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Master Program of Water and Environmental
Solid wastes Definition
Types of Solid Waste
Solid wastes composition
Health risks related to the inadequate management
of solid waste
Treatment and disposal of municipal waste
Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM)
Four Rs (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle, Reduce)
The environment in the present age is exposed to major
setbacks will change the chemical composition in most
systems in the sea and ocean, air and soil. Has left many
pollutants imprint on the environment, including solid waste,
which had the role of environmental disruption in many of the
elements of the environment.
Cause the accumulation of solid waste a lot of health problems
where garbage becomes a breeding ground for microbes and
insects like flies, mosquitoes and rats, cats and dogs, which
helps in the spread of the diseases that affect human health
and infrastructure in addition to the psychological and social
effects of the citizens .
Solid wastes Definition:
Solid waste is material, which is not in liquid form, and has no
.value to the person who is responsible for it
Synonyms to solid waste are terms such as “garbage”, “trash”,
“refuse” and “rubbish”.
Types of Solid Waste :
Solid waste can be classified into different types
depending on their source:
• Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste .
• Industrial waste as hazardous waste .
• Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste .
Segregation of waste :
1. Biodegradable and
1- Biodegradable waste include organic waste, e.g. kitchen
waste, vegetables, fruits, flowers, leaves from the garden, and
2- Nonbiodegradable waste can be further segregated into:
a) Recyclable waste – plastics, paper, glass, metal, etc.
b) Toxic waste – old medicines, paints, chemicals, bulbs, spray
cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish.
c) Soiled – hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and
other body fluids.
Toxic and soiled waste must be disposed of with utmost care.
Solid wastes composition:
Type of waste
There are different categories of waste
generated, each take their own time to
Type of litter
Approximate time it takes to
degenerate the litter
Organic waste such as vegetable
and fruit peels, leftover
a week or two.
Tin, aluminium, and other
metal items such as cans
one million years?
1) Municipal solid waste :
Municipal solid waste consists of household waste,
construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and
waste from streets.
This garbage is generated mainly from residential and
commercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change
in lifestyle and food habits .
2) Hazardous waste :
Industrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous as
they may contain toxic substance.
Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans,
animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable, or
explosive; and react when exposed to certain things e.g.
Household waste that can be categorized as hazardous
waste include old batteries, shoe polish, paint tins, old
medicines, and medicine bottles.
2. Hospital waste, contaminated by chemicals used in
hospitals is considered hazardous.
• These chemicals include formaldehyde and phenols,
which are used as disinfectants, and mercury, which is
used in thermometers or equipment that measure blood
3. In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous
waste are the metal, chemical, paper,
pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries.
Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste such as
mercury and cyanide can be fatal.
3) Hospital waste :
Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment,
or immunization of human beings or animals or in research
activities in these fields or in the production or testing of
It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables,
anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical
These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs,
bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc.
This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to
human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate
•Plastic with its exclusive qualities of being light yet strong
and economical, has invaded every aspect of our day-to-day
• It has many advantages: it is durable, light, easy to mould,
and can be adapted to different user requirements.
• Once hailed as a 'wonder material', plastic is now a serious
worldwide environmental and health concern, essentially
due to its nonbiodegradable nature.
• Plastics have use in all sectors of the economy
-infrastructure, construction, agriculture, consumer goods,
telecommunications, and packaging.
• Burning of plastics, especially PVC releases this dioxin
and also furan into the atmosphere.
• Thus, conventional plastics, right from their manufacture
to their disposal are a major problem to the environment.
Health risks related to the inadequate
management of solid waste :
Waste is a serious health hazard and lead to the spread of
infectious diseases. Unattended waste lying around attracts
flies, rats, and other that in turn spread disease.
Air pollution is another factor to be considered.
Sharp items such as needles and broken glass present a
further hazard to people walking through the area.
Wastes dumped along roads, riverbanks, abandoned quarries,
seas, and lakes results in the inevitable effect of contaminating
water supplies as well as the whole aquatic chain.
Normally it is the wet waste that decomposes and releases a
Other than this, co-disposal of industrial/ residential
hazardous waste with municipal waste can expose people to
chemical and radioactive hazards.
Uncollected solid waste can also obstruct storm water runoff,
resulting in the forming of stagnant water bodies that become
the breeding ground for disease causing agents.
