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National Engineering Services Pakistan(Pvt) Limited (NESPAK)
Associated Consulting Engineers-ACE (Pvt) Limited
Montgomery ...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
i
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND
RESETTLEMENT ASPECTS
TABLE OF ...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
ii
2.4.1 Basis for the Environmental Study 2-12
2.4.2 The Project Pr...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
iii
4.5 Types of Dams 4-8
4.5.1 Comparison of Alternatives 4-8
4.5.2...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
iv
6.7.2 Kara Kurram Highway (KKH) 6-7
6.8 Socio-economic Environmen...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
v
7.4.4 Submergence of KKH 7-5
7.4.5 Valuation of Lost Assets 7-5
7....
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
vi
9.4 Identification of Environmental Enhancement Measures 9-2
9.5 ...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
vii
10. CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGE...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
LIST OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY TEAM
Sr.
No. Name Position Held Qualific...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
S-1
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND RESETTLEMENT ASPECTS
SUMMARY...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
S-2
onus is on the project proponent to demonstrate if these issues ...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
S-3
was intense and during the consultation process it was apparent ...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
S-4
may be undertaken at Diamer Basha on annual basis. In such a sit...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
S-5
and environmental costs have been estimated as Rs.11 billion (US...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
S-6
- Provision of safe domestic water supply, sanitation facilities...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
S-7
The full EMMP will only be drawn up once a decision is taken to ...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
S-8
The main environmental risks to the proposed project are the con...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
S-9
catchment management planning process and also consider cross se...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
S-10
- Submission of the EIA to the EPA for gaining the necessary en...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
1-1
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
Dasu Hydropower Project (DHP) i...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
1-2
mitigation actions which should be included in planning and desi...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
1-3
Project disclosure was also made to experts in consulting firms ...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
1-4
laboratory resource (SUPARCO). Data provided by WAPDA was incorp...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
2-1
2. REGULATORY LAWS AND THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR
ENVIRONME...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
2-2
Based on the NCS, policies are being framed for institutional st...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
2-3
been privatised whilst WAPDA is still a public organisation. WAP...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
2-4
Tribunals and appointment of Environmental Magistrates. The need...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
2-5
who in the supreme interest of the country have accepted/undergo...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
2-6
The WAPDA Act No. XXXI of 1958
The WAPDA Act No. XXXI of 1958 pr...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
2-7
- NWFP River Rules 1952.
- NWFP Protection of Trees and Bushwood...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
2-8
biodiversity in general and also for the conservation of renewab...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
2-9
WAPDA Power Wing
The WAPDA Power Wing currently operates separat...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
2-10
Wing. The organizational setup of the WEC is shown in Figure 2....
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
2-11
The bureaucratic machinery of the Province is headed by a Chief...
Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9
2-12
8. There would be an Accountant General’s office for the Northe...
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam
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Vol.9 environmental impact assessment and resettlement aspects - Dasu Dam

  1. 1. National Engineering Services Pakistan(Pvt) Limited (NESPAK) Associated Consulting Engineers-ACE (Pvt) Limited Montgomery Watson Harza Energy & Infrastructure Inc. USA Colenco Power Engineering Limited, Switzerland February 2009 PAKISTAN WATER AND POWER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY DASU HYDROPOWER PROJECT In Association with: Binnie & Partners (Overseas) Limited FEASIBILITY REPORT VOLUME 9 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND RESETTLEMENT ASPECTS
  2. 2. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 i ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND RESETTLEMENT ASPECTS TABLE OF CONTENTS SUMMARY S.1 Introduction S-1 S.2 Legal and Institutional Framework for Environmental Assessment S-1 S.3 Description of the Project S-2 S.4 Project Alternatives S-2 S.5 Project Scoping and Public Consultation S-3 S.6 Baseline Environmental Conditions S-3 S.7 Impact Identification, Quantification and Valuation S-4 S.8 Impact Mitigation, Remedial and Enhancement Measures S-5 S.9 Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan S-6 S.10 Conclusions S-7 S.11 Recommendations S-8 S.12 Future Environmental Management Program S-9 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1-1 1.2 Structure of Report 1-1 1.3 Project Classification for Level of Environmental Studies 1-1 1.4 Impact Identification Tools 1-2 1.5 Project Disclosure with Stakeholders 1-2 1.6 Resettlement Aspects 1-3 1.7 Socio Economic Survey 1-3 1.8 Scope of Services 1-3 1.9 Approach Adopted for EIA Studies 1-3 1.10 Makeup of EIA & Resettlement Report 1-4 2. REGULATORY LAWS AND THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 2.1 Introduction 2-1 2.2 The Legal and Regulatory Framework for EIA in Pakistan 2-1 2.2.1 Policy Framework 2-1 2.2.2 Federal Statutory Framework for Environmental Management and Assessment 2-3 2.2.3 Provincial Government Statutory Framework 2-6 2.3 Institutional Framework Relevant for EIA in Pakistan 2-7 2.3.1 Federal Government Institutions 2-7 2.3.2 WAPDA 2-8 2.3.3 Provincial Government Institutions 2-10 2.3.4 International and National Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) 2-12 2.4 Specific EIA Requirements for Dasu Project 2-12
  3. 3. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 ii 2.4.1 Basis for the Environmental Study 2-12 2.4.2 The Project Proponent 2-13 2.4.3 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Pakistan 2-13 2.4.4 Pakistan’s Federal EPA Environmental Assessment Procedures 2-13 2.4.5 National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) 2-14 2.5 International Agreements and Provincial Water Accord Signed by Pakistan 2-14 2.5.1 Indus Waters Treaty 1960 2-14 2.5.2 Water Accord 1991 2-15 2.6 EIA Requirements of Potential Financing Institutions 2-15 2.6.1 The World Bank 2-15 2.6.2 The Asian Development Bank 2-16 2.6.3 Other International Procedures for Environmental Assessment of Dams 2-17 2.7 Implications for the Proposed Project 2-17 3. PROJECT DESCRIPTION 3.1 Project Context 3-1 3.1.1 Electric Power Generation Capacity and Demand in Pakistan 3-1 3.1.2 Fuel Sources for Electricity Generation 3-2 3.2 The Need for the Dasu Project 3-3 3.3 Generation Costs of Hydropower in Pakistan 3-4 3.4 Utilization Factor for Hydropower Generation in Pakistan 3-4 3.5 Future Hydropower Development in Pakistan 3-5 3.6 Project Features of Dasu 3-6 3.7 Schedule for Implementation of Dasu Project 3-6 4. PROJECT ALTERNATIVES 4.1 No Project Option 4-1 4.2 Technology Alternatives 4-2 4.2.1 Thermal Power 4-2 4.2.2 Nuclear Power 4-3 4.3 Alternative Hydro Power Development Projects 4-4 4.4 Dam Site Location Alternatives 4-4 4.4.1 Hydrological Considerations 4-5 4.4.2 Geological and Geotechnical Consideration 4-5 4.4.3 Seismic and Other Natural Hazards 4-6 4.4.4 Energy Production Considerations 4-6 4.4.5 Environmental Considerations 4-7
