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Internet Ethics

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presented at the Seminar-workshop on “The Roadmap of the New Generation Library Support Staff,” held on July 25-27, 2005 at Nawawalang Paraiso, Tayabas, Quezon Province, Philippines

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Internet Ethics

  1. 1. Internet Ethics <ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>Fe Angela M. Verzosa </li></ul><ul><li>University Archivist, DLSU </li></ul>
  2. 2. ISSUES on Internet Ethics <ul><li>Internet conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Research on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Business on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Politics and the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>On-line education </li></ul><ul><li>Legal issues </li></ul><ul><li>Social issues </li></ul><ul><li>Identity issues </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy issues </li></ul><ul><li>Security issues </li></ul>
  3. 3. Unethical/Illegal behavior: <ul><li>Stealing copyright and credit for intellectual property </li></ul><ul><li>Intercepting private e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Display of pornographic material </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate public mis- </li></ul><ul><li>information </li></ul><ul><li>Misuse of research material </li></ul><ul><li>Improper commercial/ </li></ul><ul><li>personal use of network </li></ul><ul><li>Stealing credit information. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Focus of this lecture <ul><li>What is the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>How does its past development and current operations relate to questions of ethics? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a place for legal ethics on the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>if so, how would this manifest itself? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Evolution of the Internet <ul><li>started life in 1969 as a network for the American military (ARPANET) </li></ul><ul><li>started by connecting terminals at Stanford and UCLA </li></ul>http://images.forbes.com/images/2002/12/02/1969_internet.jpg
  6. 6. Evolution of the Internet <ul><li>In 70s-80s Internet evolved into a network for the American academic community </li></ul>
  7. 7. Evolution of the Internet <ul><li>WWW was developed by British scientist Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 </li></ul>Tim Berners-Lee
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>In 1988 thru the early 90s, worms found their way around the Net - WWW Worms (W4), joined by Spiders, Wanderers , Crawlers , and Snakes ... </li></ul></ul>Evolution of the Internet (con’t)
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>First search engine ‘ Archie ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>came out in 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Google , the most widely used, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>came out of Stanford in late 1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1993, Internet took off, number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of users doubled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A number of Net related companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>went public, with Netscape leading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the pack </li></ul></ul>Evolution of the Internet (con’t)
  10. 10. <ul><li>1995 Hong Kong police disconnected all but one of the colony's Internet providers for failure to obtain license; thousands of users left without service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1995 Internet entered media consciousness and public debate. Today there are around 400 million Internet users world-wide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Philippines, DOST-ESEP network was launched in 1995. DLSU became the 1 st academic library to go public with its OPAC, </li></ul></ul>Evolution of the Internet (con’t)
  11. 12. <ul><ul><ul><li>China : requires users and ISPs to register with the police </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany : cuts off access to some newsgroups carried on CompuServe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia : confines Internet access to universities and hospitals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore : requires political and religious content providers to register with the state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1996 Restrictions on Internet use… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><ul><ul><li>1996 Restrictions on Internet use… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand : classifies computer disks as &quot;publications&quot; that can be censored and seized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>China : Chinese government puts Lin Hai on trial for &quot;inciting the overthrow of state power&quot; for providing 30,000 email addresses to a US Internet magazine (December) [ He is later sentenced to two years in jail ] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>France - French legal case against the American Yahoo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After months of legal proceedings, the French court rules Yahoo! must block French users from accessing hate memorabilia in its auction site (Nov 2000). Given its inability to provide such a block on the Internet, Yahoo! removes those auctions entirely (Jan 2001). The case is eventually thrown out (Feb 2003). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Australia - forwarding email becomes illegal with the passing of the Digital Agenda Act, as it is seen as a technical infringement of personal copyright (4 Mar 2001) </li></ul>Evolution of the Internet (con’t)
  14. 15. <ul><ul><ul><li>Europe - European Council finalizes an international cybercrime treaty on 22 June and adopts it on 9 November 2002. This is the first treaty addressing criminal offenses committed over the Internet. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spain - hundreds of Spain-based web sites take their content offline in protest of a new law that took effect on 12 Oct 2002 requiring all commercial Web sites to register with the government. </li></ul></ul></ul>Evolution of the Internet (con’t)
  15. 16. <ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes make headlines as: larger US Internet retailers begin collecting taxes on all purchases; some US states tax Internet bandwidth; and the EU requires all Internet companies to collect value added tax (VAT) on digital downloads starting 1 July 2003 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For a much more detailed history of the Internet, see the Hobbes Internet Timeline http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline) </li></ul></ul></ul>Evolution of the Internet (con’t)
  16. 17. <ul><ul><li>What are the implications of this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>evolution in the ethics issue? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet originally designed for, and used by, the few and the intellectual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet was originally used exclusively by Americans , who value freedom of expression and are hostile towards government intervention or control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As Internet growth continues, more users in the Third World, the ethics debate will not simply be an American vs European one because of wide diversity of cultures and value systems of users. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet is not one network but many – indeed it is a network of networks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet has many </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>players with different </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interests. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is still a poor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sense of understanding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>of the issues. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The debate about the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>content of the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is not national but </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>global, not by specialists but by the general populace. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the implications of the range of Internet services for the ethics debate? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><ul><li>What is this ethics debate over the Internet? Is there a place for legal ethics on the Internet and, if so, how would this manifest itself? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we define Internet Ethics ? </li></ul></ul>Ethics debate
  19. 20. <ul><ul><li>Ethics is about what is good, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how we should think about good. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic is about truth; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aesthetics about beauty; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and ethics is about goodness. </li></ul></ul>Definitions
