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Polish your academic writing

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Polish your academic writing

  1. 1. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 1 ‫باللغة‬ ‫العناٌة‬ ‫التنس‬ ‫و‬‫ــــ‬‫ٌق‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫التنقٌط‬ ‫و‬ ‫األ‬ ‫كتابة‬‫بحاث‬ ‫إ‬‫الغفار‬ ‫عبد‬ ‫رفعت‬ ‫أحمد‬ /‫أ.د‬ ‫عداد‬ www.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat ‫قبول‬ ‫عدم‬ ‫أسباب‬ ‫من‬‫األبحاث‬‫للنشر‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫د‬‫و‬‫ل‬ً‫عدم‬ ‫هو‬ ‫اإل‬‫اللغوي‬ ‫البناء‬ ‫بجودة‬ ‫كتراث‬،‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ه‬‫م‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫النسق‬ ‫األفكار‬ ‫لعرض‬ ً‫المنطق‬،‫ٌجعل‬ ‫مما‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫ن‬‫ص‬‫الفهم‬ ‫صعب‬ ‫بسبب‬‫الصٌاغة‬ ‫فشل‬‫اللغوٌة‬ً‫ف‬‫المحتوي‬ ‫إٌصال‬ ً‫العلم‬.
  2. 2. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 2 ‫أسباب‬‫رفض‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫نشر‬‫م‬‫ن‬‫ن‬‫ا‬‫ح‬ٌ‫ة‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫ل‬‫غ‬‫ة‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫ع‬‫ر‬‫ض‬  Poorly written ........‫الصٌاغة‬ ‫ردئ‬.....................................  Incomprehensible .............‫مفهوم‬ ‫غٌر‬..............................  Unclear language .....‫واضحة‬ ‫غٌر‬ ‫لغة‬...............................  Difficult to follow ...‫التناول‬ ‫صعب‬.....................................  Multiple errors ( spelling, punctuation, grammar, syntax, style ) . ‫امالئٌة‬ ( ‫عدٌدة‬ ‫أخطاء‬-‫نحوٌة‬-‫تنقٌط‬–..) ‫نمط‬  Wordiness ......ً‫كالم‬ ‫حشو‬..............................................  Incomplete / not clear sentences ..‫واضحة‬ ‫وغٌر‬ ‫مبتورة‬ ‫جمل‬  Poorly / illogically organized ...‫التنظٌم‬ ‫منطقٌة‬ ‫ال‬ / ‫سوء‬......  Carelessly prepared ‫عدم‬. ‫اكتراث‬................................. ‫العٌوب‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫مثل‬ ‫ووجود‬‫الشكلٌة‬ "‫الصٌاغة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اللغة‬ ً‫ف‬ " ً‫ٌعط‬ ‫العرض‬ ‫و‬‫إ‬‫الباحث‬ ‫عن‬ ‫سلبٌا‬ ‫نطباعا‬‫حول‬ ً‫بالتال‬‫كفائته‬ "‫الموضوعٌة‬.‫المصادر‬ ‫و‬ ‫الوسائل‬ ‫و‬ ‫النتائج‬ ‫مع‬ ‫التعامل‬ ً‫ف‬ "