  4. 4. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 iii 4.5 Types of Dams 4-8 4.5.1 Comparison of Alternatives 4-8 4.5.2 Cost Considerations 4-9 4.5.3 Main Observations 4-9 4.6 Conclusions and Recommendations of the Comparative Dam Location Analysis 4-10 5. PROJECT SCOPING AND PUBLIC CONSULTATION 5.1 Project Scoping 5-1 5.2 The Nature of Public Consultation 5-1 5.3 Results of Public Consultation to Date 5-1 5.3.1 Selection of Dam Axis Location 5-1 5.3.2 Consultation with Affected People 5-2 5.3.3 Discussion with Local Government Officials 5-2 5.3.4 Discussions with WAPDA’s Environment Cell (WEC) 5-2 5.3.5 Project Disclosure to Experts in Engineering Consultancy Companies 5-3 5.3.6 Project Disclosure to WWF Experts 5-3 5.3.7 Project Disclosure to Religious Groups (Imams at Dasu) 5-3 5.4 Future Public Consultation Requirements 5-4 5.5 Other Relevant Proposed Developments 5-4 6. EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SITUATION, CONSTRAINTS AND NEEDS 6.1 General 6-1 6.1.1 Purpose of Baseline Study 6-1 6.1.2 Methodology 6-1 6.2 Natural Physical Environment 6-2 6.2.1 Climatological Parameters 6-2 6.2.2 Environmental Monitoring 6-2 6.3 Land Use 6-4 6.4 Natural Biological Environment 6-4 6.4.1 Terrestrial Ecology 6-4 6.4.2 Aquatic Ecology 6-4 6.5 Geology 6-5 6.5.1 Upper Reach Geology 6-5 6.5.2 Lower Reach Geology 6-5 6.5.3 Rock Mass Properties 6-5 6.6 Hydrology 6-5 6.7 Natural Environmental Risks and Hazards 6-6 6.7.1 Seismic Activity 6-6
  5. 5. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 iv 6.7.2 Kara Kurram Highway (KKH) 6-7 6.8 Socio-economic Environment 6-8 6.9 Consultations 6-9 6.10 Impacts 6-9 6.10.1 Infrastructure Submergence 6-9 6.10.2 Suspension Bridges Across Indus River 6-9 6.10.3 Petroglyphs 6-9 6.10.4 During Construction Impacts 6-9 6.11 Compensation and Resettlement 6-9 6.12 Environmental Constraints 6-10 6.12.1 Indus River Flows 6-10 6.12.2 Seismic Risk 6-10 6.12.3 Landslides 6-10 6.12.4 Political Stability and Security 6-11 6.12.5 Land Acquisition 6-11 6.12.6 Access 6-11 6.12.7 External Environmental Constraints 6-12 6.13 Existing Human Needs in the Project Area 6-12 6.13.1 Provision of Safe Domestic Water Supply, Sanitation and Health Education 6-12 6.13.2 Improved Nutrition 6-12 6.13.3 Improved Education Provision 6-13 6.13.4 Increased Opportunities for Cash Income Generation 6-13 6.13.5 Electricity Provision 6-13 7. IMPACT IDENTIFICATION, QUANTIFICATION AND CATEGORIZATION 7.1 Environmental Scoping Methodology 7-1 7.2 Delineation of Boundaries of Possible Impact Areas 7-1 7.3 Positive Impacts 7-1 7.3.1 Electricity Generation 7-1 7.3.2 Job Opportunities 7-2 7.3.3 Water Management 7-2 7.3.4 Surface Water Quality and Amenity 7-2 7.3.5 Upgrading of the KKH 7-3 7.3.6 Local Vegetation and Livestock 7-3 7.3.7 Aquatic Life 7-3 7.3.8 Improvement in Socio-Economic Conditions 7-3 7.3.9 Provision of Public Amenities 7-3 7.3.10 Recreation and Tourism Development 7-4 7.4 Adverse Impacts during the Pre-Construction Phase 7-4 7.4.1 Land Acquisition and Resettlement 7-4 7.4.2 Loss of Private, Community and Government Owned Infrastructure 7-5 7.4.3 Loss of Trees, Vegetation, Agricultural and Grazing Areas 7-5
  6. 6. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 v 7.4.4 Submergence of KKH 7-5 7.4.5 Valuation of Lost Assets 7-5 7.5 Adverse Impacts during the Construction Phase 7-6 7.5.1 Physical Environment 7-6 7.5.2 Site for Construction Camps 7-7 7.5.3 Storage of Construction and Excavated Material 7-7 7.5.4 Liquid and Solid Waste from Construction Camps 7-8 7.5.5 Material Quarries and Borrow Pits 7-8 7.5.6 Surface Water Quality 7-9 7.5.7 Ecological Environment 7-9 7.5.8 Socio-economic Environment 7-10 7.5.9 Summary of Impacts during the Construction Phase 7-11 7.6 Adverse Impacts during the Operational Phase 7-12 7.6.1 Physical Environment 7-12 7.6.2 Ecological Environment 7-13 7.6.3 Socio-Economic Environment 7-15 7.6.4 Summary of Impacts during the Operational Phase 7-15 7.7 Quantification of Significant Impacts 7-16 7.8 Valuation of Significant Impacts 7-16 7.9 External Impacts and Constraints 7-17 7.10 Cumulative Impacts and Constraints 7-17 8. IMPACT MITIGATION AND REMEDIAL MEASURES 8.1 Pre-Construction Stage 8-1 8.1.1 Land Acquisition, Compensation and Resettlement 8-1 8.1.2 Submergence of the KKH 8-2 8.1.3 Access for Local People 8-2 8.1.4 Petroglyphs (Rock Carvings) 8-3 8.2 Construction Stage 8-3 8.2.1 The Natural Physical Environment 8-3 8.2.2 The Natural Ecological Environment 8-5 8.2.3 The Socio-Economic Environment 8-6 8.3 Operational Stage 8-7 8.3.1 Natural Physical Environment 8-7 8.3.2 Sedimentation 8-7 8.3.3 Green House Gas Emissions 8-8 8.3.4 Natural Ecological Environment 8-8 8.3.5 Socio-Economic Environment 8-9 9. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN 9.1 Objectives of Environmental Management and Monitoring 9-1 9.2 Mitigation Management Matrix 9-1 9.3 Identification of Mitigation Measures for Significant Adverse Impacts 9-2
  7. 7. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 vi 9.4 Identification of Environmental Enhancement Measures 9-2 9.5 Management of Direct Construction Impacts 9-3 9.6 Site Restoration Plan 9-3 9.7 Reservoir Management Plan 9-4 9.8 Impact Monitoring Program 9-4 9.8.1 Objectives of the Impact Monitoring Plan 9-4 9.8.2 Monitoring Strategy 9-5 9.8.3 Monitoring Parameters and Frequency 9-6 9.8.4 Post Construction Monitoring of Direct Construction Impacts 9-7 9.9 Environmental Risk Management 9-8 9.9.1 Dam Safety 9-8 9.10 Institutional Arrangements for the Project and Implementing the EMMP 9-9 9.10.1 The Key Players 9-9 9.10.2 The Project Proponent (WAPDA) 9-9 9.10.3 Project Contractor 9-10 9.10.4 Supervisory Consultant 9-10 9.10.5 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 9-11 9.10.6 Local Government 9-12 9.10.7 District Government of NWFP 9-12 9.10.8 Northern Areas 9-13 9.10.9 Non-government Organizations (NGOs) 9-14 9.10.10 Suggested Institutional Arrangements for the Implementation of EMMP 9-14 9.11 Change Management Plan 9-14 9.12 Environmental Performance Auditing 9-15 9.13 Training Requirements for Environmental Management 9-15 9.14 Environmental Management Communication and Documentation Requirements 9-15 9.14.1 Kick-Off Meeting 9-15 9.14.2 Meetings and Reports 9-15 9.14.3 Document Control for Environmental Management 9-17 9.15 Auditing 9-17 9.15.1 Social Protocols – Health Safety & Environmental 9-17 9.15.2 Project Implementation Schedule 9-17 9.16 Follow on and Additional Suggested Environmental Studies 9-17 9.17 Environmental Costs 9-18 9.17.1 Compensation and Mitigation Costs 9-18 9.17.2 Environmental Monitoring Cost 9-18 9.17.3 Training Cost 9-19 9.18 Residual Adverse Impacts 9-19
  8. 8. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 vii 10. CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT WORK PROGRAM 10.1 Conclusions 10-1 10.1.1 Positive Impacts 10-1 10.1.2 Adverse Impacts and Mitigation 10-1 10.1.3 Overall Conclusions 10-4 10.2 Recommendations 10-6 10.3 Future Environmental Management Program 10-6 APPENDICES (In Separate Binding) Appendix–A Socio – Economic Environment Report Appendix–B Project Impacts, Resettlement and Mitigation Measures Appendix–C Aquatic Ecology Appendix–D Terrestrial Ecology Appendix–E Rehabilitation of River Crossings in the Project Area Appendix–F Petroglyphs in the Project Area Appendix–G SUPARCO Water, Air and Noise Quality Data
  9. 9. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 LIST OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY TEAM Sr. No. Name Position Held Qualifications 1 M. Saleem Sheikh Project Manager B.Sc. (Civil Engg.-1968), M.Sc. (Geotech-1986), Registered Engineer Pakistan Engg.Council (Civ- 265), Member I.E. (Pak.), Member Pakistan Engg. Congress, Member ASCE, Experience 40 years. 2 Alan Bird Expatriate Chief Environmental Engineering and Resettlement Issues PhD Thesis on EIA passed subject to minor corrections in 2001, BA (Hons) Geography with Economics 1979, Fellow Royal Geographical Society 1983, Chartered Engineering Surveyor (Inst CES) 1983, 36 years experience, nearly all in Asia and Africa 3 Zafar Iqbal Chaudry Chief Environmental Engineering and Resettlement Issues B.Sc.1961, B.E.(civil)-1965, M.E.(Water Science & Engineering-AIT Bangkok)-1970, MIE- Pak, Life Affiliate Member ASCE, Registered Engineer Pakistan Engineering council ( Civil/4344),Experience 42 years 4 Mohammad Aslam Malik Environmentalist and Resettlement Expert B.Sc. 1963, M.Sc.(Agriculture) 1966, Short Training at California- USA. Experience 41 years (local & overseas) 5 Dr.Nazir Bhatti Aquatic Ecologist M.Sc., Ph.D. Eminent /Researcher & Educationist. Ex Director General Fisheries –Punjab 6 Mohammad Atta Ullah Rana Terrestrial Ecologist B.Sc. (Agriculture), M.Sc. (Forestry), Post Grag. Degree Remote Sensing (Holland), Post Grad. Dip. (i)Agriculture Extension & Sociology (ii) Training of Trainers in Natural Resources (USA), 39 years experience with Forestry Department. 7 Qayyem Awan Senior Socioeconomist M.A. (Economics) 1979; Post Graduate Diploma in Demography 1991. Experience 25 years. 8 Muhammad Shariq Ahmed Senior Environmental Engineer B.Sc. (Civil) 1996; M.Sc. (Environmental Engineering) 2001; M.Sc. (Software Engineering) 2007; Member PEC (civil/17692); Member Institute of Engineers; Experience 11years. 9 Imran Zafar GIS Expert B.Sc. (Space Science); M.Sc. (space science +GIS); Experience 3 ½ years. 10 Mohammad Pasha AutoCAD Operator Diploma in Drafting & Designing (3 years); Experience 30 years. 11 Noor Mehmood Assistant Environmental Sociologist M.A.