  20. 21. <ul><ul><li>E thics pertains to a system of moral principles; the branch of philosophy dealing with values relating to human conduct, with respect to the rightness and wrongness of certain actions and to the goodness and badness of the motives and ends of such actions . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet makes us aware there is quite a lot of opinions on Internet ethics. </li></ul></ul>Ethics
  21. 22. <ul><ul><ul><li>seeks to come up with a code of conduct and disclosure obligation for those </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>who communicate on the Internet. </li></ul></ul></ul>Internet ethics
  22. 23. <ul><ul><li>Issues on Internet Ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should we apply our moral standards to the Internet, or should we develop new norms? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If Internet is borderless, how do we accommodate multiplicity of values? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are we to follow the established Netiquette ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whose responsibility is ethics on the Internet? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><ul><ul><li>consist of codes of conduct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relating to behavior in computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mediated groups and communities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and conduct relating to the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>practice of research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generally relate to issues of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, dignity, and avoidance of harm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>guidelines for internet research developed by American Sociological Assn and British Sociological Association (see the ff websites  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.asanet/ecoderev.htm http://dialspace.dial.pipex.com/town/parade/ot36/ethgu2.htm) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues on Ethics of Internet research </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><ul><ul><li>Another ethical issue is technology-assisted plagiarism . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users, especially students/faculty can download entire term papers/thesis/ research articles/syllabi/ modules. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet makes it easy for users to simply sit at home, search millions of articles instantly, be taken to the exact paragraph in a text that deals with their subject, cut and paste it, and pass the work as their own. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software has been developed to track down such cheating. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><ul><li>Another ethical issue concerns search engines as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>advertising media. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search engines used to index web sites for relevant information on specific topics; now that they accept paid-for listings, users who look for free information are pushed towards product sites and ad pages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid submission speeds up process of being included in any search result. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid placement can guarantee high ranking in search result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid inclusion is where an advertiser isn’t guaranteed a high result but it will be more likely to appear in the result </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><ul><li>Internet Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>issues including honesty and responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accountability, privacy and confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protection of data (i.e. credit card numbers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freedom from invasiveness (i.e. so-called sticky websites that automatically track and retain customer contact and information) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quality of the goods delivered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disclosure and reliability of information (i.e. the scandal with fake paintings sold on eBay) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><ul><li>Sources of goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet economics vs. traditional economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impact of global Internet business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employment through the net ( local and global telecommuting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>web advertising, competition on the Internet (hacking into data, falsification of data) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public information and financial disclosure (investor relations on the Internet), and others. </li></ul></ul>Issue on ethics & Internet Business
  28. 29. <ul><ul><li>What is AUP? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An acceptable use policy is an agreement between the user and the service provider that defines how users are allowed to use the network/Internet. An AUP should describe both acceptable and unacceptable behavior. To print out or view our DLSU AUP, visit http://www.dlsu.edu.ph/legalities/netusage.asp </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><ul><li>General policies of DLSU’s Netusage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect the privacy of other users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect the legal protection provided by copyright and license to programs and data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect the integrity of computing systems . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use by member institutions as a laboratory for research and experimentation in computer communications should not interfere with production usage . Any experimental use requiring modification to router software or protocol layers below ISO layer 4 requires prior review by ITC. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><ul><li>Ownership issues: Who owns what ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer equipment, workstation, and software license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic messages and electronic files with limited computing space (quota) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer account is not owned but access is granted subject to conditions and limitations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional Name, Logo, trademarks, signs, etc. such as DLSU, its logo, “The future begins here”, Green Archer, are all registered with IPO. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><ul><li>What is Netiquette? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email formality/informality depends on communicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never type using capital letters, unless in anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email is not a telegraph; use complete sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use !!! Sparingly (if only to indicate emotions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always put something descriptive under Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid email exchanges of sexual nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect copyright privileges and “fair use” policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not share password/computer accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not send chain letters, forged messages, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malicious misuse (cracking passwords, hacking, disrupting system, sending bogus aliases, messages, etc) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><ul><li>1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. 2. Thou shalt not interfere with other people's computer work. 3. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people's files. 4. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal. 5. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness. </li></ul></ul>Ten Commandments for Computer Ethics
  33. 34. <ul><ul><li>6.Thou shalt not use or copy software for which you have not paid. 7. Thou shalt not use other people's computer resources without authorization. 8. Thou shalt not appropriate other people's intellectual output. 9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you write. 10. Thou shalt use a computer in ways that show consideration and respect. </li></ul></ul>Ten Commandments for Computer Ethics
  34. 35. <ul><ul><ul><li>Cited from The Net: User Guidelines and Netiquette - by Arlene Rinaldi, from the Computer Ethics Institute http://www.fau.edu/rinaldi/net/ten.html “ Permission to duplicate or distribute this document is granted with the provision that the document remains intact or if used in sections, that the original document source be referenced.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual property issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>privacy (almost every commercial website has a privacy statement) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reliability and accountability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>data protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>censorship vs. freedom of expression (pornography, hate speech, restricted data) </li></ul></ul></ul>What about legal issues and Internet Ethics?
