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Intelligent building project report

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This is the project report on construction of an Intelligent building.

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Intelligent building project report

  1. 1. 1 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………....i Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………….. ii Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………… 1 Table of Figures…………………………………………………………………………...3 Abbreviations……………………………………………………………………………...4 1. Introduction .....................................................................................................................6 1.1 Definition……………………………………………………………………………..6 1.2 History………………………………………………………………………………...7 1.3 Overview……………………………………………………………………………...8 2. Construction process of building……………………………………………………….9 2.1 Sub Structure………………………………………………………………………….9 2.1.1 Raft Foundation…………………………………………………………………....9 2.2 Super Structure………………………………………………………………………10 3. Eco-friendly building materials………………………………………………………..11 3.1 Why Eco-Friendly material..………………………………………………………...11 3.2 Conventional Eco-Friendly materials………………………………………………..11 4. Building Automation…………………………………………………………………..12 5. Intelligent Building Systems..........................................................................................14 5.1 Controllers…………………………………………………………………………...14 5.2 Occupancy…………………………………………………………………………...14 5.3 Lighting……………………………………………………………………………...14 5.4 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning………………………………………….15 5.5 Elevators and Escalators……………………………………………………………..15
  2. 2. 2 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 5.6 Distributed Building Control…………………………………………………….....15 5.7 Intelligent Controllers………………………………………………………………16 6. Major Aspects of Intelligent Building .........................................................................17 6.1 Security……………………………………………………………………………..17 6.1.1 Access Control…………………………………………………………………...17 6.1.2 Finger Print Lock………………………………………………………………...19 6.1.3 Voice and Video Intercom……………………………………………………….19 6.1.4 Code Based Access System……………………………………………………...19 6.1.5 Swipe Card Access System……………………………………………………...19 6.1.6 Biometric Access System………………………………………………………..19 6.2 Life Safety and Surveillance……………………………………………………….20 6.2.1 Surveillance……………………………………………………………………...20 6.2.2 Safety…………………………………………………………………………….20 6.3 Telecommunication………………………………………………………………...21 6.3.1 Cabling…………………………………………………………………………..22 6.3.2 Consolidated Communication…………………………………………………...22 7. Management System ...................................................................................................24 7.1 Energy Management……………………………………………………………….24 7.1.1 Electrical Demand Control………………………………………………………24 7.1.2 Program Scheduling……………………………………………………………..25 8. Water management system…………………………………………………………...26 8.1 Rain Water Harvesting……………………………………………………………..26 8.2Water Efficient plumbing…………………………………………………………...26 8.3 Drainage System…………………………………………………………………...26 8.4 Water Recycling……………………………………………………………………27 9. Components of intelligent building…………………………………………………..28
  3. 3. 3 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 9.1 Landscaping……………………………………………………………………….28 9.2 Orientation………………………………………………………………………...28 9.3 Use of low embodied energy materials…………………………………………...29 10. Advantages and Disadvantages of Intelligent Building ..........................................30 11. Environmental Benefits of Intelligent Building ......................................................31 12. Economy Consideration ..........................................................................................31 13. Difference between Ordinary Building and Intelligent Building………………….32 14. Intelligent Building in India……………………………………………………….33 15. Future Direction of Intelligent Building…………………………………………..34 16. Challenges Facing Intelligent Building……………………………………………35 17. Lifespan of Intelligent Building…………………………………………………...36 18. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………....37 19. References…………………………………………………………………………38
  4. 4. 4 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: project view….……………………………………………………………………...8 Figure 2: Major aspects of intelligent building……………………………..………………..17 Figure 3: Components of intelligent building………………………………………………..19 Figure 4: Swipe Card Access System………………………………………………………..20 Figure 5: Fire alarm…………………………………………………………………………..21 Figure 6: NIIT Building in India……………………………………………………………..33
  5. 5. 5 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 ABBREVIATIONS 1. IB - Intelligent Building 2. LAN - Local Area Network 3. BAS - Building Automaton System 4. HVAC - Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning 5. UPS - Unlimited Power Supply 6. CAD - Computer Aided Design 7. IBMS - Intelligent Building Management System 8. PWAC - Present Worth of Annual Charge 9. NPV - Net Present Value