Heaps of garbage present a fire risk and smoke can also be a
health hazard if the burning waste contains items such as
plastics or chemicals .
Treatment and disposal of municipal waste :
2. Open dumps
1) Composting :
• One of the oldest forms of disposal.
• It is the natural process of decomposition of
organic waste that yields manure or compost
organic matter constitutes 35%–40% of the
municipal solid waste generated .
•This waste can be recycled by the method of
composting,, which is very rich in nutrients.
• Composting is a biological process in which
micro-organisms, mainly fungi and bacteria,
convert degradable organic waste into humus
•This finished product, which looks like soil, is high in
carbon and nitrogen and is an excellent medium for
• The process of composting ensures the waste that is
produced in the kitchens is not carelessly thrown and left to
• It recycles the nutrients and returns them to the soil as
Composting - some benefits :
Compost allows the soil to retain more plant nutrients
over a longer period.
•It supplies part of the 16 essential elements needed by the plants.
•It helps reduce the adverse effects of excessive alkalinity,
acidity, or the excessive use of chemical fertilizer.
•It makes soil easier to cultivate.
•It helps keep the soil cool in summer and warm in winter.
•It aids in preventing soil erosion by keeping the soil covered.
•It helps in controlling the growth of weeds in the garden.
Extend life span
Two Birds With One Stone
Source: After Coad, 2000
& Landfilling cost
of Organic Waste
2) Open dumps :
•Open dumps refer to uncovered areas that are used to
dump solid waste of all kinds.
•The waste is untreated, uncovered, and not segregated.
• It is the breeding ground for flies, rats, and other
insects that spread disease.
•The rainwater run-off from these dumps contaminates
nearby land and water thereby spreading disease.
• In some countries, open dumps are being phased out.
3) Landfills :
Landfills are generally located in urban areas where a large
amount of waste is generated and has to be dumped in a
Unlike an open dump, it is a pit that is dug in the groun.
At the end of each day, a layer of soil is scattered on top of
it thus preventing the breeding of flies and rats and some
mechanism, is used to compress the garbage, which now
forms a cell.
After the landfill is full, the area is covered with a thick
layer of mud and the site can thereafter be developed as a
parking lot or a park.
• All types of waste is dumped in landfills .
•when water seeps through them it gets contaminated and
in turn pollutes the surrounding area.
•This contamination of groundwater and soil through
landfills is known as leaching.
Survey of Dump sites :
50 dunum with 20,000 ton of waste
Karamah st. : (4km along the street with 70,000 ton of waste)
Yarmuk: (5 dunum with 40,000 ton of waste)
Street #10: (100m along the street with 20,000 ton of waste)
Um Nasser: (8 dunums with 50,000 ton of waste)
Beit Lahia: (10 dunums with 50,000 ton of waste)
Beit Hanoun: (50 dunum).
4) Sanitary landfills :
•An to landfills which will solve the problem of leaching to
• is more hygienic and built in a methodical manner.
• These are lined with materials that are impermeable such as
plastics and clay, and are also built over impermeable soil.
•In some countries, the methane being produced from sanitary
landfills is tapped and sold as fuel.
•Constructing sanitary landfills is very costly.
• Some authorities claim that often the plastic liner
develops cracks as it reacts with various chemical
solvents present in the waste.
•The rate of decomposition in sanitary landfills is also
extremely variable, because less oxygen is available as
the garbage is compressed very tightly.
• It has also been observed that some biodegradable
materials do not decompose in a landfill.
•Another major problem is the development of
methane gas, which occurs when little oxygen is
5) Incineration plants :
•This process of burning waste
in large furnaces is known as incineration.
• In these plants the recyclable material
is segregated and the rest of the material is burnt.
• At the end of the process all that is left behind is ash. During
the process some of the ash floats out with the hot air, this is
called fly ash.
•Burning garbage is not a clean process as it produces tones of
toxic ash and pollutes the air and water.
• In fact, at present, incineration is kept as the last resort and is
used mainly for treating the infectious waste.
Gases emitted as a result of the operation of
(incinerators (eg Shifa Hospital incinerator
غاز ثاني أكسيد الكربون
أول أكسيد الكربون
مشتعل و أخف من
خانق أثقل من الهواء
روائح و سام
: Chronic diseases
, Incineration operators are at risk of chronic respiratory diseases
including cancers resulting from exposure to dust and hazardous
What is Solid Waste Management?
