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SB10 conference 2010, Maastricht

presentatie geselecteerd paper ’Planning 0-energy cities, using local energy sources';
paper gepubliceerd in boek dat samengesteld is n.a.v. conferentie: 'Towards 0-Impact Buildings and Built Environments; eds: R.Rovers, J.Kimman, C.Ravesloot; Techne Press, Amsterdam, 2010'

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SB10 conference 2010, Maastricht

  1. 1. 11/10/2010Planning 0 energy citiesusing local energy resourcesWouter LeducRiBuilTLandscape Architecture Chair group, Wageningen UR SB10, Session 8, October 12th 2010Outline Problem Strategies to tackle Method Results: applied for Kerkrade West Conclusions 1
  2. 2. 11/10/2010Problem High energy consumption Growing urbanization increasing pressure on available resources High fossil fuel use and waste production non sustainableProblem Cities disconnected from sources distances do not matter (fossil fuel based system) Decreasing supply of resources, increasing dependency Energy use not efficient Lack of integration between urban planning & resources management Energy conflicts & climate change 2
  3. 3. 11/10/2010 Strategies to tackleTrias Energetica: Limit energy demand Use renewable energy (If necessary, use fossil fuels as efficiently and cleanly as possible) Fossil fuels not desirable Reduce by re use (re cycling, cascading) Strategies to tackleUrban area = reservoir of un used or un tappedsources of energy (urban energy) that are harvestable: Renewable Residual (waste)Exergy = non used fraction of energy (energy quality)Waste = food (remaining flow = remaining quality) 3
  4. 4. 11/10/2010 Urban Harvest of local resourcesFigure 1 Modeling city environmental performance: from sources-and-sinks to Urban Harvest H arvesting of water, win d and energyNon-re newable energy, Emissions to soil, water, m aterials water and air Re use d and rec yc led w aste materia ls, ga ses and liquids Urban Harvest Circular metabolism, waste = food Sources-and-sinks Linear metabolism, resource to waste Method1. Land usedistribution Initial Minimization Minimization demand measures m easures ID Demand Supply Cascade Inventory + + m easures (Quantity, Recyclin g quality, location m easures and time Dem an d Dem an d - - Mu ltiso urce 2. Deman d 3. Demand minimization 4. Couple supply – Demand 5. Optimize supply- inventory strategies and supply demand inventory Use of decision tree 4
  5. 5. 11/10/2010Case study: Kerkrade West (South NL)Results: abstraction Kerkrade West Spekholzerheide business Dentgenbach S Lake & green Cranenweyer T Business Recreation Gaia park A B Houses D Locht U I Industry S U M Offices I Roads 100m N Shops V E A S Houses C Agriculture S A N Business T Willem Sophia 5
  6. 6. 11/10/2010 Energy qualities demandFunction Electricity demand Heat/gas demand GWh TJBusiness/industry 435 2,070Houses 24 480Other 22 100 Local supply and demand reduction – electricity Business Gaia Stadium Lake + green 2 Houses 3 4 Agriculture 1 Vacant RoadsBusiness Demand Scen mod Scen max 1 = reduction passive house, laundry service 2 = PV on roofs, vacant land, floating 3 = wind turbines on vacant land 4 = business area function changes 6
  7. 7. 11/10/2010Local supply and demand reduction – heat 2 4 1 3 5 Demand Scen mod Scen max 1 = reduction passive house 2 = solar boilers on roofs 3 = road heat potential 4 = business area function changes 5 = hydrogen via wind turbinesData summary (scen max) Electricity Heat/gas GWh TJDemand 481 2,650Passive house 4 314Adjustments business area 180 410PV 223Wind turbines 405Hydrogen 306 1,500Solar boilers + road 418Biogas 27Total improvement 508 2,670 7
  8. 8. 11/10/2010Conclusions Urban area can provide large part of its energy demand Harvesting local renewable and residual resources crucial towards 0 energy cities Urban planning: towards 0 energy, 0 material and 0 water cities aim for integrated urban system harvesting local resources + combine urban functions + combine urban flowsFurther research Apply method for new to build urban development Energy grid SMART: cope with several, small, possible intermittent suppliers; storage capacity 8
  9. 9. 11/10/2010Take home message Urban area = reservoir of un used, untapped energy qualities No waste waste = food Demand reduction!! Thanks! Questions? I want to thank my colleagues: Claudia Agudelo Ferry Van Kann Leo Gommans 9