  6. 6. 6 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Definition An intelligent building is one that provides a productive and cost-effective environment through optimization of its four basic elements - structure, systems, services and management - and the interrelationships between them. Intelligent buildings help business owners, property managers and occupants to realize their goals in the areas of cost, comfort, convenience, safety, long-term flexibility and marketability. Intelligent Buildings are equipped with robust telecommunication infrastructure, allowing for more efficient use of resources and increasing the comfort and security of its occupants. 1.2 History The Intelligent Building concept surfaced in the early 1980’s and generally advocated extensive use of elaborate centralized electronic systems to facilitate control of building support and communication systems for voice and data. The initial concept promoted communication networks to allow centralized word processing services and limited interaction between individual occupants and the Building Automation System. Builders and owners were pressured to develop intelligent buildings, in spite of high premium costs, at that time, for prestige reasons and for enhanced rental potential. The Building Automation System and the Communication System industry as well as other specialized interest group soon developed specific products and applications to meet and facilitate the implementation of Intelligent Building Concept. The high technology concept of intelligent building systems was introduced in United States. The IB concept is now well developed and applied in Europe, Asia and North America. 1.3 Overview The following attributes indicates the need for various technology and management systems. The successful integration of these systems will produce three dimensions of building intelligence.
  7. 7. 7 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 1. Building should know what is happening inside and immediately outside. 2. Building should decide the most effective way of providing a convenient, comfortable and productive environment for its occupants. 3. Building should respond as quickly as possible to the occupant’s requests. Most intelligent-building systems are characterized by: 1. Standardized building wiring systems that permit full building control over a single Infra structure. 2. Higher building value and leasing potential via increased individual environmental control. 3. Consumption costs that are managed through zone control on a time-of-day schedule. 4. Tenant control over building systems via computer or telephone interface. 5. Comprehensive tracking of tenant after-hour use for chargeback purposes. 6. A single human-resources interface that modifies telephone, security, parking, local-area. network, wireless devices, building directories, etc. Three Dimensions of Intelligent Building: 1. Building Automation System Building Automation System enables the building to respond to external factors and conditions (like climatic variations, fire etc.), simultaneous sensing, control and monitoring of the internal environment and the storage of the data generated. 2. Office Automation System and Local Area Network It provides management information and decision support aids with link to the central computer system. 3. Advanced Telecommunication It enables rapid communication with outside world, via the central computer system using optical fiber installations, microwave and conventional satellite links. Increasingly, intelligent-building technologies are noted for their capacity to concurrently carry both a tenant's voice and data communications over the same wiring infrastructure that carries building control data. Many industry insiders say that an intelligent building should have high speed wiring, real-time
  8. 8. 8 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 communications, real-time information, real-time services, and real-time integration. Generally, an intelligent building also should be flexible.
  9. 9. 9 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 2.CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF BUILDING A building has two basic parts: (i) Substructure or foundations, and (ii) Superstructure. Sub-structure or Foundation is the lower portion of the building, usually located below the ground level, which transmits the loads of the super-structure to the supporting soil. A foundation is therefore that part of the structure which is in direct contact with the ground to which the loads are transmitted. Super-structure is that part of the structure which is above ground level, and which serves the purpose of its intended use. A part of the super-structure, located between the ground level and (he floor level is known as plinth. Plinth is therefore defined as the portion of the structure between the surface of the surrounding ground and surface of the floor, immediately above the ground. The level of the floor is usuatly known as the plinth level The built-up covered area measured al ihe floor level is known as plinth area. 2.1 Sub structure 2.1.1 Raft foundation :- Raft foundation slab generally covers entire contact area of structure like a floor and foundation slab projects 30 cm to 45 cm distance from outer wall/basement wall of the structure towards all sides. But when property line merges with basement wall, the projections are sometimes avoided. excavation protection for raft foundation slab with steel arrangement. If the bearing area exceeds the above defined area, the projection may be changed and depending on the eccentricity due to lateral load moment and unsymmetrical axial loads on column and shear wall the symmetry of projection may be changed. The excavation is done around the area defined above