  3. 3. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 3 ‫جودة‬ً‫الشكل‬ ‫العرض‬ ‫و‬ ً‫العلم‬ ‫المحتوي‬ ‫نشره‬ ‫احتماالت‬ ‫و‬ ‫للبحث‬ * ً‫الشكل‬ ‫العرض‬ ‫جٌد‬‫ردئ‬ ‫المحتوى‬ ً‫العلم‬ ** ‫جٌد‬‫عادة‬ ‫ٌقبل‬ ‫الفور‬ ‫على‬ ‫ٌرفض‬ ‫تحرٌر‬ ‫هٌئة‬ ‫من‬ ‫ٌمرر‬ ‫وال‬ ‫المجلة‬ ‫ٌستفٌد‬ ‫لن‬ ‫و‬ ‫للتحكٌم‬ ‫شٌئا‬ ‫الباحث‬ ‫ردئ‬ ‫هٌئة‬ ‫تمرره‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ٌمكن‬ ‫لدورات‬ ‫المجلة‬ ‫تحرٌر‬ ‫وٌحتمل‬ ‫تحكٌم‬ ‫النشر‬ ‫عادة‬ ‫ٌرفض‬ ‫مثل‬ ً‫الشكل‬ ‫العرض‬ *.‫التنقٌط‬ ‫و‬ ‫التنسٌق‬ ‫و‬ ‫الصٌاغة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اللغة‬ : **:‫مثل‬ ً‫العلم‬ ‫المحتوى‬‫النتائج‬ ‫و‬ ‫الوسائل‬ ‫و‬ ‫األهداف‬ ‫و‬ ‫الموضوع‬ . ‫المناقشة‬ ‫و‬ ‫تكثر‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ٌقبل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫فإنه‬ , ‫الخلل‬ ‫من‬ ‫ٌخلوا‬ ‫عمل‬ ‫ٌوجد‬ ‫ال‬ ‫فكما‬ ‫االكتراث‬ ‫قلة‬ ‫و‬ ‫االعتناء‬ ‫عدم‬ ‫مصدرها‬ ‫ٌكون‬ ‫و‬ ‫األخطاء‬ !! ‫بالقواعد‬ ‫الجهل‬ ‫و‬
  4. 4. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 4 ‫الفقرات‬ ‫و‬ ‫الجمل‬ ‫صٌاغة‬ Sentence and paragraph structure ‫الكل‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫هو‬ ‫ما‬‫ما‬‫؟‬ ‫الفقرات‬ ‫و‬ ‫للجمل‬ ً‫المثال‬ ‫الحجم‬ ‫و‬ ‫ت‬ ‫توجد‬ ‫ال‬‫بالجملة‬ ‫الكلمات‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫تحدد‬ ‫قاعدة‬‫أ‬‫جر‬ ‫لكن‬ , ‫بالفقرة‬ ‫و‬‫ى‬ :ً‫ٌل‬ ‫ما‬ ً‫عل‬ ‫العرف‬ ‫الواحدة‬ ‫الجملة‬ ‫تحتوي‬-‫الغالب‬ ً‫ف‬-‫الكلمات‬ ‫من‬ ‫عدد‬ ً‫عل‬ ‫من‬ ‫ٌتراوح‬51‫إ‬‫لى‬02.‫كلمة‬ ‫لتتعدي‬ ‫تطول‬ ‫أال‬ ‫ٌجب‬ ‫الجملة‬3. ‫اسطر‬ ‫تبدأ‬ ‫ال‬‫لك‬ , ‫اثنتان‬ ‫او‬ ‫واحدة‬ ‫جمله‬ ‫بها‬ ‫لتضع‬ ‫مستقلة‬ ‫فقرة‬‫ن‬ ." ‫هزٌلة‬ " ‫فقرة‬ ‫لتكون‬ ‫جمل‬ ‫ثالث‬ ‫وضع‬ ‫ٌمكنك‬ ‫ٌمكن‬ ‫الجٌدة‬ ‫الفقرة‬‫أ‬‫من‬ ‫تسع‬ ‫ن‬1–52.‫جمل‬ ‫ٌجب‬ ‫الفقرة‬‫أال‬‫حجم‬ ‫من‬ ‫الصفحة‬ ‫نصف‬ ‫تتعدي‬A4)) ‫ٌجب‬ ‫فالصفحة‬ ‫ذلك‬ ً‫وعل‬‫أ‬‫ن‬‫من‬ ‫بها‬ ‫ٌكون‬0‫ال‬‫ى‬3.‫فقرات‬
  5. 5. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 5 ‫الجمل‬ ‫صٌاغة‬ ‫الكلمات‬ ‫من‬ ‫مجموعة‬ ‫عن‬ ‫عبارة‬ ‫الجملة‬clauses‫فكرة‬ ‫عن‬ ‫تعبر‬ ‫و‬ .‫واحدة‬‫إ‬‫بعينها‬ ‫واحدة‬ ‫فكرة‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الكلمات‬ ‫من‬ ‫مجموعة‬ ‫عبرت‬ ‫ن‬ ‫كلمات‬ ‫الحاق‬ ‫الي‬ ‫الحاجة‬ ‫بدون‬‫أ‬‫كاملة‬ ‫جملة‬ ‫فهي‬ ‫لتوضيحا‬ ‫خري‬ ‫مستقلة‬Independent clause,‫ان‬ ‫و‬‫إ‬‫من‬ ‫مجموعة‬ ‫حتاجت‬ ‫الكلمات‬clause‫إ‬‫مجموعة‬ ‫لي‬‫أ‬‫الستكمال‬ ‫الكلمات‬ ‫من‬ ‫خري‬ ‫فان‬ ‫الفكرة‬‫ه‬‫ذ‬‫ه‬.