  36. 37. <ul><ul><ul><li>Internet crime (i.e. hacking) and justice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>information technology in the workplace (surveillance, control, empowerment vs. disempowerment) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>terms of participation and service agreements </li></ul></ul></ul>What about legal issues and Internet Ethics? (2)
  37. 38. Piracy (E-Commerce Act) <ul><li>the unauthorized copying, reproduction, dissemination, distribution, importation, use removal, alteration, substitution, modification, storage, uploading, downloading, communication, making available to the public, or broadcasting of protected material, electronic signatures or copyrighted works, including legally protected sound recordings or phonograms or information material on protected works, </li></ul>
  38. 39. Piracy (E-Commerce Act)… <ul><li>through the use of telecommunication networks such as, but not limited </li></ul><ul><li>to, the Internet, </li></ul><ul><li>in a manner that </li></ul><ul><li>infringes intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>property rights... </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><ul><ul><li>Some questions on legal aspects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should off-line laws be applied to online activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should Internet be borderless , or should there be </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geolocation checkpoints, and how will they work? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can the courts of one country apply penalties to a company based in another country? If so, how will Internet e-commerce cope with multiple jurisdictions? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laws are nation-based but cyberspace is global. How does one apply up to 170 separate and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different legal systems to the Internet? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children needs special protection. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who should police the net and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>detect cybercrimes ? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><ul><li>Some remedial solutions … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Update copyright and intellectual property laws to meet the challenges of the networked environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More high tech crime fighters , </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>like the National High Tech Crime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unit in UK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More hotline organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to receive report on cybercrimes, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>like Internet Watch Foundation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use more sophisticated filtering software , like. the Internet Content Rating Association which has developed labelling system and promotes content rating </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Access to this site is blocked The filter list that is used is downloaded from the Internet. Sometimes, legitimate sites get included in this filter list. If you think this is an error, send this e-mail. You may need to use the browser's <Reload> button or even <Keyboard Shift>+<Browser Reload> to get rid of this page after an access rule change 403 Forbidden Additional information: Client address = Client name = Client user = Client group = default URL = http://www.antionline.com/ tutorials/?c Target group =
  42. 43. Background Fair use : Basic and applied. Who owns what? How to figure it out and how to change it. Details Creating multimedia : Fair use and beyond, including courseware contracts. Copyright in the digital library : Welcome to the center of the digital revolution. Copyright management : Nobody knows what this is about. Find out. Licensing resources : The next copyright frontier. Online presentations : Talks tailored to the audience's copyright concerns - for faculty, students, staff, librarians, artists, administrators. Outside References Ask a lawyer : If you are a U.T. System employee, ask away. Offsite : So much really good information is available out there; you won't believe it. The Crash Course Tutorial is available for faculty to use to learn Copyright basics, especially in the distance learning context. Crash Course Syllabus
  43. 44. <ul><ul><li>Some remedial solutions…(2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Install </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ walled gardens” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for children using </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the net </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courts are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>legalistic, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>confrontational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and costly ; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use flexible, cheaper, and faster means to resolve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet problems thru dialogues, informed public </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opinion surveys, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More internet crime fora/symposia to educate the netpublic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><ul><ul><li>An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on Internet Ethics, Computer Ethics, Cyber Ethics, E-Commerce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>THE UT SYSTEM CRASH COURSE IN COPYRIGHT.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An Online Interactive Course in Internet Ethics.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright and IP Table of Contents.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright Law & Electronic Reserves.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free internet Ethics Essays.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Ethics I Have a Question.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet ethics isn't and we should all be anarchists Defeated.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Ethics.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legal Ethics.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.legalethics.com/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LegalEthics_com The Intersection of Ethics and the Law.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rules In Cyberspace.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scenarios for Internet Ethics.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search engine ethics and disclosure.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://.wwwjuriscom./net/txt/jurisfr/cti/yauctions.htm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Sources </li></ul></ul></ul>