  10. 10. 10 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 to designed depth and necessary protections are taken to excavation related hazard and to give safety to neighbor buildings. steel arrangement for inverted beam in raft foundation slab. The excavated area is well consolidated and if required necessary treatment is applied to soil to achieve desired bearing capacity depending on soil investigation data. The consolidated and treated surface is the base upon which raft slab will cast. In case of inverted foundation beams (both main and secondary beams) as discussed in previous post, the beams are cast after the slab with necessary precaution to provide construction joints. Further continuation is commenced after the proper curing of the raft slab and beams. 2.2 Super structure  Frame: Loadbearing framework. Main floor and roof beams, ties and roof trusses of framed buildings; casing to stanchions and beams for structural or protective purposes.  Upper floors: Suspended floors over, or in basements, service floors, balconies, sloping floors, walkways and top landings, where part of the floor rather than part of the staircase.  Roof: Roof structure, roof coverings, roof drainage, rooflights and roof features.  Stair and ramps: Construction of ramps, stairs, ladders, etc. connecting floors at different levels.  External walls: External enclosing walls including walls to basements but excluding walls to basements designed as retaining walls.  Windows, doors and openings in external walls.  Internal walls, partitions, balustrades, moveable room dividers, cubicles and the like.  Doors, hatches and other openings in internal walls and partitions.
  11. 11. 11 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 3. ECO-FRIENDLY BUILDING MATERIALS Today many people that are building or remodeling their houses choose to use eco-friendly building materials. An eco-friendly building material is one that increases the efficiency of energy used and reduces impact on human well-being and the environment. There are many different materials that can be used that are eco-friendly; from foundation, to insulation, to interior and exterior wall finishes, flooring, and countertop materials. 3.1 Why eco-friendly materials? · Phenomenal growth in the construction industry that depends upon depletable resources. · Production of building materials leads to irreversible environmental impacts. · Using eco-friendly materials is the best way to build a eco-friendly building. Stone quarrying leads to eroded hills, like this picture showing the site of makarana marble quarry, brick kilns in the fringes of the city lead to denudation of topsoil, dredging for sand damage the river biodiversity etc. 3.2 Conventional Eco-friendly materials 1. Bamboo, Bamboo Based Particle Board & Ply Board, Bamboo Matting 2. Bricks sun dried 3. Pre-cast cement concrete blocks, lintels, slab. Structural and non-structural modular elements 4. Calcined Phospho-Gypsum Wall Panels 5. Calcium silicate boards and Tiles 6. Cellular Light Weight Concrete Blocks 7. Cement Paint 8. Clay roofing tiles
  12. 12. 12 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 9. Water, polyurethane and acrylic based chemical admixtures for corrosion removal, rust prevention, water proofing 10. Epoxy Resin System, Flooring, sealants, adhesives and admixtures 11. Ferro-cement boards for door and window shutters 12. Ferro-cement Roofing Channels 13. Fly-ash Sand Lime Bricks and Paver Blocks 14. Gypsum Board, Tiles, Plaster, Blocks, gypsum plaster fibre jute/sisal and glass fibre composites 15. Laminated Wood Plastic Components 16. Marble Mosaic Tiles 17. MDF Boards and Mouldings 18. Micro Concrete Roofing Tiles 19. Particle Boards 20. Polymerised water proof compound 21. Polymerised water proof compound 22. Portland Pozzolana Cement Fly-ash / Calcinated Clay Based 23. Portland Slag Cement 24. RCC Door Frames 25. Ready Mix Cement Concrete 26. Rubber Wood Finger Joint Board 27. Stone dust 28. Water proof compound, adhesive, Polymer, Powder
  13. 13. 13 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 4. BUILDING AUTOMATION Building Automation describes the functionality provided by the control system of a building. A building automaton system (BAS) is an example a distributed control system. The control system is a computerized, intelligent network of electronic devices, designed to monitor and control the mechanical and lighting systems in building. BAS core functionality keeps the building climate within a specified range, provides lighting based on the occupancy schedule, and monitors system performance and device failures and provides email and/or text notifications to building engineering staff. The BAS functionality reduces building energy and maintenance costs when compared to a non-controlled building. A building controlled by a BAS is often referred to as an intelligent building system. Most building automation networks consists of a primary and secondary bus which connect high level controllers with low lower-level controllers, input/output devices and the user interface (also known as a human I interface device). Most controller are proprietary. Each company has its own controllers for the specific applications. Some are designed with limited controls: for example, a simple Packaged Roof Top Unit. Others are designed to be flexible. Inputs and outputs are either analog or digital. A digital input indicates if a device is turned on or not. Some examples of a digital input would be a 24VDC/AC signal, an air flow switch, or a volt-free relay contact. Digital outputs are used to open and close relays and switches. An example would be to turn on the parking lot lights when a photocell indicates it is dark outside .