‫الناقصة‬ ‫الجملة‬ ‫شبه‬ ‫تسمي‬ ‫الحالة‬Dependent clause. ‫هي‬ ‫ما‬ ‫اإلنجليزية‬ ‫اللغة‬ ‫في‬ ‫الجمل‬ ‫و‬‫إ‬‫ال‬,‫النسق‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫من‬ ‫تنويعات‬ ‫البسيطة‬ ‫الجمل‬ ‫فهناك‬Simple sentences‫المركبة‬ ‫الجمل‬ ‫و‬ Compound sentences‫الجمل‬ ‫و‬‫المعقدة‬Complex sentences‫المعقدة‬ ‫المركبة‬ ‫الجمل‬ ‫و‬compound-complex sentences.  Simple sentences: one independent clause + only one punctuation mark at the end.  Compound sentences are made by joining simple sentences with a comma and a word as: and, but, so, yet.  Complex sentences are made when we combine an independent clause with a dependent clause.
  6. 6. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 6 ‫الفقرة‬ ‫كتابة‬ ‫محددة‬ ‫حاكمة‬ ‫فكرة‬ ‫حول‬ ‫تدور‬ ‫الجمل‬ ‫من‬ ‫مجموعة‬ ً‫ه‬ ‫الفقرة‬topical idea. ‫العلم‬ ‫الكتابة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫الفقرة‬ ‫صٌاغة‬ ‫حسن‬ ‫لضمان‬ ‫طرق‬ ‫عدة‬ ‫توجد‬ ‫و‬‫امثلة‬ ‫ومن‬ ,‫ٌة‬ .‫للفقرة‬ ً‫الخماس‬ ‫والنسق‬ ً‫الثالث‬ ‫النسق‬ : ‫ذلك‬ : ‫من‬ ‫ٌتكون‬ ‫الفقرات‬ ‫لتركٌب‬ ً‫الثالث‬ ‫النسق‬ 5-‫افتتاحٌة‬ ‫جملة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫للفقرة‬ ‫الرئٌسٌة‬ ‫الفكرة‬ ‫عرض‬.Introduction 0-. ‫الرئٌسة‬ ‫للفكرة‬ ‫بٌان‬ ‫و‬ ‫تطوٌر‬ ‫و‬ ‫دعم‬ ‫جمل‬Development 3-‫الفكرة‬ ‫أهمٌة‬ ‫و‬ ‫داللة‬ ‫تبٌن‬ ‫جمل‬. ‫الرئٌسة‬Conclusion :‫الفقرات‬ ‫لتركٌب‬ ً‫الخماس‬ ‫النسق‬ ‫المثالٌة‬ ‫الفقرة‬ ‫"بنسق‬ ‫ٌسمى‬ ‫فٌما‬ ‫الفقرة‬ ‫تتكون‬" IDEAL paragraph - :ً‫ٌل‬ ‫كما‬ " ‫المتكاملة‬ ‫الوظائف‬ ‫من‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫عن‬ ‫تعبر‬ ‫جمل‬ ‫عدة‬ ‫من‬ I- Introduce the idea (i.e. the topic of that paragraph) ‫الفكرة‬ ‫تقدٌم‬‫الحاكمة‬ D- Define the idea (e.g. new terminology in the paragraph) ‫التعرٌف‬‫بالفكرة‬ E- Explore the idea (e.g. background / relevance / context) ‫إٌضاح‬‫الفكرة‬ A- Add evidence about the idea (quotes, statistics, etc.) ‫لدعم‬ ‫بٌانات‬ ‫اضافة‬‫الفكرة‬ L- Lastly, conclude (state the obvious) ‫او‬ ‫الفكرة‬ ‫تجمل‬ ‫بجملة‬ ‫الفقرة‬ ‫انهاء‬.