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Prevalence and incidence

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Prevalence and incidence

  2. 2. OUTCOME MEASUREMENT The occurrence of pharmacoepidemiological outcomes is commonly expressed by measurements such as, • Prevalence • Cumulative incidence and • Incidence rate
  3. 3. PREVALENCE  It is concerned with the disease status  It is the proportion of people affected with a disease or exposed to a particular drug in a population at a given time  It is usuallydetermined bysurveying the population of interest  Prevalence varies between 0-1, it can also be expressed as a percentage
  4. 4. Prevalence = A/B A- number of population with disease at a given time B- total number of population at a given time
  5. 5. • It is a measure of the risk of developing some new condition with in a specified period of time • It is better expressed asa proportion or as a rate INCIDENCE:
  6. 6. INCIDENCERATE: • It is the number of new cases per unit of person-time at risk. • It describes the probability of a new case occurring during a given time interval
  7. 7. CUMMULATIVE INCIDENCE(INCIDENCE PROPORTION) • It is the number of new cases with in a specified time period divided by the size of the population initiallyat risk
  8. 8.  Monetary units  Numbers of prescription  Units of drug dispensed  Defined daily doses  Prescribed daily doses  Medication adherence measurement DRUGUSE MEASURES:
  9. 9. MONETARY UNITS • Drug usehas beenmeasuredin monetary units to quantify the amounts being consumed by population • It canindicate the burden ona society from drug use • Monetary units are convenient & can beconverted to a commonunit, which then allows for comparison DISADVANTAGE: quantities of drugs actually consumed are not known & prices may vary widely
  10. 10. • It has been used in research due to the availability & ease DISADVANTAGE : • quantities dispensed vary greatly as duration of treatment NUMBER OF PRESCRIPTIONS
  11. 11. • Units of drug dispensed like tablets, vials is easy to obtain & can beused to compareusage trends within population DISADVANTAGE: • No information is available on the quantities actually taken by the patient • Determine the actual no. Ofpatients exposed to the drug UNITS OF DRUG DISPENSED :
  12. 12. It is the estimated avg.Maintenance dose perday of a drug whenused in its major indication It is normally expressed as DDD/1000 patients/ / day It is helpful in describing & comparing patterns of DU & provides denominator data for estimation of ADR rates It allows comparisons between drugs in the same therapeutic class • DISADVANTAGE: • problems arises when doses vary widely like with antibiotics orif the drug has more than 1 major indication DEFINED DAILY DOSES
  13. 13. PRESCRIBED DAILY DOSES • It is the averagedaily dose of a drug that has actually been prescribed • Calculated from representative sample of prescriptions DISADVANTAGE: it does notindicate number Of population exposedto drug
  14. 14. MEDICATION ADHERENCE MEASUREMENTS • Biological Assays • Pill Counts • Weight of Topical Medications • Electronic Monitoring • Pharmacy Records and Prescription Claims • Patient Interviews • Patient Estimates of Adherence