  10. 10. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 S-1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND RESETTLEMENT ASPECTS SUMMARY S.1 Introduction The aim of the proposed Dasu Hydropower Project is to construct a 233 m high dam on the river Indus for the purposes of generating hydropower. The designed installed generation capacity is 4,320MW. The reservoir would cover a maximum area of 2,600ha and the project would be operated on a “run of river” basis. The operational requirements to meet daily peak demand will result in large daily fluctuations in the reservoir level and extent. More details of the design of the proposed project are given in Section 3 of the main EIA report and summarised below. See Figures 1.1 to 1.3 for the project location. This Environmental Impact Assessment has been carried out at the Feasibility Stage of the project. There are a set of supporting study reports which are Appendices to the EIA report, giving the detailed results of specialist studies into specific issues. These include aquatic and terrestrial ecology, socio-economics, petroglyphs (ancient rock carvings), access provision in the area and resettlement requirements. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the proposed project covers both the natural environmental and the human use of these resources, their interaction and how this relationship is likely to change as a result of the construction and operation of the Dasu dam. Environmental assessment and management is a continuous inter-active process throughout the planning, construction and operation of the project. The key objective is to identify potential adverse impacts of the project early on in the planning process and to try and avoid these, and where this is not possible then to minimise and mitigate for them. The guiding principle is that nobody is to be made worse off as a result of the project and any adverse impacts are to be fully mitigated for with the provision of equivalent replacement assets that have been lost. In addition, adequate steps are to be taken to ensure that economic livelihoods are to be sustained at least to the level that they were before the project construction commenced. Additional environmental enhancements are also to be considered and the potential benefits of the project are to be maximised by appropriate planning and implementation. The methodology used for the EIA follows standard international best practice, with the drawing up of a scoping environmental checklist and the production of a comparative matrix. The reporting follows the standard structure of international funding agencies and also the procedures of the Pakistan regulatory authorities for EIA. There is a requirement for the work to be carried out in a participatory manner with public consultation. Section 5 of the EIA report outlines how this has been carried out and the main points are summarised below. S.2 Legal and Institutional Framework for Environmental Assessment Section 2 of the EIA report outlines the legal requirements and institutional framework that are in place for environmental assessment in both Pakistan and internationally and are applicable to a proposed intervention such as the Dasu Hydropower Project. The key institutions involved in the project are identified, the Project Proponent being WAPDA. The proposed project requires a full EIA to be carried out as it is classified in the most problematic category, being a large dam causing involuntary resettlement of some 3,670 people. The situation with regard to trans-boundary rivers is also outlined, including the provisions of the Indus Water Treaty of 1960. The procedures for dealing with any protected areas, threatened species and indigenous people are also outlined, as the existence of any of these can invoke special environmental clearance requirements. The
  11. 11. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 S-2 onus is on the project proponent to demonstrate if these issues are likely to arise with the proposed project or not. S.3 Description of the Project Section 3 of the EIA report gives a description of the proposed project and its environmental justification. The need for additional power generation in Pakistan is paramount, with the present installed capacity in the country being insufficient to even supply base load, resulting in extensive load-shedding which is holding back economic development of the country. The proposed project would have a generating capacity of 4,320 MW of hydropower in an environmentally sound and sustainable way, using a naturally renewable resource in a non consumptive manner and producing no emissions. Dasu Hydropower Project is planned to be constructed after the upstream dam at Diamer Basha is completed with a large reservoir, which will hold the river sediments and allow Dasu to operate as a run of river scheme. The detailed layout of the proposed dam and hydropower station that has been subject to a feasibility study is given in Figure 3.2. The plan of the proposed project has gone through a process of development during the feasibility stage, considering the environmental consequences of alternative dam sites. These alternatives are discussed in Section 4 of the EIA report and are summarised below. The optimised plan that has been taken for feasibility study is for a dam with a full reservoir level of 950masl which stretches upstream to the toe of the Diamer Basha dam. For land acquisition purposes a further 7m has been added to cover for flood surcharge and freeboard. The area of the reservoir up to 957masl is 2,606ha (6,439 acres) and a restriction on the construction of new infrastructure would need to be made on all land up to the level of 960masl. There would also be a need for some permanent and limited temporary land acquisition and downstream of the damsite, where the tailrace discharges back into the river. S.4 Project Alternatives The project planning process carried out during the feasibility study has taken into consideration the environmental consequences of alternative dam sites and has resulted in significant changes in the pre-feasibility plans particularly in respect of location of the dam axis, which avoid potential adverse impacts for no loss in overall installed generation capacity. The EIA has also looked at wider strategic planning alternatives, including the consequences of not building the proposed project. The power availability situation in the country is already critical with long periods of load-shedding that is causing serious economic and social problems across the country. WAPDA has already been forced to expand power generation from the burning of fossil fuels which is environmentally damaging, due to the emissions produced, and is also unsustainable. Added to this is the fact that much of the fuel has to be imported. The EIA report reviews the current electricity supply situation and demand predictions, along with the alternatives for increasing supply (including nuclear power generation) and managing demand. It is clear that well managed hydropower is environmentally the least damaging and most sustainable power generation option for the country and also has by far the lowest operating cost. The comparative environmental implications of three alternative dam axis locations were also considered, in detail. The use of Axis 5 (the different axis locations are given in Figure 3.1) had clear environmental advantages over the downstream site at Axis 2. These included reducing the number of people who would need to be resettled by almost half and negating the need for remote resettlement. Local opposition to a dam at Axis 2
  12. 12. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 S-3 was intense and during the consultation process it was apparent that constructing a dam at Axis 2 would be highly problematic from a social perspective, especially when it became clear that a dam at Axis 5 could produce as much generation capacity, even if the construction cost are estimated to be slightly higher. The comparative environmental implications of different types of dam construction and layouts of tunnels, tailrace outfall location, power house sitting (surface or underground) and diversion arrangements during construction were also considered and are discussed in Section 4 of the EIA report. S.5 Project Scoping and Public Consultation There is a legal requirement for public consultation in the EIA process as outlined in the regulatory framework for Pakistan and also according to the policy directives of funding agencies. As part of the EIA fieldwork, extensive consultation has taken place with a wide range of interested parties, including local people and local government institutions. The range and nature of consultation that has been carried out is outlined in Section 5 of the EIA report. As explained in the discussion of project alternatives, the selection of the dam axis location was greatly influenced by the need to reduce the number of people who would be displaced. Of particular concern was to address the wishes of local people to avoid flooding out the settlement of Seo and also a historically important mosque in Seo. This has been achieved by changes in the configuration of the design of the project for no loss in installed power generation capacity. S.6 Baseline Environmental Conditions From the perspective of EIA the baseline conditions for the Dasu project are not straight forward. The design of the Dasu Hydropower Project is based on the condition that the dam at Diamer Basha is constructed before that at Dasu. This creates the situation where the present environmental conditions in the Dasu project area will be significantly modified by the construction of the dam at Diamer Basha. The environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the dam at Diamer Basha have already been studied and an EIA report has been produced. The Diamer Basha EIA work identifies key adverse impacts and gives appropriate mitigation measures. The environmental conditions during the operational stage of the Diamer Basha dam will be the baseline conditions for the Dasu project. The baseline environmental conditions in the Dasu project area are given in detail in the EIA Technical Memos, covering terrestrial and aquatic ecology, socio-economics and the issue of the petroglyphs. A summary of the environmental conditions is given in Section 6.1 of the EIA report. The key environmental issues that act as constraints to the design and operation of the Dasu Hydropower Project have been identified and are outlined in Section 6.2 of the EIA report and are summarised below: - Modifications in river flow as a result of changes in snow and glacier melt in the upstream catchment (including those caused by climate change) have impact on Dasu project. It must be remembered that temperature is the key parameter in determining river flow, rather than rainfall. The operation of Diamer Basha reservoir is critical to the design of Dasu as Dasu has very little storage and is designed to operate on a daily cycle to generate electricity. - The present sediment inflows at Dasu will be dramatically reduced when the Diamer Basha dam is completed. The remaining source of sediment flow into the Dasu reservoir will then be the side streams directly flowing into it, which currently are a very small proportion of the total sediment load. The design of Dasu dam has taken into consideration the possibility that after 40 years sediment flushing
  13. 13. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 S-4 may be undertaken at Diamer Basha on annual basis. In such a situation flushing of the sediments would be necessary for the Dasu dam. - The Dasu dam site is in an area of high seismic risk and the dam has been designed following the international requirements for such situations. Associated with this existing environmental risk from landslides, particularly any that would fall directly into the reservoir has been considered in the feasibility study. - There is a pre-requisite to have a stable administration and security situation in the project area. - The road access in the area, including the need to realign and upgrade the KKH is a constraint to the construction of both Diamer Basha and Dasu dams. A program for upgrading the KKH for Diamer Basha is already underway, taking into consideration the need for adequate clearances (vertical as well as width), radius of bends, gradient and weight loading. A similar exercise will be needed for the parts of the KKH that remain below 957masl within the proposed Dasu reservoir area. - As part of the public consultation work for the EIA the existing needs of local people have been considered, irrespective of the mitigation measures that may be required for any predicted adverse impacts that may be caused by construction and operation of the proposed dam at Dasu. These include provision of basic services such as safe water supply, sanitation, health care (including improved nutrition for women) and education, along with electricity and road access. Another key issue is the very low level of household cash incomes in the area and the need to provide appropriate opportunities to address this. S.7 Impact Identification, Quantification and Valuation The EIA process has identified the main positive and adverse impacts that will be created by the construction of the Dasu Hydropower Project. The identified impacts are outlined in Section 7 of the EIA report, with the adverse impacts discussed by the time at which they are likely to occur related to the project implementation program. The main positive impacts are the generation capacity of 4,320MW of hydropower in an environmentally sound and sustainable manner without the consumptive use of the waters of the Indus river. This is the least environmentally damaging option for power generation in the country, the alternatives being fossil fuel burning or nuclear power. The main adverse impacts centre on the need to permanently acquire 2,600ha of land in the dam site and reservoir area. These are listed in Table 7.1 of the EIA Report and include the following: - An estimated 3,670 people in 417 households will have their houses flooded. Fortunately the economic livelihoods of nearly all of these are currently dependent upon using resources that lie outside the proposed reservoir area. In addition 34ha (84 acres) of cultivated land, 21ha (51acres) of grazing land, 20,000 trees, 15 mosques, three graveyards, three schools and one hospital, along with existing water supply, sanitation, electric power and telephone services will be lost. Thirty commercial businesses will also have their premises flooded, including shops, hotels, restaurants and timber stores. - An estimated 46 km of the KKH lie below the 957masl limit of land acquisition, out of a total length of 75 km passing from the Dasu Dam site to the Diamer Basha dam site. The existing road network on the right bank of the reservoir will also be adversely impacted and the links to the left bank and the KKH will be cut. These losses have been quantified and where possible valued, using equivalent replacement costs. These are given in Table 7.3 in the EIA report. The total resettlement