‫اخري‬ ‫لفكرة‬ ‫تقودك‬ ‫فان‬ , "‫المثالٌة‬ " ‫الفقرة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫مثل‬ ‫صٌاغة‬ ً‫ال‬ ‫وللوصول‬‫ك‬‫تحتاج‬‫إ‬‫وظائف‬ ‫لتقدم‬ ‫جمل‬ ‫عدة‬ ً‫ل‬ ‫التدعٌم‬ ‫جملة‬ ‫و‬ ‫التوضٌح‬ ‫جملة‬ ‫و‬ ‫التعرٌف‬ ‫جملة‬ ‫و‬ ‫للتقدٌم‬ ‫جملة‬ ( ‫فقرة‬ ‫كل‬ ‫داخل‬ ‫مختلفة‬ ‫جملة‬ ‫و‬‫ٌجب‬ ‫قوٌة‬ ‫الفقرة‬ ‫تكون‬ ً‫لك‬ ‫و‬ , ) ‫التلخٌص‬‫أ‬‫ن‬‫مع‬ ‫و‬ ‫للنص‬ ‫العام‬ ‫السٌاق‬ ‫مع‬ ‫تترابط‬ ‫و‬ , ‫فقرات‬ ‫من‬ ‫ٌلحقها‬ ‫ما‬ ‫و‬ ‫ٌسبقها‬ ‫ما‬‫أ‬‫خاصة‬ ‫تعبٌرات‬ ‫و‬ ‫بادوات‬ ‫بداخلها‬ ‫الجمل‬ ‫ربط‬ ‫ٌتم‬ ‫ن‬ ً‫تسم‬‫الربط‬ ‫كلمات‬‫التوجٌه‬ ‫و‬signpost words.
  7. 7. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 7 ‫االنسٌاب‬ ‫و‬ ‫التوجٌه‬ ‫و‬ ‫الربط‬ ‫كلمات‬ Signpost Words ‫ثم‬ , ‫الحقائق‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫إخفاء‬ ‫ٌتم‬ ‫حٌث‬ , ‫البولٌسٌة‬ ‫القصص‬ ‫ككتابة‬ ‫لٌست‬ ‫العلمٌة‬ ‫الكتابة‬ )‫االثارة‬ ‫و‬ ‫التشوٌق‬ ‫بغرض‬ ( ‫القصة‬ ‫نهاٌة‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫عنها‬ ‫اإلفصاح‬ً‫ه‬ ‫العلمٌة‬ ‫الكتابة‬ ‫لكن‬ , ‫ع‬‫ر‬‫ض‬‫مباشرة‬ ‫و‬ ‫واضحة‬ ‫معلومات‬،‫و‬ ، ‫اآلن‬ ‫هو‬ ‫أٌن‬ ‫لها‬ ‫المطالع‬ ‫ٌعرف‬‫إ‬‫ل‬‫ى‬‫أ‬‫ذاهب‬ ‫هو‬ ‫ٌن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ربط‬ ‫أٌضا‬ ‫ٌتم‬ ‫و‬ ,‫أل‬.‫المتوقعة‬ ‫بالنتٌجة‬ ‫الموضوع‬ ‫وأجزاء‬ ‫حداث‬ ‫ب‬ ً‫ٌوص‬ ‫لذا‬‫أ‬‫األ‬ ‫الفقرة‬ ‫تكون‬ ‫ن‬‫من‬ ‫قسم‬ ‫كل‬ ‫من‬ ً‫ول‬‫أ‬‫عام‬ ‫بٌان‬ ‫فقرة‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫قسام‬ ‫اجمال‬ ‫فقرة‬ " ً‫وتسم‬ ‫لمحتوٌاته‬ ‫القارئ‬ ‫تهًء‬ , ‫القسم‬ ‫لهذا‬ ‫الفرعٌة‬ ‫للمكونات‬global paragraph"‫و‬‫األ‬ ‫الجملة‬ ‫تصاغ‬ ‫بان‬ ‫أٌضا‬ ‫ٌوصى‬ً‫ول‬‫م‬‫ن‬ً‫تعط‬ ‫بطرٌقة‬ ‫فقرة‬ ‫كل‬ ‫انطباع‬ ‫القارئ‬‫ا‬‫واضح‬‫ا‬‫الفقرة‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫محتوي‬ ‫عن‬،‫االفتتاحٌة‬ ‫الجملة‬ ‫هذه‬ ً‫وتسم‬" ‫بجملة‬ ‫الفقرة‬ ‫موضوع‬" Topic Sentence.. ‫و‬‫إ‬‫ع‬ ( ‫للفقرة‬ ‫التقلٌدٌة‬ ‫بالصورة‬ ‫التضحٌة‬ ‫ٌمكننا‬ ‫الوضوح‬ ‫و‬ ‫البساطة‬ ‫لقاعدة‬ ‫تباعا‬‫دة‬ ‫متتابعة‬ ‫جمل‬‫افقٌة‬ ‫بصورة‬‫نقطٌة‬ ‫قائمة‬ ‫صٌاغة‬ ‫و‬ )‫أ‬‫رقمٌة‬ ‫و‬‫أ‬‫جدولٌة‬ ‫و‬‫بصورة‬ ‫عمودٌة‬‫من‬ ‫قسم‬ ‫أي‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫المكتوب‬ ‫النص‬ ‫داخل‬‫أ‬‫البحث‬ ‫قسام‬.‫ا‬ ‫سردا‬ ‫أٌضا‬ ‫لٌست‬ ‫العلمٌة‬ ‫الكتابة‬ ‫و‬‫لكن‬ . ‫متباٌنة‬ ‫فقرات‬ ‫داخل‬ ‫متراصة‬ ‫لجمل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫البناء‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫الجمل‬ ‫بترابط‬ ‫الجٌدة‬ ‫الكتابة‬ ‫تتمٌز‬‫الجمل‬ ‫انسٌاب‬ ‫ومنطقٌة‬ , ‫سبق‬ ‫ما‬ ‫لى‬‫د‬‫ا‬‫خ‬‫ل‬ ‫الفقرات‬‫و‬‫ب‬ٌ‫ن‬‫أ‬‫قسام‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫ن‬‫ص‬‫بفضل‬ ‫ذلك‬ ‫ٌتحقق‬ ‫و‬ .‫إ‬‫الكلمات‬ ‫من‬ ‫مجموعة‬ ‫ستخدام‬ ‫تسمى‬ ً‫الت‬ ‫الخاصة‬ ‫والتعبٌرات‬‫الربط‬ ‫كلمات‬ "."‫االنسٌابٌة‬ ‫و‬ ‫التوجٌه‬ ‫و‬