  14. 14. 14 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 5. INTELLIGENT BUILDING SYSTEMS 5.1 Controllers Controllers are essentially small, purpose-built computers with input and output capabilities. These controllers come in range of sizes and capabilities to control devices commonly found in buildings, and to control sub-networks of controllers. Inputs allow a controller to read temperatures, humidity, pressure, current flow, air flow, and other essential factors. The outputs allow the computers to send command and control signals to slave devices, and to other parts of the system. Inputs and outputs can be either digital or analog. Digital outputs are also sometimes called discrete depending on manufacture. 5.2 Occupancy Occupancy is one of two or more operating modes for a building automation system. Unoccupied, Morning Warm-up, and Night-time Setback are other common modes. Occupancy is usually based on time of day schedules. In occupancy mode, the BAS aims to provide a comfortable climate and adequate lighting, often with zone-based control so that users on one side of a building have a different thermostat than users on the opposite side. Some buildings rely on occupancy sensors to activate lighting and/or climate conditioning. Given the potential for long lead times before a space becomes sufficiently cool or warm, climate conditioning is not often initiated directly by an occupancy sensors . 5.3 Lighting Lighting can be turned on and off with BAS based on time of day, or on occupancy sensors, photo sensors and timers. One typical example is to turn the lights in a space on for a half hour since the last motion was sensed. A photocell placed outside a building can sense darkness, and the time of day, and modulate lights in outer offices and the parking lot.
  15. 15. 15 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 5.4 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, and Indoor Air Quality HVAC systems are generally controlled by building automation systems that can: humidity, temperature and air flow speeds; and 5.5 Elevators and Escalators Intelligent building systems can provide occupants with improved elevator service. Elevator control can be quite complex, particularly with multiple elevator groupings and incorporating traffic patterns into the system. Some elevators may be shut down for part of the day to conserve energy. Current designs frequently include communications within the elevators to permit the use of access control cards, and closed circuit surveillance is becoming widespread. An effective access control system can permit dynamic changes to user privileges so that, for example, certain floors may not be accessible even with an approved access control card, unless there are already people occupying that floor. Escalators can save energy by slowing down or stopping when detectors indicate no traffic. This approach to energy savings also benefits the mechanical components that need not run continuously. 5.6 Distributed Building Control Distributed controllers can provide total building automation. These devices, which communicate using a dedicated network, allow the use of standard access control, intrusion monitoring and surveillance devices, and can include multiple switched inputs and outputs, analog and digital input and output controls. The communications network can interact seamlessly with associated video and audio switches, allowing the operator screens to be used to select and control many different device types. The primary benefit of a distributed control system is the ability of individual controllers to continue functioning when some elements of the
  16. 16. 16 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 network or main computer fail. These controllers often interact with audio and video switches and other building management systems. 5.7 Intelligent Controllers As processors and memory are built into the controllers activating HVAC and other building systems, there are opportunities to provide closed loop control. In traditional controllers, no response confirms that the requested action has occurred, e.g., if the room needs heat and warm air is called for, it is assumed that the baffle has acted as required, which is not always true. Intelligent controllers would confirm the success or failure of the baffle movement, closing the information loop. The intelligent controller can perform self-diagnostics and report potential failures sometimes before they occur, e.g., the controller can report that the actuator needed to move multiple times before the baffle achieved the desired position, indicating a mechanical malfunction. These controllers also function in a degraded manner if the communications link fails. Intelligent controllers may be applicable to any of the systems contained in, and controlled by, an intelligent building system and can report status information to the central control system. The same approach also allows periodic diagnostic cycles in order to perform directed maintenance.