  14. 14. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 S-5 and environmental costs have been estimated as Rs.11 billion (US$ 163.4 million). These costs are about 3% of the total estimated project cost. The percentage is relatively low for a large scale hydropower project. Direct construction impacts are also identified and discussed in Section 7 of the EIA report, along with external and possible cumulative impacts and constraints. The need for a basin wide strategic planning perspective has been identified, including a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), irrespective of the proposed Dasu project. On the periphery of the Dasu reservoir, a cluster of 46 petroglyphs (rock carvings) of international importance to Buddhists lie on the right bank of Indus River. Leveling survey has been conducted in order to ascertain the level of the Petoglyphs and it has been found that the Petroglyphs are located above elevation 960 m. since the full supply level of the Dasu reservoir is 950 m, the Petroglyphs will not be inundated. Even during flood routing through Dasu reservoir, the Petroglyphs will not be affected. Rather the proposed reservoir will add to the beauty and grandeur of these Petroglyphs by providing an environment with a beautiful water body adjacent and in a background of this location. Consequently it will have a positive impact and encourage tourism. S.8 Impact Mitigation, Remedial and Enhancement Measures The underlying principle of impact mitigation is that adverse impacts should be avoided where possible by changes in the proposed design, method of construction and project operation. Where it is not possible to avoid adverse impacts then they should be minimised and steps taken to ensure that, at the minimum, nobody will be worse off as a result of the project. The basis of this is payment of cash compensation for lost immovable assets and/or provision of equivalent replacements, including steps to ensure that economic livelihoods are not reduced. For the project this includes the following steps: - The loss of houses for some 417 households comprising an estimated 3,670 people is to be compensated for by payment of cash and/or replacement provision. The designs for new housing should be earthquake resistant. The replacement will include water and sanitation facilities and electricity supply, along with allowances for disturbance due to relocation and also a livelihood allowance for three months. - The loss of 34ha (84 acres) of agricultural land with any standing crops on it is to be compensated for in cash and/or replacement land and also with an agricultural enhancement program. - The loss of 21ha (51 acres) of grazing land is to be compensated for in cash along with the provision of a livestock enhancement program with a fodder component. - The loss of 20,000 trees is to be compensated for in cash along with a phased targeted replanting program for 80,000 replacement fruit, fuel-wood and fodder trees. - The loss of existing commercial activities, including timber stores, shops, hotels and restaurants, is to be compensated for in cash and also a relocation program. - The loss of public and communal infrastructure, including mosques, graveyards, schools and a hospital along with electricity and telephone lines, bridges and roads is to be compensated for by provision of appropriate replacements. - The KKH will be realigned to higher level as required. In addition to satisfying the requirement to provide minimum replacement assets to those lost, the following key enhancement programs are proposed:
  15. 15. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 S-6 - Provision of safe domestic water supply, sanitation facilities and electricity supplies for all households in the area. - Provision of adequate health facilities, including a public health education program. - Provision of adequate education facilities (specifically more and better quality staff for primary schools and construction of more residential hostels for secondary schools), including adult education and vocational training. - Enhancement of the road transport system to include an interconnecting network to the right bank (see Appendix E for specific details). - Economic livelihood promotion programs (with women as specific targets) having components to address the following issues: - Tree planting, specifically seedling nurseries for fruit, fuel-wood and fodder trees. - Horticulture demonstration farms and a potato promotion program. - Livestock development program, particularly for poultry. - Fisheries development, both immediately downstream of the dam and also in the reservoir. - Wood production and craft industry using local materials. - Micro credit provision and also money management advice aimed specifically for households receiving cash compensation. - Development program for promoting the tourist and recreational potential of the reservoir and the surrounding area. Details of the proposed measures are given in Section 8 of the EIA report, split by the timing of provision in relation to project activities. The quantities and costs of these mitigation, remedial and enhancement measures are given in Table 7.3 of the EIA Report. In addition environmental monitoring and management requirements for direct construction impacts are also outlined. S.9 Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan The outline for an Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan (EMMP) for the project is given in Section 9 of the EIA report. The main objectives of the EMMP are to: - Provide a summary of project impacts, along with the proposed mitigation and enhancement measures and draw up an appropriate implementation schedule to address these using a Mitigation Management Matrix (MMM). A preliminary MMM is given as Table 9.1 of the EIA Report. - Define the roles and responsibilities for environmental management for the project stakeholders, including the Project Proponent (WAPDA), Contractor, Supervisory Consultants and other key players. - Identify the training requirements needed for the key players in order for them to effectively implement the EMMP. - Provide a mechanism, in the form of an environmental monitoring program, which outlines the key parameters (for both the natural and social environment) that will need to be monitored and the frequency that this shall be carried out. The objective is to ensure that the mitigation measures are being effective in keeping environmental conditions within the prescribed limits and if they are not, then to make sure that there is an effective response mechanism in place that allows corrective action to be implemented. The EMMP will identify what requires to be carried out by whom and when and also outline the resources and cost requirements for its implementation, along with the institutional arrangements needed to achieve this.
  16. 16. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 S-7 The full EMMP will only be drawn up once a decision is taken to go ahead with the project. The first step will be to draw up a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) following a detailed inventory of lost assets. The EMMP will also include a Reservoir Management Plan, a key part of which will be the need, or not, to clear vegetation in the flooded area prior to its impounding, along with the need for any upstream catchment management activities. An environmental risk analysis will also be carried out and a Site Restoration Plan will also be drawn up at an appropriate time. The nature of the Environmental Performance Audit will also be outlined, along with the system for document handling. The implementation schedule for the project is yet to be fixed, however an outline program has been drawn up (see Table 3.3 of the EIA Report) which gives the sequence of events and the time that this will take from a fixed starting point. S.10 Conclusions The EIA work for the proposed Dasu Hydropower Project has followed the requirements for the Pakistan EPA that classify it as a Schedule A Project, being a large dam that causes involuntary resettlement. The proposed project would also be both a World Bank and ADB Category A project requiring a full EIA. The Dasu project is not a consumptive user of water, being designed for run of river operation with no abstraction. However the operation would be influenced by the needs for hydropower generation and downstream water requirements at Tarbela dam and also the operation of the proposed Diamer Basha dam upstream. The Indus is a trans-boundary river and the legal arrangements for management and development of its resources are covered by the Indus Water Treaty of 1960 with India and within Pakistan by the Water Accord of 1991. The procedures for cross border agreement are already in place and would be followed for construction of the proposed dam at Diamer Basha before the Dasu project was started. There are no environmentally sensitive or protected areas impacted by the Dasu project and there are also no threatened species in the area. There are 46 petroglyphs (Buddhist rock carvings) of international importance on the periphery of the Dasu reservoir. These have been studied and a report has been produced (see Appendix F). The Petroglyphs are located above the reservoir impounding level and will not be inundated. The people living in the impacted area are tribal, like most of those in the wider area. By following the legally required procedures for land acquisition, compensation and resettlement along with enhancement measures, they should not be unfairly discriminated against. The main overall conclusion of the environmental assessment of the proposed Dasu Hydropower Project is that, for a dam located at Axis 5 with a crest level of 957masl, there are no significant adverse environmental impacts that can not be adequately managed by implementing the appropriate mitigation measures that have been identified and incorporated into the outline environmental management plan for the project. The predicted adverse impacts of construction of the project, whilst not insignificant, can be adequately addressed to ensure that no one is worse off as a result of the project, provided that the project is well managed and adequately resourced in a timely manner. With a well managed project there should be no residual adverse impacts and with care it should be possible to achieve significant enhancements for the impacted communities. The project will have an installed generating capacity 4,320MW to produce electricity in an environmentally sound and sustainable manner reducing the need to burn non renewable fossil fuels that cause greenhouse emissions. This will also reduce the need to import fuels, the price of which can only increase as they become depleted.
  17. 17. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 S-8 The main environmental risks to the proposed project are the consequences of seismic activity, both on the integrity of the dam and also landslides that could be triggered into the reservoir or the catchment area downstream of the proposed Diamer Basha dam. The Dasu dam has been designed to the appropriate international standards to cope with such events. The consequences of a serious seismic event have been considered in the design. The consequences of the occurrence of glacial outflows and landslides upstream of the Diamer Basha dam site have been studied and taken into consideration in the design of the Diamer Basha dam. The initial increase in total river flows as ice stored in the upper catchment melts at a faster rate due to climate change will be a benefit to hydropower generation on the Indus river. However these initial increased flows are likely to fall once the amount of ice and snow storage volume in the upper catchment decreases, again due to climate change. There is little firm data on these trends at the moment and there is a need to monitor the situation closely. The sedimentation rate into Diamer Basha reservoir is predicted to start causing significant loss of live storage some 40 years after first filling. If well managed, then the Dasu dam hydropower project is environmentally beneficial, especially when compared to the possible alternatives for power generation and the do nothing situation. Well planned and implemented hydropower is a renewable energy source and has no adverse environmental emissions. The proposed Dasu Hydropower Project has highly significant environmental advantages over fossil fuel burning power stations and nuclear power generation. The delay in implementing hydropower projects in Pakistan has already led to severe power shortages and the need to resort to a fast track program of fossil fuel powered generation facilities that rely on expensive imported fuels or coal. Such facilities use non renewable energy sources that emit greenhouse gases. Nuclear power generation is environmentally highly problematic due to risk levels and the current inability to solve the waste management problem in an environmentally sustainable manner. The real costs of nuclear power generation, when all the costs are included, are very high. The proposed configuration and design of the Dasu Hydropower Project is developed with the condition that the dam at Diamer Basha is constructed first and provides the managed flows for run of river hydropower generation at Dasu. In order to gain the environmental advantages of Dasu, the implementation of Diamer Basha project needs to be closely monitored so that lessons can be learnt from it and incorporated into the design and implementation program for Dasu. This includes all environmental aspects in the widest possible sense. S.11 Recommendations As there are no significant predicted adverse environmental impacts that can not be adequately mitigated and the alternative possibilities for major power generation are more environmentally problematic, the Dasu Hydropower project should be implemented as planned with a dam located at Axis 5 and a crest level of 957masl with full reservoir level of 950masl. However as the implementation of the Dasu project will succeed that of the dam at Diamer Basha, it is strongly recommended that the Basha project be closely monitored so that any issues that may arise can be identified and the implications, if any, for the Dasu project can be considered. It would be wise at this stage to consider carrying out an independent strategic environmental assessment of all of the proposed water related developments within the main Indus river system to ensure that the cumulative impacts of all the proposed interventions are considered in an integrated manner. Such a strategic environmental assessment would need to be carried out within the framework of a wider integrated
  18. 18. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 S-9 catchment management planning process and also consider cross sector resource use, particularly power generation and irrigated agriculture. The recommended steps that are required to plan and implement the Dasu project in an environmentally sound and sustainable manner are indicated below and are the basis of the proposed environmental management plan for the project. S.12 Future Environmental Management Program An outline Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan has been developed that will provide an action plan, along with the roles and responsibilities for all the players in the implementation process. This includes budget allocations and the resources required to mitigate adverse environmental impacts, to provide targeted environmental enhancements for impacted communities and also to establish and manage an appropriate environmental monitoring plan to ensure compliance with the current regulatory framework. The plan identifies which actions need to be carried out in what sequence based upon the proposed construction program and the relevant legal requirements, particularly for land acquisition. The key steps are: - Further develop and continue the public information and consultation program for the project, including that with other government departments, particularly the EPA. - Continue the regular baseline monitoring at Dasu and the immediate upstream area for water flow, water quality and noise. - Ensure that the responsible institution within WAPDA regularly monitors the extent and depth of snow and ice in the upper catchment so that seasonal patterns can be identified and also trends over the long term period can be seen. - Monitor the progress of the Diamer Basha project, including the rebuilding of the KKH and the power transmission arrangements. - Once a decision is taken that the government wishes to go ahead with the Dasu project then an updated environmental assessment should produced and submitted to the EPA for review with a request for the granting of a no objection certificate. - Once a firm decision is taken to go ahead with the Dasu project then the 957m contour should be physically demarcated in the field and a cut off date should be agreed after which no new immovable assets should be constructed in the area. - A detailed enumeration of lost assets should be carried out and a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) prepared. - Individual new house locations should be identified in a collaborative process with the households who will lose their homes. - Compensate and ensure that equivalent and adequate replacement housing is in place before the land is required for construction. This may be in a phased program depending upon the construction program. - Monitor the livelihoods of the people in the area and take any corrective action that may be required to ensure that they will not be worse off as a result of the project. More details have been given in Section 9 of the EIA report. The key environmental studies that will need to be carried out at later stages are: - Updating of the EIA at the Detail Design Stage.