  8. 8. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 8 Signpost Words / Connecting Words / Transition Words ‫و‬ ‫التنبٌه‬ ‫و‬ ‫الربط‬ ‫وكلمات‬:ً‫ٌل‬ ‫كما‬ ‫استخدامها‬ ‫غرض‬ ‫حسب‬ ‫تصنف‬ ، ‫االنسٌاب‬ ‫و‬ ‫التوجٌه‬ Emphasising a point Importantly, … Indeed, … In fact, … More importantly, … Furthermore, … Moreover, … It is also important to highlight Being more specific In particular, … In relation to … More specifically, … With respect to … Especially, … In terms of … Changing direction or creating a comparison However, … Rather, … In contrast, Conversely, … On one hand, … On the other hand, …In comparison, … Compared to … Another point to consider is … Acknowledging and moving to a different point Although … Even though … Despite … Notwithstanding … Contrast in contrast,…. although,….. however,… on the other hand,…. although,…. against this,…… on the contrary,.. Clarifying In other words, … Basically, … … namely, Giving an example For instance, … For example, … this can be illustrated by … Introducing parallels Simultaneously, … At the same time, … Equally, …
  9. 9. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 9 …, such asConcurrently, … Adding a similar point Similarly, …Likewise, … Also, … in addition, also, and, besides, finally, first, further, furthermore, last, moreover, second, too, next, indeed, in fact Mentioning a common point Traditionally, … Typically, … Conventionally, … Commonly, … Often, … Connection in time after a short time, afterwards, as long as, as soon as, at last, at that time, at the same time, before, earlier, immediately, lastly, lately, later, meanwhile, since, soon, temporarily, thereafter, until, when, while. Cause and Effect accordingly, as a result, consequently, hence, otherwise, therefore, thus; so, it can be seen that; it is evident that; because of this; this suggests that; it follows that; Summarising or Concluding in brief, in conclusion, in short, on the whole, to conclude, to summarise, to sum up, on the whole, on balance, it could be claimed, as a consequence of this; in the final analysis Finally, … Lastly, … In conclusion, … In summary, … Following a line of reasoning Therefore, … Hence, … Consequently, … Subsequently, … As a result, … Accordingly, … As a corollary, … As a consequence, … To this end, …
