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1. The graph1. The graph
2. Shows the changes in the2. Shows the changes in the
number of people from abroadnumber of people from abroad
who visited Townsville,who visited Townsville,
3. Over a four-year period.3. Over a four-year period.
Title (paraphrased from the question) + Overall
Compare and contrast main factors
(The ideas are presented from general to specific details)
The overall of the chart/graph
Three steps to keep up
1. Identify the main idea behind the graph or table. This will be
the focus of your first sentence.
2. Consider the details of what is being shown - the units of
measurement, the time frame, and the location.
3. Consider the language to use - the introductory expressions,
the tenses of the verbs, the correct expressions of time etc.
The line graph illustrates the amount of fast food
consumed by teenagers (1) in Australia between
1975 and 2000, a period of 25 years (2).
The graph/table shows/indicates/illustrates/reveals/represents..
It is clear from the graph/table... ..(that).
It can be seen from the graph/table... ..(that).
As the graph/table shows,...(clause)
As can be seen from the graph/table,...(clause)
As is shown by the graph/table,.. (clause)
As is illustrated by the graph/table,...(clause)
From the graph/table it is clear.....(that).
3. Avoid using the word presents. It requires a sophisticated summarising
noun to follow. (For example: The graph presents an overview of the
population growth of Canada between 1867 and 2007.)
1. Avoid using the phrase: according to the graph. This is because the
phrase according to generally means that the information comes
from another person or source, and not from our own knowledge.
2. The expressions as can be seen from the graph or as is
shown/illustrated by the table do NOT contain the dummy subject it.
The chart shows the number of households in Winchester, California,
and the languages which people speak there.
The chart shows the difficulties people have when they integrate into a
new country and how the problems vary according to age.
The diagram shows a machine
for producing electricity from
The table shows the number of students at
Broadlands Language School and the
average number of weeks the students spent
there over a three-month period..
18-34: making friends (46%) higher than for the
middle age group (36%) and the oldest age group
Learning the local language – 54% compared with 29%
for the youngest
The oldest age group has the least difficulty with finding
somewhere to live (22%), compared with 39% for the middle
age group and 40% for the youngest.
1. Question 1: paragraph 2
Question 2: paragraph 3
Question 3: paragraph 4
2. To give a general overview of all
Compare and Contrast
One syllable: adj + -er + than
cheap – cheaper
large - larger
Long adjectives: More/ less + adj + than
common - more common
profitable - more profitable
More/ less/ fewer + N + than
One syllable: adj + -est
cheap – the cheapest
large – the largest
high – the highest
Long adjectives: the most/least + adj
common - the most common
profitable – the most profitable
Similarity: As + adj + as
(not) as many + …as
As popular as as many females as males
Use adverbs to make your comparisons more exact
To emphasize a difference, you can use: many,
much, far, and significantly
Many more students sat examinations in science-
For small differences, you can use: slightly or
Nearly as many students sat Art and Design exam
as did the Chemistry exam.
a new country
How the problems vary according to people’s ages.