  19. 19. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 S-10 - Submission of the EIA to the EPA for gaining the necessary environmental clearance. - Preparation of the Land Acquisition and Resettlement Action Plan (LARAP). - EIA of the proposed Transmission Line. - EIA of the proposed Grid Station. - EIA of the rebuilt KKH, including land acquisition, relocation and rehabilitation. - Full Feasibility Study for the reconstruction of communication bridges across the Indus River in the proposed Dasu reservoir area. An initial study has already been carried out and the results are given in Appendix E.
  20. 20. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 1-1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Dasu Hydropower Project (DHP) is proposed run of the river power project on Indus River. Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) is the proponent of the Project on behalf of Government of Pakistan. This project forms the part of WAPDA’s vision- 2025 program. The aim of vision 2025 is to improve hydropower generation capacity, the revival of the country’s economy and above all meet the future needs of Indus Basin Irrigation System. The DHP is proposed to be located on Indus River, about 8 km upstream of Dasu Bridge near Dasu town, in Kohistan District of NWFP, Pakistan. Geographically it is located at E3215359.95, N1238016.47; which is 73.6 Km down stream of Diamer-Basha Dam Project measured along the river (Figures 1.1 to 1.3). The Dasu damsite is a mountainous region. The Project site is accessible from Islamabad by GT Road and Kara Kurram Highway (KKH) via Abbotabad- Mansehra-Besham-Pattan- Dasu. There is no rail link or airport to Dasu. River transport does not exist. The Project area is classified as high risk zone for earthquake. MONENCO carried out Inventory and Ranking Study- 1984 for WAPDA. DHP was identified as run of the river power project on Indus River 79 km down stream of proposed Basha Dam Project (renamed as Diamer Basha Dam Project). A 235m high concrete faced embankment dam having ability to produce 2700 MW power was envisaged, few kilometers up stream of Dasu Town. The Dasu Hydropower Project Consultant – A Joint Venture, was awarded contract to advance the conceptual proposal by MONENCO to a full feasibility report. 1.2 Structure of Report The feasibility report of DHP consists of 13 volumes. This is 9th volume of feasibility report and covers the environmental and resettlement studies: including environmental laws and guidelines, baseline conditions of the project area, alternatives considered, environmental impacts, terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, mitigations actions required, socioeconomic issues, compensation required for the affected assets and resettlement issues of voluntary and involuntary resettlement. This volume shall form Environment Impact Assessment and Resettlement report and has been prepared to be stand alone document as far as possible and provide in depth information on environmental issues of the project. Effort has been made to prepare the report to meet the requirements of (a) Environmental Protection Agency in Pakistan, (b) the rule of Asian Development Bank and that of (c) World Bank. Some of the information used in preparing the EIA report is also from other volumes of the report and a number of studies made by other consultants as well. For the purpose of environmental study the DHP area has been defined as the area delimited by Dasu dam axis till Diamer Basha Dam axis in the north and contour El 957 m. Further downstream area bounded by the dam axis up to 1km at contour El 850m. 1.3 Project Classification for Level of Environmental Studies The DHP is classified as ‘large dam’ by Environment Protection Agency (EPA) of Pakistan guidelines and is classified category ‘A’ project by ADB & WB project classification (Table 1.1). As per guidelines of EPA procedures a large dam must have an in depth study of the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) and identify the
  21. 21. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 1-2 mitigation actions which should be included in planning and design of the project. Similarly ADB’s category A project must have an EIA done for it. This report has been prepared in light of EPA laws of Pakistan, ADB and WB rules. These laws and rules require studying effects of the project on environment, socioeconomic conditions, cultural heritage, current use of land , people living in the area, ecology of the area (animals, birds, fauna & flora, agriculture , trees); houses, buildings and infrastructures such as bridges, roads, mosques, school and hospital etc. The identification and quantification of impact is required. When quantification can not be given then qualitative description of the impacts is stated. Table 1.1 Project Classification for EIA Studies No Authority Criteria Classification of DHP Remarks 1 Environment Protection Agency Pakistan. Dam storage 50MM or Lake area 8Km 2 Or hydropower Capacity 50MW Schedule A Projects: Large Dam. EIA Necessary Schedule A category; IEE-EIA Regulation2000 2 Asian Development Bank (ADB) Category A: Significant adverse Impacts. Category B: Limited adverse impacts Class A. EIA necessary Environment assessment guidelines section V; OM20 3 World Bank (WB) Category A: diverse and significant environmental impact. Category B: Have limited specific impacts Class A Project EIA is required. OD 4.00 1.4 Impact Identification Tools This report provides details of impacts based on satellite imagery of 10th October 2005 interpretation using GIS software including field checks and updates. The resolution of satellite imagery was 0.6 meters. The time lapse between imagery date and the report date is about two years. Field checks have revealed small changes in physical infrastructure. New houses or buildings have been marked and counted. However the assessed quantities for trees have been increased by 5 ~10 % , where trees are young and less than 0.6m spread can not be seen, to arrive at final quantities to allow for any left over or unaccounted for item. During the field visits the study teams photographed various objects of relevant interest and used them in support of text in the feasibility report. The subject of these photographs was the description of environments (baseline state), Terrestrial Ecology, Aquatic Ecology, scoping sessions, social & cultural aspect, petroglyphs and information of general interest. Some pictures have date and time printed while other do not have this detail; for simple reason that different cameras were used. 1.5 Project Disclosure with Stakeholders EPA guide line stress the need to discuss the project with stake holders. The stake holders are: officials of NWFP ( in present case these are District Nazim, District Coordination Officer (DCO), Superintendent of Police (SP), District Forest officer (DFO), Executive Engineer Works & Services, District Agricultural officer, District Health Officer and Wildlife Officer), Political leaders, community leaders, bankers, teachers and people who will be directly affected by the project. Structured interviews were made during the feasibility study and analysis presented. The direct affectees of the Project shall be people who reside in the project area, and organizations such as Special Telecommunication Organization, PTDC motel, offices of Frontier Works Organization and police check post buildings. Religious mosques shall be affected.