  17. 17. 17 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 6. MAJOR ASPECTS OF INTELLIGENT BUILDING 6.1 Security The security system includes controlling access, surveillance and communication. 6.1.1 Access control Access control restricts how and when people enter and/or exit an area. Your particular needs will determine how that is accomplished. Access Control Systems allow people or vehicles into a restricted area via identification through coded keys, magnetic cards, or biometric readers such as hand, face, voice, finger or retina readers. These systems are used in many businesses, hotels and apartment complexes. 6.1.1.1 Common Features of Access Control 1.Limit Access
  18. 18. 18 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 Systems can be programmed to allow certain users to enter specific areas only at certain times. Other users can be allowed to enter all locations at all times. 2. Automating Systems can automatically lock a door or gate each evening at a certain time and unlock it automatically at another time. 6.1.1.2 Working of an Access Control 1. First a barrier is needed to prevent someone from entering or exiting, such as a locked door or gate. 2. Next a way is needed to determine who is trying to enter. 3. A credential reader is used to read the information on a key or card, to register a combination of numbers entered on a pad or to identify some characteristic that the user has, such as a fingerprint the shape of a hand, a pattern in the eye, etc. 4. This identifier is sent to a controller that has stored a record of those identifiers that are authorized to enter the area. 5. If the credential holder is authorized the controller unlocks the gate or door and the credential holder is allowed to enter. 6. In many systems a record of all authorized and unauthorized credentials is stored in the system for future reference.
  19. 19. 19 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 6.1.2 Finger Print Lock Finger Print Lock is easy and simple to install. It is unlocked by fingerprint or code. It can store up to one hundred fifty finger prints. 6.1.3 Voice and Video Intercom This type of access control is most commonly used in blocks of flats or apartments, where access to the front door needs to be controlled remotely. Communication between the internal phone and the outside speaker is established, before authorization to enter is granted. 6.1.4 Code Based Access System A secure pin code entered onto a touch screen is required, before Access to a controlled area is provided 6.1.5 Swipe Card Access System Swipe Card Access System allows entrance to a secured area, through the "swiping" of a preprogrammed card with magnetic strip through a reader. 6.1.6 Biometric Access System The newest technology in access control, biometric systems verify a person's identity, by unique physical characteristics, such as a fingerprint or retina.
  20. 20. 20 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 6.2 Life Safety and Surveillance Intelligence with respect to life safety in an intelligent building consists of the use of high technology to maximize the performance of fire alarm and security systems while at the same time minimizing costs. Life safety factors involved in intelligent buildings include: -circuit television, Many BAS have alarm capabilities. If an alarm is detected, it can be programmed to notify someone. Notification can be through a compute, pager, cellular phone, or audible alarm. Security systems can be interlocked to a building automation system. If occupancy sensors are present, they can also be used as burglar alarms. Fire and smoke alarm systems can be hard wired to override building automation. For example: if the smoke alarm is activated, all the outside air dampers close to prevent air coming into building, and an exhaust system can isolate the alarmed area and activate and activate the exhaust fan to move smoke out of area. Life safety applications are normally hard-wired to a mechanical device to override building automation control. 6.2.1 Surveillance Surveillance helps in monitoring movement within and outside a building and its periphery through camera (Closed-Circuit Television Camera) or perimeter devices like intrusion alarms. Also helps in alerting the security manager, in case of violation of pre-set norms.
