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# Prevalence and incidence

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DETAIL NOTE ABOUT OUTCOME MEASURE AND DRUG USE MEASURE.,

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### Prevalence and incidence

1. 1. OUTCOME MEASURE AND DRUGUSE MEASURES ADHIN ANTONY XAVIER Assistant Professor CES college., KURNOOL Andhra Pradesh
2. 2. OUTCOME MEASUREMENT The occurrence of pharmacoepidemiological outcomes is commonly expressed by measurements such as, • Prevalence • Cumulative incidence and • Incidence rate
3. 3. PREVALENCE  It is concerned with the disease status  It is the proportion of people affected with a disease or exposed to a particular drug in a population at a given time  It is usuallydetermined bysurveying the population of interest  Prevalence varies between 0-1, it can also be expressed as a percentage
4. 4. Prevalence = A/B A- number of population with disease at a given time B- total number of population at a given time
5. 5. • It is a measure of the risk of developing some new condition with in a specified period of time • It is better expressed asa proportion or as a rate INCIDENCE:
6. 6. INCIDENCERATE: • It is the number of new cases per unit of person-time at risk. • It describes the probability of a new case occurring during a given time interval
7. 7. CUMMULATIVE INCIDENCE(INCIDENCE PROPORTION) • It is the number of new cases with in a specified time period divided by the size of the population initiallyat risk
8. 8.  Monetary units  Numbers of prescription  Units of drug dispensed  Defined daily doses  Prescribed daily doses  Medication adherence measurement DRUGUSE MEASURES:
9. 9. MONETARY UNITS • Drug usehas beenmeasuredin monetary units to quantify the amounts being consumed by population • It canindicate the burden ona society from drug use • Monetary units are convenient & can beconverted to a commonunit, which then allows for comparison DISADVANTAGE: quantities of drugs actually consumed are not known & prices may vary widely
10. 10. • It has been used in research due to the availability & ease DISADVANTAGE : • quantities dispensed vary greatly as duration of treatment NUMBER OF PRESCRIPTIONS
11. 11. • Units of drug dispensed like tablets, vials is easy to obtain & can beused to compareusage trends within population DISADVANTAGE: • No information is available on the quantities actually taken by the patient • Determine the actual no. Ofpatients exposed to the drug UNITS OF DRUG DISPENSED :
12. 12. It is the estimated avg.Maintenance dose perday of a drug whenused in its major indication It is normally expressed as DDD/1000 patients/ / day It is helpful in describing & comparing patterns of DU & provides denominator data for estimation of ADR rates It allows comparisons between drugs in the same therapeutic class • DISADVANTAGE: • problems arises when doses vary widely like with antibiotics orif the drug has more than 1 major indication DEFINED DAILY DOSES
13. 13. PRESCRIBED DAILY DOSES • It is the averagedaily dose of a drug that has actually been prescribed • Calculated from representative sample of prescriptions DISADVANTAGE: it does notindicate number Of population exposedto drug
14. 14. MEDICATION ADHERENCE MEASUREMENTS • Biological Assays • Pill Counts • Weight of Topical Medications • Electronic Monitoring • Pharmacy Records and Prescription Claims • Patient Interviews • Patient Estimates of Adherence