  22. 22. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 1-3 Project disclosure was also made to experts in consulting firms and NGOs. Project disclosure was made to religious leaders in Project area. 1.6 Resettlement Aspects The resettlement of the affectees has been dealt to the level necessary in the feasibility stage. The resettlement locations have been identified. These locations shall be developed to provide all necessary facilities such as drinking water, schools, drainage, mosques, market, access roads, electricity, telephone, development of agricultural land. Voluntary and involuntary resettlement are foreseen in the project. 1.7 Socio Economic Survey The Project’s social survey was conducted under restrictions imposed by the local District Management. These restrictions did not allow the interviewing of women even through lady enumerators. Therefore only male enumerators interviewed male residents using structured questionnaire. 1.8 Scope of Services The TOR defines the scope of the services. This has been elaborated in Inception Report and it’s up gradation as a result of comments from the WAPDA’s General Consultants and other organs of the WAPDA. The selection of dam axis, description of the project, baseline studies from secondary and primary data, fauna & flora, aquatic ecology, social survey establishing social baseline, identification of impacts and its quantification, mitigation action and its cost, resettlement matters, environmental monitoring plan and recommendations has been presented. 1.9 Approach Adopted for EIA Studies The full supply level (FSL) of the dam has been fixed by project planners as EL 950 m which shall provide the head necessary to run the turbines for producing designed electrical power. The flood surcharge head (5m) plus waves height (2m) add to 7 m to FSL. Thus dam crest level shall be 957m. Easement of 3 m has been adopted in relocation of KKH. The impacts have been estimated at level 957m. The impacts were studied using satellite imagery and ground truthing. The water quality was based on water sampling in Project area by WAPDA arranged laboratory (SUPARCO) for physical and chemical properties. The tree count has been done using following methods: Tree count from imagery showing all vegetation in red color due to infra-red photography. Each tree is identified, differentiated from shrub and marked with a dot which is counted sheet by sheet on imagery and then summed up to find total. Tree counting by determining the area of cluster of threes on imagery. Sampling in the field where clusters were found in reservoir area and physical count in 100ft×100ft areas. The noise level was measured at site by using noise level measurements and averaging them out. This aspect was arranged by WAPDA using reputable laboratory resource (SUPARCO). Data provided by WAPDA was incorporated. The air quality was measured at site by WAPDA’s arrangement using reputable
  23. 23. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 1-4 laboratory resource (SUPARCO). Data provided by WAPDA was incorporated. The suspension bridges by physical count and satellite imagery. The covered area of buildings and numbers involved by satellite imagery. The PTDC motel from satellite imagery and cost estimate by PTDC, which was reviewed by Consultants and incorporated in estimate. KKH by SOP contoured maps, satellite imagery and data from KKH studies for relocation. Telephone line and power lines from satellite imagery and ground truthing. Agriculture land by satellite imagery. Agriculture output rate and unit price of sale by discussions with Agriculture Department and Forest Department at Dasu. The cost of trees as fire wood was estimated on guideline provided by Forest Department. The petroglyphs by levelling survey, counting boulders at site and preparing photographs and by reporting to WAPDA for onward report to Archaeology Department Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. The cost of construction from Works Department NWFP Dasu office for government buildings. The cost of land has been established by multiple discussions with Revenue department Dasu, Zari Tarakiati Bank Dasu, Social survey, and discussion with senior Government officials. The cost reflects market rates in 2nd half of 2007. 1.10 Makeup of EIA & Resettlement Report The report consists of the following two parts in separate bindings. Environmental Impact Assessment and Resettlement Aspects Section 1 Introduction Section 2 Regulatory Laws and the Institutional Framework for Environmental Assessment Section 3 Project Description Section 4 Project Alternatives Section 5 Project Scoping and Public Consultation Section 6 Existing Environmental Baseline Situation, Constraints and Needs Section 7 Impact Identification, Quantification and Categorization Section 8 Impact Mitigation and Remedial Measures Section 9 Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan Section 10 Conclusions, Recommendations and Future Environmental Management Work Program Annex –1 Photographic plates Annex –2 Contacts and Liaison Annex –3 Correspondence Relating to Dam Axis 2 and Seo Village Appendices to Environmental Impact Assessment and Resettlement Aspects Appendix–A Socio – Economic Environment Report Appendix–B Project Impacts, Resettlement and Mitigation Measures Appendix–C Aquatic Ecology Appendix–D Terrestrial Ecology Appendix–E Rehabilitation of River Crossings in the Project Area Appendix–F Petroglyphs in the Project Area Appendix–G SUPARCO Water, Air and Noise Quality Data
  24. 24. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 2-1 2. REGULATORY LAWS AND THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 2.1 Introduction This section presents a synopsis of current national and international legislation, policies and guidelines which will have a bearing and relevance to the planning, design, implementation and operation of the Dasu Hydropower Project. The requirements of national and international policies, legislation and guiding principals have been considered whilst preparing this Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) and Resettlement Report. The existing government institutional arrangements for environmental management, including EIA, are described to enable an understanding of how the implementation mechanism of the various laws operates. The identification of the project proponent, along with its legal responsibilities and powers (remit) with regard to EIA are also described, specifically in the context of the requirements for environment protection and resettlement of people affected by the project. It should be noted that items within the regulatory framework (policy, laws, guidelines etc) are amended from time to time in the light of experience gained both locally and worldwide. It is important that the latest versions of regulatory instruments are followed at the time of Dasu project construction. 2.2 The Legal and Regulatory Framework for EIA in Pakistan 2.2.1 Policy Framework The main Federal Government policy documents that are directly applicable to the proposed project are the National Conservation Strategy, the Resettlement Policy and the Pakistan Power Policy of 2002. The Ministry of Environment is responsible at the Federal level for policy, planning and implementation in respect of environmental aspects in Pakistan. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC) headed by the Chief Executive of Pakistan is the highest inter-ministerial and multi-stakeholders decision making body for such matters. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (NCS) The strategies themselves are essentially capacity building initiatives. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (NCS) is the principal policy document for environmental issues in the country and was developed and approved by the Government of Pakistan on March 1, 1992. The NCS works on a ten-year planning and implementation cycle. The NCS deals with 14 core areas which are; i. maintaining soils in cropland; ii. increasing irrigation efficiency; iii. protecting watersheds; iv. supporting forestry and plantations; v. restoring rangelands and improving livestock; vi. protecting water bodies and sustaining fisheries; vii. conserving biodiversity; viii. increasing energy efficiency; ix. developing and deploying material for renewable energy; x. preventing/abating pollution; xi. managing urban wastes; xii. supporting institutions for common resources; xiii. integrating population and environmental programmes; and xiv. preserving the cultural heritage.
  25. 25. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 2-2 Based on the NCS, policies are being framed for institutional strengthening and human resource development for environmental protection, especially at the local and provincial level. The NCS is a policy document that deals with the core environmental issues in Pakistan at the macro level and recommends an action plan to address these issues. Project specific mitigation prescriptions cannot be expected in the NCS document, rather the principles of environment protection, conservation and management provided in the NCS document have to be used as guidelines during the planning and execution of projects. As a signatory to the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1992, it was also necessary for Pakistan to develop a national strategy for the conservation of biodiversity. The Government of Pakistan constituted a Biodiversity Working Group, under the auspices of the Ministry of Environment, to develop a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) for the country, which was completed after an extensive consultative process. The plan, which has been designed to complement the NCS and the proposed provincial conservation strategies, identifies the causes of biodiversity loss in Pakistan and suggests a series of proposals for action to conserve biodiversity in the country. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC) has approved the action plan and steering committees have been formed at both Federal and Provincial levels to implement it. The BAP recognizes that at project level Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is used as a tool to identify environmental impacts of a proposed project and suggests ways for reducing adverse impacts. The BAP further stipulates that an EIA should be initiated at an early stage in the project development cycle and that public participation in the review of potential effects is important. The EIA of the Dasu Hydropower Project fulfils the requirement of the BAP. Resettlement Policy in Pakistan An important aspect of EIA is consideration of the displacement and relocation of the project affected population. A new resettlement policy has yet to be approved by Government but amendments to the Land Acquisition Act of 1894 have been made from time to time. It is currently in a draft form with the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency. The policy has been formulated to ensure an equitable and uniform treatment of resettlement issues throughout Pakistan. This policy will apply to all development projects involving adverse social impacts, including land acquisition, loss of assets, loss of income, loss of business and other possible losses. The draft Resettlement Policy addresses those areas which are not taken care of in the Land Acquisition Act of 1894 (LAA) and will be applicable wherever any public sector or private development project affects people, families or communities, even when there is no displacement of population. The legal procedures for land acquisition have the objective of providing adequate compensation for the loss of income to those who suffer loss of communal property, including common assets, productive assets, structures, other fixed assets, income and employment, loss of community networks and services, pastures, water rights, public infrastructure like mosques, shrines, schools, graveyards and any consequential losses. The Pakistan Power Generation Policy 2002 The Power Generation Policy of the Government of Pakistan (GOP) aims to reform the power sector through restructuring and deregulation. The aim is to help the country to meet its future power needs. WAPDA and Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC) are the two main producers and distributors of electricity in Pakistan. KESC has already
  26. 26. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 2-3 been privatised whilst WAPDA is still a public organisation. WAPDA owns 54% of national electricity generation and distribution and serves about 88% of the electrical customers in Pakistan. WAPDA has prepared a “Hydropower Development Plan- Vision 2025” to meet the deficit of electricity through proposed provision of additional generation capacity. The objectives of the power policy are to: a) Provide sufficient capacity of power generation at the least cost, and to avoid capacity shortfall. b) To encourage and ensure exploitation of indigenous resources, human resources, participation of local engineering and manufacturing capabilities. c) To ensure all stakeholders are looked after in the process. d) To safeguard the environment. The requirements of the PEPA of 1997 relating to environmental protection, environmental impact and social soundness assessment shall have to be met. 2.2.2 Federal Statutory Framework for Environmental Management and Assessment The key items of the existing regulatory framework at the Federal level that have implications for the proposed project are identified and discussed below. These include Ordinances, Acts, Laws, Regulations, Rules and Guidelines. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance 1983 The Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance, 1983 (PEPO 1983) was the first legislation designed specifically for the protection of the environment in the country. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency was established in 1984. This is the primary government institution dealing with environmental issues. Significant work on developing environmental policy was carried out by the late 1980s, which culminated in drafting of the Pakistan National Conservation Strategy. Provincial Environmental Protection Agencies were also established at about the same time. The National Environmental Quality Standards were established in 1993 and then revised in 2000. The enactment of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) No.XXXIV of 1997 conferred broad- based enforcement powers to the Environmental Protection Agencies. The publication of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of IEE and EIA Regulations (IEE- EIA Regulations) dated 2000 provided the necessary details on the preparation, submission, and review of Initial Environmental Examinations (IEE) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA). In addition to the PEPA of 1997, Pakistan’s statute books contain a number of other laws that have clauses concerning the regulation and protection of the environment. A summary of laws and regulations relevant to the proposed Dasu project in the context of environmental assessment and management of the project are given in Table 2.1. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) No. XXXIV of 1997 This comprehensive piece of legislation has evolved over time to provide the legal framework for the preparation and implementation of national environmental policies. It is entitled “The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 (PEPA 1997)”. The PEPA was enacted in 1997, repealing the PEPO of 1983. The PEPA 1997 provides the framework for implementation of the National Conservation Strategy, including the protection and conservation of species, wildlife, habitats and biodiversity, along with the conservation of renewable resources. The PEPA also establishes the standards for the quality of the ambient air, water and land, along with the establishment of Environmental
