparql-mm</artifactId> <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version> </dependency>
  23. 23. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Future Plans • SPARQL like for shapes mm:like(mo:Circle(20,20,100), ?f) • Extend Model to Layers mm:behind(?f1, ?f2) • SPARQL like for Resources mm:like(?u1, ?u2, 0.4)
  24. 24. © Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft 2015. No reproduction without written permission. Certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2008 Thanks for your Attention! Thomas Kurz Knowledge and Media Technologies Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft m.b.H. Jakob-Haringer-Straße 5/III | Salzburg,Austria Tel. +43 662 2288-253| Fax +43 662 2288-222 thomas.kurz@salzburgresearch.at

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