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ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM
(EEG)
The Source of EEG
• The generator source is WITHIN the cerebral
cortex by pyramidal cells. EEG is a measure of
cerebral el...
The Synaptic Potentials
•Synaptic potentials have lower voltage value than
the action potentials, but the resultant curren...
EPSPs/IPSPs
(Excitatory/Inhibitory Post-synaptic Potentials)
•EPSP – produces a change in membrane
permeability within a s...
WHAT DOES AN EEG REFLECT?
Spontaneous EEG activity occurs when currents flow
across charged neuronal membranes. An EEG wav...
FACTORS AFFECTING EEG WAVEFORMS
• Voltage of cortical discharge
• Area involved in synchronous activity
• Degree of synchr...
EEG vs SEIZURES
• This test is particularly useful for recording uncontrollable, abnormal
brain wave activity associated w...
EEG WAVEFORMS
• NORMAL / ABNORMAL?
• ABNORMAL – SPECIFIC/NON-SPECIFIC?
• NON-SPECIFIC – seen under conditions like trauma,...
EEG
PARTIAL SEIZURES
• Generally, partial seizures don’t last long, they end naturally on their
own. Protect the patient f...
GENERALISED
SEIZURES
Absence seizures – Petit-mal seizures
• Start and end abruptly, usually lasts <30s
• Staring, unrespo...
TONIC-CLONIC
• Tonic-clonic
• Tonic – sudden stiffness of limb, lose balance and fall
Lasts < 20s ; EEG: Rapid, high ampli...
Myoclonic
• – Single jerks/ quick series of jerks (upper shoulders)
EEG: High vol poly-spikes, last <1s, followed by slow-...
• Atonic – sudden loss of muscle tone
• Eye drooping, head nodding, shoulders slumping
• Severe form “drop attack”, last <...
EEG Epilepsy
EEG Epilepsy
EEG Epilepsy
EEG Epilepsy
EEG Epilepsy
EEG Epilepsy
EEG Epilepsy
EEG Epilepsy
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EEG Epilepsy Slide 1 EEG Epilepsy Slide 2 EEG Epilepsy Slide 3 EEG Epilepsy Slide 4 EEG Epilepsy Slide 5 EEG Epilepsy Slide 6 EEG Epilepsy Slide 7 EEG Epilepsy Slide 8 EEG Epilepsy Slide 9 EEG Epilepsy Slide 10 EEG Epilepsy Slide 11 EEG Epilepsy Slide 12 EEG Epilepsy Slide 13 EEG Epilepsy Slide 14 EEG Epilepsy Slide 15 EEG Epilepsy Slide 16 EEG Epilepsy Slide 17 EEG Epilepsy Slide 18 EEG Epilepsy Slide 19 EEG Epilepsy Slide 20 EEG Epilepsy Slide 21
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EEG forms in epileptic patients (seizures)

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EEG Epilepsy

  1. 1. ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG)
  2. 2. The Source of EEG • The generator source is WITHIN the cerebral cortex by pyramidal cells. EEG is a measure of cerebral electrical activity • Electrical activity recorded is produced by extracellular current flow associated with summated excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potential. • EEG does not record individual action potentials.
  3. 3. The Synaptic Potentials •Synaptic potentials have lower voltage value than the action potentials, but the resultant current has larger distribution •Post-synaptic potentials: •Longer duration •Larger amount of membrane surface areas
  4. 4. EPSPs/IPSPs (Excitatory/Inhibitory Post-synaptic Potentials) •EPSP – produces a change in membrane permeability within a select portion of the cell membrane resulting in a net influx of +ve ions that depolarizes the cell •IPSP – selective activation of either Cl- or K+ channels resulting in a net outward ionic current with hyperpolarization of the cell
  5. 5. WHAT DOES AN EEG REFLECT? Spontaneous EEG activity occurs when currents flow across charged neuronal membranes. An EEG waveforms reflects the summation of PSPs Rhythmic and Arrhythmic EEG activity •When EEG waves are rhythmical, most of the cells within the given neuronal pool are behaving similarly. With arrhythmic activity, there is less correlation with individual cell behavior
  6. 6. FACTORS AFFECTING EEG WAVEFORMS • Voltage of cortical discharge • Area involved in synchronous activity • Degree of synchrony • Location of the dipole generators in relation to the convolutions of the cortical mantle
  7. 7. EEG vs SEIZURES • This test is particularly useful for recording uncontrollable, abnormal brain wave activity associated with epileptic seizures. • Doctors refer to some specific EEG patterns as ‘epileptiform abnormalities’ or ‘epilepsy waves’. • These EEG wave patterns consist of Spikes, Sharp Waves, and Spike- and-Wave discharges, Slow Waves etc. • They help to assist classification of a seizure disorder type.
  8. 8. EEG WAVEFORMS • NORMAL / ABNORMAL? • ABNORMAL – SPECIFIC/NON-SPECIFIC? • NON-SPECIFIC – seen under conditions like trauma, stroke, brain tumor. Example: slowing • SPECIFIC – indicate tendency towards seizures. a.k.a EPILEPSY WAVES • Spikes • Sharp • Spike-and-waves • Polyspike • Polyspike-wave
  9. 9. EEG PARTIAL SEIZURES • Generally, partial seizures don’t last long, they end naturally on their own. Protect the patient from any harm until they are alert. • Epileptic discharges begin and remain unilateral, usually consisting of repetitive, rhythmic, sharp/slow waves. • An “aura” may occur. –warning before a seizure.
  10. 10. GENERALISED SEIZURES Absence seizures – Petit-mal seizures • Start and end abruptly, usually lasts <30s • Staring, unresponsive, frequent eye blinking, lip smacking Voltage often max in F-C regions Sudden onset of generalized spike-and-wave complexes Irregular slow spike-and-wave complexes No characteristic location
  11. 11. TONIC-CLONIC • Tonic-clonic • Tonic – sudden stiffness of limb, lose balance and fall Lasts < 20s ; EEG: Rapid, high amplitude spikes • Clonic – Repetitive jerks of muscles Lasts longer ; EEG: rhythmic spike-wave matching the f of jerks
  12. 12. Myoclonic • – Single jerks/ quick series of jerks (upper shoulders) EEG: High vol poly-spikes, last <1s, followed by slow-waves Can be rhythmic or non-rhythmic *Refer PBL EEG given*
  13. 13. • Atonic – sudden loss of muscle tone • Eye drooping, head nodding, shoulders slumping • Severe form “drop attack”, last < 15s • EEG: irregular mixed waveforms. Intermittent desynchronized flattening/polyspikes
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EEG forms in epileptic patients (seizures)

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