  10. 10. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 11 ‫العلمٌة‬ ‫الكتابة‬ ‫خصائص‬ Keep It Short and Simple (K.I.S.S) ‫العلمٌة‬ ‫الكتابة‬-‫التقنٌة‬ ‫و‬ ‫الحٌوٌة‬ ‫العلوم‬ ‫مجال‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫خاصة‬ ‫و‬-‫الرسالة‬ ‫تالئم‬ ‫السمات‬ ‫و‬ ‫الخصائص‬ ‫من‬ ‫بعدد‬ ‫تتسم‬ً‫الت‬ ‫تقٌٌمه‬ ‫و‬ ‫تفكٌره‬ ‫طرٌقة‬ ‫و‬ ً‫االكادٌم‬ ‫المجتمع‬ ‫سمات‬ ‫من‬ ‫الخصائص‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫تنبثق‬ ‫و‬ . ‫تستهدفه‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫الجمهور‬ ‫و‬ ‫تحملها‬ :ً‫ٌل‬ ‫ما‬ ‫سمات‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫أهم‬ ‫من‬ ‫و‬ . ‫للوقت‬ ‫تثمٌنه‬ ‫و‬ ‫لالشٌاء‬ Formal ‫رصٌنه‬ ‫رسمٌة‬ (e.g. avoiding slang, exclamation marks, contractions) Simple – ‫البساطة‬ ‫تلتزم‬‫جملها‬ ‫و‬ ‫كلماتها‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫المباشرة‬ ‫و‬ it uses direct language, avoiding vague or complicated sentences. Technical terms and jargon are used only when they are necessary for accuracy; Impartial – ‫العواطف‬ ‫عن‬ ‫تعبر‬ ‫ال‬ / ‫حٌادٌة‬‫و‬‫ال‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫م‬‫و‬‫ا‬‫ق‬‫ف‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫ش‬‫خ‬‫ص‬ٌ‫ة‬  it avoids making assumptions and unproven statements.  It presents how and where data were collected and supports its conclusions with evidence. Logically Structured –‫السرد‬ ‫منطقٌة‬ ideas and processes are expressed in a logical order. Objective – ‫االقصاء‬ ‫و‬ ‫الشخصٌة‬ ‫االهواء‬ ‫عن‬ ‫تبتعد‬ - ‫موضوعٌة‬  statements and ideas are supported by evidence.  demonstrates how conclusions have been drawn .  acknowledging the work of others.  using inclusive language. Accurate ‫الدقة‬ ‫تلتزم‬‫التحدٌد‬ ‫و‬  it avoids vague and ambiguous language such as about, approximately, almost; Responsibility ‫ا‬‫ل‬‫م‬‫س‬‫ؤ‬‫ل‬ٌ‫ة‬  Demonstrate an understanding of the source text.  Provide evidence and justification for, any claims you make.  This is done by paraphrasing , summarising and citation.