It includes all activities that seek to minimize the health,
environmental and aesthetic impacts of solid wastes.
Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM)
Is much more than a technological issue - it always
also involves institutional, social, legal, and financial
aspects and involves coordinating and managing a
large workforce and collaborating with many involved
stakeholders as well as the general public.
Challenges in Solid Waste Management :
•Inadequate service coverage and operational
inefficiencies of services,
•Limited utilization of recycling activities,
•Inadequate landfill disposal, and
•Inadequate management of hazardous
and healthcare waste.
Factors Influencing Solid Waste Management
1- Waste amount and composition
2- Awareness and attitudes
3- Institutions and legislation
Four Rs (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle, Reduce) to be
followed for waste management :
1. Refuse: Instead of buying new containers from the
market, use the ones that are in the house. Refuse to buy
new items though you may think they are prettier than the
ones you already have.
2. Reuse: Do not throw away the soft drink cans or the
bottles; cover them with homemade paper or paint on
them and use them as pencil stands or small vases.
3. Recycle: Use shopping bags made of cloth or jute, which
can be used over and over again. Segregate your waste to
make sure that it is collected and taken for recycling.
4. Reduce: Reduce the generation of unnecessary waste, e.g.
carry your own shopping bag when you go to the market and
put all your purchases directly into it.
Recycling and Reuse :involves the collection of used and
discarded materials processing these materials and making them
into new products .
Waste recycling has some significant advantages.
Leads to less utilization of raw materials.
Reduces environmental impacts arising from waste treatment
Makes the surroundings cleaner and healthier.
Saves on landfill space and money .
Reduces the amount of energy required to manufacture new
Municipal solid waste management for total
resource recycling: a case study on Haulien County
Chang YM, Liu CC, Dai WC, Hu A, Tseng CH, Chou CM.
Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of
Technology, Taipei, Taiwan.
This work presents the enforcement performance of recent Haulien County, Taiwan municipal solid
waste (MSW) recycling management programs. These programs include: Mandatory Refuse
Sorting and Recycling, Diverse Bulk Waste Reuse, Pay-as-you-Discharge, Total Food Waste
Recycling, Restricted Use on Plastic Shopping Bags & Plastic Tableware, Recycling Fund
Management, and Ash Reuse. These programs provide incentives to reduce the MSW quantity
growth rate. It was found that the recycled material fraction of MSW generated in 2001 was from
6.8%, but was 32.4% in 2010 and will increase stably by 2-5% yearly in the near future. Survey data
for the last few years show that only 2.68% (based on total MSW generated) of food waste was
collected in 2001. However, food waste was up to 9.7 % in 2010 after the Total Food Waste
Recycling program was implemented. The reutilization rate of bottom ash was 20% in 2005 and up
to 65% in 2010 owing to Ash Reuse Program enforcement. A quantified index, the Total Recycle
Index, was proposed to evaluate MSW management program performance. The demonstrated
county will move toward a zero waste society in 2015 if the Total Recycle Index approaches 1.00.
Exact management with available programs can lead to slow-growing waste volume and recovery
of all MSW.
Activated carbon treatment of municipal solid
waste incineration flue gas.
Lu S, Ji Y, Buekens A, Ma Z, Li X, Yan J.
State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
Activated carbon injection is widely used to control dioxins and mercury emissions.
Surprisingly little attention has been paid to its modelling. This paper proposes an
expansion of the classical Everaerts-Baeyens model, introducing the expression of
fraction of free adsorption sites, f(s), and asserting the significant contribution of fly ash
to dioxins removal. Moreover, the model monitors dioxins partitioning between vapour
and particulate phase, as well as removal efficiency for each congener separately. The
effects of the principal parameters affecting adsorption are analysed according to a
semi-analytical, semi-empirical model. These parameters include temperature, contact
time during entrained-flow, characteristics (grain-size, pore structure, specific surface
area) and dosage of activated carbon, lignite cokes or mineral adsorbent, fly ash
characteristics and concentration, and type of incinerator plant.
www.roanokeva.gov › ... › Solid Waste Management
Geology and Environment science at Islamic University of Gaza
"Removing food remains to reduce waste". Recycling-guide.org.uk
Prakriti, Centre for Management Studies, Dibrugarh University