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REDD+ (Transforming Development for Sustainability)

With international concern escalating as a result of population growth, climate change, food price increases and land grabbing, the environmental challenges facing those living in the developing world become ever more complex, multifaceted and immediate. These challenges are encapsulated within the overarching concept of sustainable development. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) are important elements of the international climate change regime. Global deforestation is estimated to be the source of 20 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions per year. At the same time, some argue that forestry has the highest potential of any sector to provide low-cost greenhouse gas reduction solutions between now and 2030.

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REDD+ (Transforming Development for Sustainability)

  1. 1. Why forests matter? Why deforestation?
  2. 2. 31% of the land is covered by forests 1.6 billion people rely on forests 1/4 3.3 billion m3 of pharmaceutical drugs come from forests of wood is generated in forests
  3. 3. 36 football fields are lost every minute 17% of the Amazon forest has been lost 15% of all greenhouse gases emissions 80% of documented species is found in tropical forests
  4. 4. Other* Pasture Logging Small-scale agriculture Large-scale agriculture 10 10 20 20 40 ILLEGAL LOGGING FIRE FUELWOOD HARVESTING *
  5. 5. REDD or dead? What does + stand for?
  6. 6. ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.’ UN definition
  7. 7. 1997 2005 2009 Adoption of Kyoto REDD proposed for negotiations Reconfirmation on REDD+ importance 2001 2007 2010 Protocol Provision related to forest-related sinks Montreal Copenhagen Marrakesh Accords Bali Action Plan Cancun Defined rules for land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) Development from REDD to REDD+ Proposal on specific work to implement REDD+ 2011 Durban Guidance on providing information regarding forest related emissions 7 decisions on REDD+ incl. result-driven finance, monitoring system Warsaw Framework 2013 UN CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCES
  8. 8. A climate change mitigation solution that many initiatives are currently developing Most cost effective way of stabilising the atmospheric concentration of GG emissions Dualistic: Saving the planet & making money for developing nations Not a panacea for combating climate change and it must co-exist with other significant emissions reductions
  9. 9. New future for carbon markets? Will it work?
  10. 10. 1. A country slows down forest destruction 2. Country receives payment for reducing carbon pollution 3. Country funds further forest preservation and job creation Trees are made of carbon Deforestation raises carbon into the atmosphere If tropical forest countries slow down forest destruction (CO2 emissions), they receive payments Countries invest that money to conserve the forests and create jobs for local people.
  11. 11. Industrialised countries will pay developing countries to keep forests standing, in order for them to act as a ‘carbon sink’. To succeed, a number of stakeholders (government, international institutions, NGOs, local representatives, local farmers and labourers) must work together. 70,000 people directly benefiting from projects More than 4 milion tons reduced since 2009 139 red list species habitat protected 14 million hectares of forests Around 73 REDD+ projects in 24 countries under protection validated
  12. 12. CUMMULATIVE MARKET VALUE OF FOREST CARBON MARKETS (US$MM) EU 50% Other 20% USA 30% BUYERS REDD+ projects are being included in national development programs by developing and testing forest monitoring Projects are seen as beneficial for numerous actors Community consultation is believed to assure informed consent of impacted people
  13. 13. Can we see forest from the trees?
  14. 14. DIFFICULT TO IMPLEMENT Vast and complex in nature; Non functional governance systems; Inadequate infrastructure. OWNERSHIP DISAGREEMENT Unclear who owns the forests. DISRUPTING LIVELIHOOD Restricting access to forests disrupts local (often poor) people.
  15. 15. ALLOCATING FUNDS Who receives money and how is it spent? RE-CENTRALISING FOREST MANAGEMENT: EXCLUDING LOCALS New demands on national forest managers; Exclusion of the local users that need funds. IGNORING OTHER GG FACTORS North is to continue industrial growth whilst developing countries pay the price.
  16. 16. IT IS NOT PARTICIPATORY No discussions with local people. COMMERCIALIZATION IS NON ETHICAL Equalizing environmental protection with economic transactions. CONTRIBUTING TO URBANISATION It will force local people to migrate to cities.
  17. 17. Can we see forest from the trees?
  18. 18. Deforestation and forest degradation need to be tackled and the mismanagement of forests is having a detrimental effect on human induced climate change. It is promising that global institutions such as the UN & World Bank agree that deforestation must be addressed at the global policy level. On paper and in theory, REDD+ definitely addresses pressing issues regarding climate change and would certainly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions if implemented correctly. REDD+ obscures the fundamental problem of climate change and its core roots in the north. Unless the big industrialised nations in the north reduce their emissions, climate change will not abate. Because REDD+ is such a vast and complex initiative, it lacks transparency and is corruptible at many levels. As opposed to being participatory, REDD+ is likely to exclude local and indigenous people from the forests on which they rely to sustain their livelihoods, which will worsen poverty and deepen inequality. If REDD+ is to be a success for all, it is imperative that forests are not completely shut off from indigenous peoples and preserved purely as ‘carbon sinks’. Agreements with local people must be negotiated in regards to sustainable forest usage, to ensure that the forests are both protected and available to be used to sustain the livelihoods of the local populace.
  19. 19. REFERENCES Kühne, Kjell (2011) Why REDD+ is Dangerous (in its current form). [Online] Available from: http://www.redd-monitor.org/2011/02/05/why-redd-is- dangerous-in-its-current-form/ [Accessed on 14th March 2014] Laurence, William F. (2008) Can Carbon Trading Save Vanishing Forests? Bioscience, 58 (4): 286-287 Peters-Stanley, M., Hamilton, K., & Yin, D. (2012) Leveraging the landscape: State of the forest carbon markets 2012. Washington, DC: Ecosystem Marketplace. [Online] Available from: http://www.forest-trends.org/documents/files/doc_3242.pdf [Accessed on 14th March 2014] Phelps, Jacob, Webb, Edward L., and Agrawal, Arun (2010) Does REDD+ Threaten to Recentralize Forest Governance? Science, New Series, 328 (5976): 312-313 Schneider, Gia, Thomas, William L., and Vitale, Benjamin (2009) Banking on the Environment: Profiting from Investment in REDD. Natural Resources and Environment, 24 (1): 14-17 USEFUL WEBSITES Centre For International Forestry Research: Youtube video ‘Getting REDD+ to work’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2ZlvTsA-UY REDD-monitor.org: http://www.redd-monitor.org/redd-an-introduction/ Forest Carbon Partnership: https://www.forestcarbonpartnership.org Global Justice Ecology: Youtube video ‘A darker shade of green: REDD alert and the future of forests’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FPFPUhsWMaQ UN-REDD programme: http://www.un-redd.org/aboutredd/tabid/102614/default.aspx WWF: Deforestation https://worldwildlife.org/threats/deforestation Forest Trends http://www.forest-trends.org/ Conservation International http://www.conservation.org/Pages/default.aspx