  27. 27. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 2-4 Tribunals and appointment of Environmental Magistrates. The need and nature of Initial Environmental Examinations (IEE) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) are given along with the need for promotion of public education and awareness of environmental issues through the mass media. The PEPA of 1997 is the basic legislative tool empowering the government to frame regulations for the protection of the environment. This Enabling Act is applicable to a broad range of issues and extends to air, water, soil, marine, and noise pollution, as well as to the handling of hazardous wastes. Penalties have been prescribed for those contravening the provisions of the Act. The key features of the Act that have a direct bearing on the Dasu Hydropower Project are the following: Section 11(1) states that “Subject to the provisions of this Act and the rules and regulations made there under, no person shall discharge or emit, or allow the discharge or emission of, any effluent or waste or air pollutant or noise in an amount, concentration or level which is in excess of the National Environmental Quality Standards.” The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA), the body mainly responsible for enforcing the PEPA of 1997, has published National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) that will be applicable to the Dasu project. These are given in Tables 2.2 to 2.4. Section 12(1) requires that “No proponent of a project shall commence construction or operation unless he has filed with the Federal Agency an Initial Environmental Examination [IEE] or, where the project is likely to cause an adverse environmental effect, then an Environmental Impact Assessment [EIA], and has obtained from the Federal Agency approval in respect thereof.” Section 12(2)(b) The Federal Agency shall review the Environmental Impact Assessment report and accord its approval subject to such conditions as it may deem fit to impose, or require that the Environmental Impact Assessment be re-submitted after such modifications as may be stipulated, or reject the project as being contrary to environmental objectives. For the Dasu project, it is required, according to the regulations, that an EIA report be submitted to the Pak-EPA, and approval obtained before undertaking construction. Section 14 requires that “Subject to the provisions of this Act, no person shall generate, collect, consign, transport, treat, dispose of, store, handle, or import any hazardous substance except (a) under a license issued by the Federal Agency and in such manner as may be prescribed; or (b) in accordance with the provisions of any other law for the time being in force, or of any international treaty, convention, protocol, code, standard, agreement, or other instrument to which Pakistan is a party.” Enforcement of this clause requires the Pakistan EPA to issue regulations regarding licensing procedures and to define ‘hazardous substance.’ The Project Implementation and Resettlement Ordinance of 2001 The Government has proclaimed an ordinance entitled "Project Implementation and Resettlement of the Affected Persons Ordinance 2001", later referred to as the “Resettlement Ordinance". This ordinance will be used to safeguard the interests of persons/groups having to be involuntarily resettled due to land acquisition caused by a proposed project. This Ordinance establishes that the resettlement of the involuntarily displaced persons is done as a matter of right and not by way of charity or any such sentiment. In addition the Affected Persons (APs) shall be accepted as special groups
  28. 28. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 2-5 who in the supreme interest of the country have accepted/undergone involuntary displacement. The proposed Ordinance shall be supplementary to the Land Acquisition Act of 1894, as well as other Laws of Pakistan, and wherever items included in the Draft Resettlement Policy. The Land Acquisition Act, 1894 (Including Later Amendments) The Land Acquisition Act of 1894 sets out the rules and procedures for acquiring land and immovable assets needed for development. The Act sets out the methodology for compensating owners of affected land and assets. The Act comprises 55 Sections dealing with area notifications, surveys, acquisition, compensation, apportionment awards, dispute resolution, penalties and exemptions. However, it does not cover the aspect of resettlement of the affected population. In this respect, the GOP is in the process of formulating appropriate laws and policies with the assistance of the ADB. However, WAPDA has practised a resettlement policy similar to that of international funding agencies and has already been applying these for their mega projects, for example the raising of Mangla Dam. It should be noted that there have been frequent revisions to the Land Acquisition Act and that the latest revisions will apply. This is particularly important for the Dasu Hydropower Project as the proposed commencement of construction of the project is planned to be after the construction of the Diamer Basha dam is completed. The Antiquities Act of 1975 The Antiquities Act of 1975 ensures the protection of cultural resources in Pakistan. The act is designed to protect defined “antiquities” from destruction, theft, negligence, unlawful excavation, trade and export. Antiquities have been defined in the Act as ancient products of human activity, historical sites, or sites of anthropological or cultural interest and national monuments. The law prohibits new construction in the proximity of a protected antiquity and empowers the Government of Pakistan to prohibit excavation in any area which may contain articles of archaeological significance. The guideline procedure for Environment Assessment recommended by the Pakistan EPA reads as follows: “If the proponent or the consultant identifies an archaeological site that appears to be of importance but the site is not listed they should discuss the site with the relevant conservation authority”. “The relevant conservation authority should inform the Responsible Authority of their assessment of the significance of the likely impact of the proposed development early in the process, in order for the Responsible Authority to determine the level of documentation required. The EPA will then be in a position to review the level of reporting required in the light of advice from the Archaeology Department”. The Federal Department of Archaeology and Museum, Government of Pakistan is the sole custodian of all articles of archaeological finds and historical heritage. The Telegraphy Act, 1910 The Telegraphy Act of 1910 was promulgated for installation of telegraph poles and stringing. The Act allows provision for installing poles and towers without the need to acquire any land. However there is provision for temporary acquisition of land during the construction period of such infrastructure. In such circumstances compensation is made just for the loss of crop for a specific period of temporary occupation for construction.
  29. 29. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 2-6 The WAPDA Act No. XXXI of 1958 The WAPDA Act No. XXXI of 1958 provides for the unified and coordinated development of the water and power resources of West Pakistan. This Act authorizes WAPDA to construct and operate electrical transmission lines, entrusting powers and obligations to them as a licensee under the Telegraphy Act of 1910. The WAPDA Act also establishes policy for land acquisition and compensation, as well as the degree of liability of WAPDA for damages sustained by landowners and other parties. The Electricity Act, No IX of 1910 with Electricity Rules of 1937 The Electricity Act of 1910 and Electricity Rules of 1937 relate to the supply and use of electrical energy in Pakistan. This Act applies together with supplementary rules that have been issued from time to time. The Forest Act of 1927 and Later Amendments The Forest Act of 1927 establishes the right of the Government to designate areas for reserved forest, village forest and protected forest, and they may acquire such areas in order to prohibit or restrict the public use of such resources or other activities within them. The Protection of Trees and Brushwood Act of 1949 The Protection of Trees and Brushwood Act of 1949 prohibits the cutting or lopping of trees and brushwood without the permission of the Forest Department. The Local Government Ordinance of 1979 Section 93 of the Local Government Ordinance of 1979 pertains to environmental pollution. Under this Ordinance the local councils are authorised to restrict activities causing pollution to air, water or land. They may also initiate schemes for improving the environment. Pakistan Penal Code 1860 The provisions of the Pakistan Penal Code of 1860 fix the penalties for violation of statutory instruments in the country. These include pollution of air, water bodies and land. The penal code 1860 provides for and deals with a wide spectrum of offences and related punishments under the law. 2.2.3 Provincial Government Statutory Framework NWFP Laws and Acts The proposed Dasu dam and nearly all of the reservoir area is located in the NWFP province. The following NWFP laws are likely to be relevant and have to be taken into consideration. Forest - NWFP Forest Ordinance 2002 - NWFP Forestry Commission Act 1999 - NWFP Management of Protected Forests Rules 1975.
  30. 30. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 2-7 - NWFP River Rules 1952. - NWFP Protection of Trees and Bushwood Act 1949. Fisheries - NWFP Fisheries Rules 1976 Wildlife/Fauna/Non Timber Flora - NWFP Wildlife (Protection, Preservation and Management) Act 1975. - NWFP Wildlife (Protection, Preservation, Conservation and Management) Act 1975. Protected Areas - NWFP Wildlife (Protection, Preservation and Management Act 1975-National Sanctuaries, Game Reserves, Private Game Reserves). Freshwater - NWFP River Protection Ordinance 2002. - NWFP Local Government Ordinance 2001 (Clause 4.3.2.1) 2.3 Institutional Framework Relevant for EIA in Pakistan The success of environmental assessment as a means of ensuring that development projects are environmentally sound and sustainable depends in large measure on the capability of regulatory institutions to operate in an effective manner to achieve the objective. The institutional framework for decision making and policy formulation in environmental and conservation issues are briefly described below. 2.3.1 Federal Government Institutions Headed by a Federal Minister, the Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development is the main government organization responsible for the protection of environment and resource conservation. The Ministry works with the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC) and the Federal and Provincial Environmental Protection Agencies and was established under the provisions of the PEPA of 1997. Two organizations, the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council (PEPC) and the Pakistan EPA, are primarily responsible for administering the provisions of the PEPA of 1997. The PEPC oversees the functioning of the Pakistan EPA. The Federal Government has formed the PEPC. Its members include the President of Pakistan (or someone appointed by the President), as the Chairperson; the Minister of the Ministry of Environment as the Vice-Chairperson; Governors of the Provinces; Ministers in charge of the subject of environment in the Provinces; the Secretary to the Federal Government in charge of the Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development; the Director General of the Federal EPA; Heads of Federal and Provincial Environmental Protection Departments; environmentalists and community representatives, including scientists. The functions and powers of the Council include formulation of national environmental policy, enforcement of the PEPA of 1997, approval of the NEQS, incorporation of environmental considerations into national development plans and policies and to provide guidelines for the protection and conservation of
  31. 31. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 2-8 biodiversity in general and also for the conservation of renewable and non-renewable resources. The Federal Government has also formed the Federal EPA, which is headed by a Director General and has wide ranging functions given in the PEPA of 1997. These include preparation and co-ordination of national environmental policy for approval by PEPC, administering and implementing the PEPA of 1997 and preparation, revision or establishment of NEQS. The Federal EPA has overall jurisdictions over EIA/IEE issues. Federal jurisdiction is applicable to the projects which are: - On federal land; - Military projects; - Involving trans-national impacts; and - Having trans-province impacts. For all other cases, the concerned Provincial Responsible Authority shall have jurisdiction over EIA and IEE issues. The Federal EPA reserves the rights to review any Environmental Report at any time and to suspend the powers it has delegated to any Responsible Authority if it believes those powers have not been properly used. 2.3.2 WAPDA The Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) was created in 1959 to undertake the task of investigating, planning and executing schemes for irrigation, drainage, prevention of water logging and reclamation of saline land. It was established as an autonomous body responsible for the integrated development of water and power resources in Pakistan. The organization was also entrusted with the work of implementing Indus Basin Settlement Plan signed between India and Pakistan in 1960 to develop replacement works for management of river water and irrigation systems. Since then it has been engaged in building water development projects which include extensive research and investigation activities to augment the water resources of the country. The Charter of Duties of WAPDA is to investigate, plan and execute schemes for the following fields: - Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Power. - Irrigation, Water Supply and Drainage. - Prevention of Water logging and Reclamation of Waterlogged and Saline Lands. - Flood Management. - Inland Navigation. The Authority comprises a Chairman and three Members working through a Secretary. The two main departments of WAPDA are the Power Wing and the Water Wing. The Finance Department deals with the financial matters of WAPDA. Each of the three wings are headed by the members who, along with the Chairman, comprise the management board of WAPDA. Figure 2.1 shows the organisational structure of the WAPDA. WAPDA is one of the largest employers of human resources in Pakistan. Over the years WAPDA has developed technical capability and expertise in its range of activities and gained sound experience which has made it a modern and progressive organization.
