4. Cyber crime refers to any crime that involves
a computer and a network . The computer may
have been used in the commission of a crime, or
it may be the target .
Debarati Halder and Dr. K. Jaishankar defines
Cybercrimes as: "Offences that are committed
against individuals or groups of individuals with a
criminal motive to intentionally harm the
reputation of the victim or cause physical or
mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly,
using modern telecommunication networks such
as Internet and mobile phones .
5. Categorize of cyber crime
We can categorize cyber crime
in two ways.
1. The computer as a target- using a computer to attack
other computers via hacking, virus , dos attack .
2. The computer as a weapon – using a computer to commit
real world crimes . Ex- cyber terrorism , credit cards
frauds, pornography etc .
7. Modes and manners
1. Unauthorized access to computer system
2.Theft of information stored in electronic
8. Unauthorized access to computer system –
Unauthorized access to a computer system
entails approaching, trespassing within and
retrieving data or otherwise intercepting and
altering computer resources without consent. It
broadly falls into the term 'computer hacking',
because it attempts to bypass the security
mechanisms of a system.
• Computer hacking is when someone modifies
computer hardware or software in a way that
alters the creator's original intent. People who
hack computers are known as hackers. Hackers
are usually real technology buffs who enjoy
learning all they can about computers and how
they work. Hackers think that what they do is like
an art form. They usually have expert-level skills
in one specific program. For most hackers,
hacking gives them the opportunity to use their
problem-solving skills and a chance to show off
their abilities. Most of them do not wish to harm
10. Trojan attack
• A Trojan horse, or Trojan, is a hacking program
that is a non-self-replicating type of malware
which gains privileged access to the operating
system while appearing to perform a desirable
function but instead drops a malicious payload,
often including a backdoor allowing unauthorized
access to the target's computer.These
backdoors tend to be invisible to average users,
but may cause the computer to run slow.
11. Web jacking
• The web jacking attack vector is another
phishing technique that can be used in social
Attack followed in this attack are creating a fake
website and when the victim opens the link a
page will appear saying that the website has
been moved and they need to click another link.
If the victim clicks the link he will be redirected to
12. E-mail bombing
• In internet usage, an email bomb is a
form of net abuse consisting of sending
huge volumes of email to an address in
an attempt to overflow the
mailbox or overwhelm the server where
the email address is hosted in a denial of
service attack .
13. Cyber attack can be on following
• Cyber crime against person.
• Cyber crime against individual property.
• Cyber crime against government
14. Against person
• Harassment via e-mails
• Cyber stalking:-Stalking is a form of mental assault, in which
the perpetrator repeatedly, unwantedly, and disruptively breaks into the
life-world of the victim, with whom he has no relationship (or no longer
has), with motives that are directly or indirectly traceable to the affective
sphere. Moreover, the separated acts that make up the intrusion cannot
by themselves cause the mental abuse, but do taken together .
• E-mail spoofing:-Email spoofing is the creation
of email messages with a forged sender address - something which is
simple to do because the core protocols do
no authentiction. spam and phishing emails typically use such spoofing to
mislead the recipient about the origin of the message.
15. Against individual property
• Computer vandalism – it is a program that performs
malicious function such as extracting a user's password or other
data or erasing the hard disk. A vandal differs from a virus, which
attaches itself to an existing executable program. The vandal is
the full executing entity itself which can be downloaded from the
Internet in the form of an ActiveX control, Java applet, browser
plug-in or e-mail attachment.
• Transmitting virus - this means intentionally
transmission of viruses into other computer to destroy important
files and folders .
16. Against government
• Cyber terrorism is the use of internet based
attacks in terror activities, including acts of
deliberate, large-scale disruption of
computer networks, especially of personal
computers attached to the Internet, by the
means of tools such as viruses . Example –
attack on usa defence academy in iraq war ,
by iraqui hackers .
19. cyber privacy
Cyber privacy involves the right or mandate of
personal privacy concerning the storing, repurposing,
provision to third-parties, and displaying of information
pertaining to oneself via the internet .
20. How to protect ?
• Keep software up to date
• Use good passwords
• Disable remote connectivity
21. • Antivirus and anti spyware :- software-
antivirus software consists of computer
programme that attempt to identify thwart and
eliminate computer virus and other malicious
softwares . Anti spywares are used to restrict
backdoor programme , trojan and other
spywares to be installed on the computer .
• Firewalls :- a firewall protects a computer
network from unauthorized access. Network
firewalls may be hardware devices , software
programme , or a combination of the two .
• Indian laws are well drafted and are capable
of handling all kinds of challenges as posed by
cyber criminals , however the enforcement
agencies are required to be well versed with
the changing technology and laws .
• As internet technology advances so does the
threat of cyber crime . In times like these we
must protect ourselves from cyber crime .
Antivirus software , firewalls and security
patches are just the beginning . Never open
suspicious e-mails and only navigate through
trusted sites .