  11. 11. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 11 ‫الكتابة‬ ‫مهارات‬ ‫أ‬‫لتقنع‬ ‫و‬ ‫االهتمام‬ ‫لتثر‬ ‫كتب‬ ‫معلومة‬ ‫له‬ ‫تقدم‬ ‫و‬ ‫القارئ‬ Interest, inform, and persuade the reader ‫أ‬‫لنفسك‬ ‫ال‬ ‫لغٌرك‬ ‫كتب‬Write for your reader . ‫إ‬‫ا‬ ‫عن‬ ‫بتعد‬‫إل‬‫الحشو‬ ‫و‬ ‫طناب‬ Eliminate unnecessary redundancy ‫اإل‬ ‫تجنب‬‫الشرح‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫فراط‬ ‫االقناع‬ ‫و‬ ‫التقٌٌم‬ ‫و‬ Don't over explain and avoid overstatement ‫أ‬‫قصٌرة‬ ‫جمل‬ ‫كتب‬Use consistent tenses ‫إ‬‫كلمات‬ ‫ستخدم‬‫دقٌقة‬ ‫جمل‬ ‫و‬ ‫المعنى‬ ‫محددة‬ ‫و‬ Use the precise/simple words/sentences ‫إ‬‫ستخدم‬‫ص‬ٌ‫غ‬‫ة‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫ف‬‫ا‬‫ع‬‫ل‬Use the active voice . ‫إ‬‫االثبات‬ ‫أسلوب‬ ‫ستخدم‬ ً‫النف‬ ‫ال‬ Use affirmative rather than negative constructions ‫إ‬‫الربط‬ ‫كلمات‬ ‫ستخدم‬ ‫التوجٌه‬ ‫و‬ Use transitions ‫إ‬‫الكلمات‬ ‫عدد‬ ً‫ف‬ ‫قتصد‬ ‫التعبٌرات‬ ‫و‬ Economy of words . Cited References 1. http://www.uefap.com/index.htm 2. http://abacus.bates.edu/~ganderso/biology/resources/writing/HTWtoc.html
  12. 12. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 12 Editors’ and Reviewers’ Most Common Criticisms of Submitted Manuscripts Importance of the Topic  Repeat of established facts  Insignificant research question  Irrelevant or unimportant topic  Low reader interest  Little clinical relevance  Not generalizable Study Design  Poor experimental design  Vague/inadequate method description  Methods lack sufficient rigor  Failure to account for confounders  No control or improper control  No hypothesis  Biased protocol  Small sample size  Inappropriate statistical methods, or statistics not applied properly Overall Presentation of Study and Findings  Poor organization  Too long and verbose  Failure to communicate clearly  Poor grammar, syntax, or spelling  Excessively self-promotional  Poorly written abstract Interpretation of the Findings  Erroneous or unsupported conclusions  Conclusions disproportionate to results  Study design does not support inferences made  Inadequate link of findings to practice
  13. 13. WWW.SlideShare.net/AhmedRefat 13  Uncritical acceptance of statistical results  Failure to consider alternative explanations  Unexplained inconsistencies  Inflation of the importance of the findings  Interpretation not concordant with the data  Inadequate discussion (Adapted from Reference # 1.)  The Most Frequent Reasons for Manuscript Rejection 1. Inappropriate or incomplete statistics 2. Overinterpretation of results 3. Inappropriate or suboptimal instrumentation 4. Sample too small or biased 5. Text difficult to follow 6. Insufficient problem statement 7. Inaccurate or inconsistent data reported 8. Incomplete, inaccurate, or outdated review of the literature 9. Insufficient data presented 10. Defective tables or figures (Adapted from Reference # 2.) Reasons Why Manuscripts Are Not Published 10. Picking the wrong journal 9. Submitting a manuscript in a format that does not match what the Journal publishes 8. Not following the manuscript preparation instructions 7. Poor writing 6. Getting carried away in the discussion 5. Suboptimal reporting of the results 4. Inadequate description of the methods 3. Poor study design 2. Failure to revise and resubmit following peer review 1. Failure to submit a full manuscript after presenting the abstract. (Adapted from Reference #3.) 1. Byrne DW. Publishing your medical research paper. What they don’t teach in medical school. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998. 2. Bordage G. Reasons reviewers reject and accept manuscripts: the strengths and weaknesses in medical education reports. Acad Med 2001 76(9):889–896 3. Pierson DJ .The Top 10 Reasons Why Manuscripts Are Not Accepted for Publication. Respir Care 2004;49(10):1246 –1252.

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