  32. 32. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 2-9 WAPDA Power Wing The WAPDA Power Wing currently operates separately from the Water Wing, with the formation of Pakistan Electric Power Company being a corporate entity headed by the Member (Power). The Power Wing of WAPDA which was divided into three operations for power generation, transmission and distribution has been restructured into 14 Public Limited Companies. These 14 Corporate Entities are: Four (4) Thermal Power Generation Companies (GENCOs). - Southern Generation Power Company Limited (GENCO-1) with its headquarters at Jamshoro District, Dadu near Hyderabad, Sindh. - Central Power Generation Company Limited (GENCO-2) with its headquarters at Guddu District, Jacobabad, Sindh. - Northern Power Generation Company Limited (GENCO-3) with its headquarters at TPS Muzaffargarh District, Muzaffargarh, Punjab. - Lakhra Power Generation Company Limited (GENCO-4) with its headquarters at WAPDA House, Lahore. One (1) National Transmission & Power Dispatch Company (NTDC) Nine (9) Distribution Companies (DISCOs) as under: - (LESCO) Lahore Electric Supply Company - (GEPCO) Gujranwala Electric Power Company - (FESCO) Faisalabad Electric Supply Company - (IESCO) Islamabad Electric Supply Company - (MEPCO) Multan Electric Power Company - (PESCO) Peshawar Electric Power Company - (HESCO) Hyderabad Electric Supply Company - (QESCO) Quetta Electric Supply Company - (TESCO) Tribal Electric Supply Company WAPDA Water Wing The Water Wing operates under the head of the Member (Water). For effective control, the entire country is divided into north, central, south and west zones, generally covering the provinces of NWFP, Punjab, Sindh and Baloachistan respectively, with the execution of Scarps and surface water development projects. Chief Engineers (CEs) and Project Directors (PDs) implement projects falling under regions within each zone. In addition, the Water Wing has a CE (Coordination and Monitoring) responsible for construction and operation of dams and also all other projects under the Water Wing. There are also two separate General Managers for Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project and the National Drainage Project. The Planning Division of the Water Wing, headed by the General Manager, looks after all of the planning activities on the water side of WAPDA. Water resources and hydropower development and the Vision-2025 planning program are handled by the three General Managers, one covering Technical, (South and North), the GM for P&D and the GM Hydro Development. WAPDA Environmental Cell The WAPDA Environmental cell (WEC) operates under the GM (P & D) of the Water
  33. 33. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 2-10 Wing. The organizational setup of the WEC is shown in Figure 2.2. Currently the WEC consists of two sections working under its Director who works under Project Director (WRPO). The main section of the WEC is at Lahore. The current strength of the WEC is about 30 professional and para-professional staff. Technical staff consists of environmental engineers, geologists, ecologists and civil engineers. The WEC staff is used to dealing with EIA requirements and also handling Resettlement Action Plans. 2.3.3 Provincial Government Institutions Arrangements for Environmental Assessment at Provincial Government Level Each provincial government has its own environmental protection institution responsible for pollution control. The provincial EPAs and the Environmental Protection Departments (EPDs) are the provincial counterparts of the Federal EPA, which is authorized to delegate powers to its provincial counterparts. The Provincial Environmental Protection Agencies are formed by the respective Provincial Governments. A Director General who exercises powers delegated to him by the concerned Provincial Government heads the Provincial EPA. The reports covering IEEs and EIAs are submitted to the concerned Provincial EPAs for approval. For public works, responsibility for IEE management and review and granting or refusing of environmental approval, will be vested in the Planning and Development Departments (referred as P&Ds) responsible for economic and development planning at federal and provincial levels. The jurisdiction of Federal and Provincial Responsible Authorities (EPAs/EPDs) is given in Figure 2.3. North West Frontier Province As can be seen in Figure 1.3, the dam site and nearly all of the reservoir area falls into the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). The location of the Districts within the NWFP is shown in the map given as Figure 2.4. At the Provincial level, the NWFP holds all the required administrative powers regarding land acquisition, resettlement and rehabilitation of displaced people of any development project. For the DHP various government departments at Federal, Provincial and District level will interact and collaborate for implementation of the project. One of the prerequisites which will require immediate action relates to the handling of environmental issues. The construction of the DHP will require that all land and immovable assets located upstream of the dam axis and lying below 957masl will need to be acquired. The project area is mainly covered within the administrative jurisdiction of District Administration of District Kohistan, in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). The Land Acquisition Act of 1894 with its amendments will need to be applied for acquisition of the land. Other land based assets will be acquired according to the rules and regulations applicable for acquiring such assets. A small part of the project area in the upper reach falls in the jurisdiction of the Northern Area Administrative and requires that all rules and regulations for acquiring this specific area of land and land-based assets will need to be applied accordingly. The Government of the North West Frontier Province functions under the provisions of the Constitution of Pakistan (1973). The Province has a Provincial Assembly with 124 elected members, constituent of 99 Regular seats, 22 seats reserved for Women and 3 seats for Non-Muslims. The Provincial Assembly elects the Chief Minister of the Province who forms a Cabinet of Ministers to look after various Departments. The Chief Minister is the Chief Executive of the Province. The Federal Government appoints a Governor for the Province.
  34. 34. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 2-11 The bureaucratic machinery of the Province is headed by a Chief Secretary who coordinates and supervises functions of various Departments headed by Departmental Secretaries. In the NWFP the person in charge of the Planning & Development Department is the Additional Chief Secretary who reports to the Chief Secretary. All the Secretaries of different Departments are assisted by Additional Secretaries, Deputy Secretaries, Section Officers and other staff. The Departments may have attached Departments and autonomous or semi-autonomous bodies to look after various functions. Since 2001, a system of elected District Governments has been introduced in the NWFP. The Province is divided into 24 districts (see Figure 1.2). The Districts are headed by a Zilla Nazim (District Nazim) assisted by a District Coordination Officer (DCO), who is in charge of the District bureaucracy. In a District the functions are devolved further to the Tehsil, Town and Union Council Governments as a part of the local Government system. Each District has an elected Zilla Council, elected Tehsil, Town and Union Councils who look after various activities at their respective levels. At District level a District Police Officer looks after the Law and Order and he reports to the Zilla Nazim. Each District has a Public Safety Commission which addresses public complaints against the Police. There is a Provincial Police Officer who is in charge of the police system at the provincial level. Government of the Northern Areas As can be seen in Figure 1.3, the head reach of the Dasu reservoir, where it meets the downstream face of the proposed Diamer Basha Dam, lies in the Northern Areas. The Federal Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas (KANA) administers the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Any development and implementation of major projects will not be implemented without the involvement of the said Ministry. The Government of the Northern Areas has its own legislative council. The Chief Secretary of the Northern Areas is the administrative head. The structure of the Government of the Northern Areas is given in Figure 1.2. The Dasu reservoir area covers only part of one District (Diamer) in the Northern Areas. On the 23rd October 2007, the President of Pakistan unveiled a package of political, administrative and development reforms for the Northern Areas (NA). The legal frame work, under which KANA administers the NA, has been changed by incorporating 52 amendments proposed by the representatives of the NA into the Legal Frame Work Order 1994, a law through which Islamabad administers the strategic area. The salient points as given in a public statement are: 1. The NA Council has been given the status of a Legislative Assembly. The existing council has 36 seats, 24 elected and 12 reserved seats (six for women and six for technocrats). It has powers to legislate on 49 subjects. 2. The Legislative Assembly has powers to debate and pass budget. 3. Hither to called Deputy Chief Executive of the council shall be the Chief Executive with full administrative and financial authority. 4. The existing Chief Executive of NA (who is a Federal Minister) shall be called Chairman of the NA government. 5. The Chief Executive shall be elected by the new assembly. 6. The new assembly shall have powers to pass no-confidence motions against the Chief Executive, Speaker, and Deputy Speaker. 7. All administrative and financial powers of Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas would be transferred to the Northern Area Government.
  35. 35. Dasu Hydropower Project – Feasibility Report Volume 9 2-12 8. There would be an Accountant General’s office for the Northern Area. 9. A new District (7th ) would be carved out of Gilgit. 10. Two sub divisions of Dagone and Raundo will be set up in Baltistan. 11. The cases registered against officials of NA shall be transferred from Islamabad to Gilgit. 12. The agricultural loans up to Rs 50,000/ are remitted. This will benefit 12000 people. In addition the mark-up on small and medium loans would be waived. 13. A commission under the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission shall be set up to resolve the boundary dispute between NA and NWFP province. 14. The current regional development budget has been increased from Rs.6.5 billion to Rs.7.6 billion. The reservoir of Dasu Hydropower Project partially falls within the administrative control of the Diamer District of the Northern Area. Therefore, in relation to the Dasu Hydropower project, the office of the Deputy Commissioner of Diamer District will be the key contact point. This office will be responsible for the coordination of different governmental departments for the execution of the project. The overall organizational setup of the Northern Areas Administration is given in Figure 2.4. 2.3.4 International and National Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) International environmental and conservation organizations, such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), have been active in Pakistan for some time. Both these organizations have worked closely with the government and have played an advisory role with regard to the formulation of environmental and conservation policies. In the eight years since the Rio Summit, a number of national environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have also been formed, and have been engaged in advocacy and, in some cases, research. The most prominent national environmental NGOs, such as the Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) and Shirkatgah, are members of the Pakistan National Committee of IUCN. The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) has also been active for some time, particularly in the Northern Areas under the Northern Areas Development Program (NADP). The NADP is working for the development and construction of various agricultural and social uplift programs, especially in the affected valleys of the project area. As mentioned earlier, environmental NGOs have been particularly active in advocacy and promoting sustainable development approaches. Much of the government’s environmental and conservation policy has been formulated in consultation with leading NGOs, who have also been involved in drafting new legislation on conservation. 2.4 Specific EIA Requirements for Dasu Project 2.4.1 Basis for the Environmental Study The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA) under the powers conferred upon it by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) of 1997 provides the necessary details for the preparation, submission, and review of the Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) and the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for proposed developments. Categorization of projects for IEE and EIA is one of the main topics of the IEE-EIA Regulations of 2000. Projects have been classified on the basis of expected degree and magnitude of environmental impacts and included in different schedules

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