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Over more than a decade, industrial controls have widely capitalized on the world of
information systems. HMI stations and engineering tools are widely using off the shelf
hardware and software while Ethernet and Internet have become a must. Moreover, control
systems are starting to integrate radio-communications (Wi-Fi, ZigBee, Bluetooth, etc.).
Systems cost has substantially decreased, wider functionality is available and integration with
production is tighter. But their protection against the external world has simultaneously
decreased making them more vulnerable vis à vis intrusions and other attacks