  21. 21. 21 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 6.2.2 Safety Life safety systems, often called “fire systems”, are typically driven by code considerations. Security systems are required to release doors per code constraints under emergency conditions. HVAC systems are also driven by life safety needs, e.g., smoke extraction, stairwell pressurization and elevator recall. This system deals with the Fire Alarm System, the Emergency Lighting, the Egress Lighting System and the Smoke Evacuation System. Fire protection system pumps water to the areas where the fire occurs, so as to douse it automatically through sprinkler bulbs and also manually through the fire brigade. Sufficient water pressure should be maintained throughout. Early warning systems like smoke detection systems, detects the fire at a very early stage and pinpoint to the caretaker where exactly it is occurring, so that the fire is extinguished locally through manual fire extinguishers. 6.3 Tele Communication Intelligence with respect to telecommunications in an intelligent building consists of the offering to tenants of many sophisticated telecom features at a considerably reduced cost due to the fact that the equipment is shared by many users. Some of the telecom features involved in intelligent buildings are: n, -visual and video-conferencing,
  22. 22. 22 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 Telecommunication Systems and Office Automation Systems like the UPS and the Public Address system provides the required support in the event of security violation or fire. 6.3.1 Cabling Separate cabling within a building is typically provided for each system requiring communications interaction, i.e., separate cables are provided for telephones, local area networks, building automation, fire systems and elevator controls, depending on the systems in the structure. The cabling required for intelligent building technologies applications should, to the extent possible, adhere to a number of basic criteria for integration. In the future, individual cables will not be needed because the communications systems will be integrated. Most integrated cable systems will: aceway or communications tray; readily be interconnected as required; le, so applications and cables are interchangeable over the lifetime of the building; mended by Telecommunications. 6.3.2 Consolidated Communications The concept of consolidated communications addresses the provision of a single communications backbone throughout a building that uses intelligent building technologies. With a single backbone, all communications requirements for the needs of the users and of the building can be co-located. The resulting single communications path will be smaller and much less costly than the aggregate of individual paths that would otherwise be needed, and ensures that spare capacity can be consolidated between all applications. This single, consolidated
  23. 23. 23 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 communications infrastructure will also use a limited number of different cable types. The need for specialized wiring types is applicable only to special applications. If all systems use the same wiring, spare capacity can be shared among all systems. In some cases, several signals will be consolidated on a single cable. In other situations, individual cables of the same type will each carry a single signal. Multiplex allows multiple signals to travel on a single communications link. This approach is far more cost and service effective when most data are digital packets on a single network. Whether the backbone is a single cable or a group of cables will vary from project to project. A key aspect is the association with the communications rooms. These strategically located rooms must have sufficient space and services to securely accommodate communications equipment. This equipment will then bridge and link the distribution network feeding the end users and the consolidated backbone infrastructure of the building.
  24. 24. 24 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 7. MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Energy-effective systems balance a building's electric light, daylight and mechanical systems for maximum benefit. Adding daylight to a building is one way to achieve an energy effective design. And with the reduced need for electric light, a great deal of money can be saved on energy. A number of facility management programs are available. They vary in complexity as well as in their ability to integrate complex systems such as: 1. CAD drawing records of floor and office layouts 2. Furniture inventory 3. Maintenance management program 4. Preventive maintenance of building structures 5. Real time data acquisition on equipment run time 6. Dynamic energy consumption total per tenant 7. Historical data storage 8. Cost control and budgetting capabilities 7.1 Energy Management: Energy management forms an integral part of the Intelligent Building and should be built to allow Real Time and dynamic interaction with the energy consuming elements of the building. 7.1.1 Electrical Demand Control No energy management program can be effective unless critical energy consuming areas are monitored individually and allow the energy management program the required intervention capabilities such as turning equipment on/off or limiting its capacity where possible through electrical load shedding or load stabilization routines.
  25. 25. 25 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 7.1.2 Program Scheduling The ability to schedule operation of any significant energy consuming equipment on the basis of season, occupancy load, time of day, statutory holidays, daytime natural light visibility, etc is possibly the most significant energy saving feature to incorporate in the building.
  26. 26. 26 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 8. WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 8.1 Rain water harvesting Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse on-site, rather than allowing it to run off. Rainwater can be collected from rivers or roofs, and in many places the water collected is redirected to a deep pit (well, shaft, or borehole), a reservoir with percolation, or collected from dew or fog with nets or other tools. Its uses include water for gardens, livestock, irrigation, domestic use with proper treatment, and indoor heating for houses etc. The harvested water can also be used as drinking water, longer-term storage and for other purposes such as groundwater recharge. 8.2 Water efficient plumbing Reducing indoor water use in residences and businesses can be accomplished through water- efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures. Generally, the standards impose a maximum on the amount of water used per flush by toilets and urinals and per minute by faucets and showerheads. In the United States, these amounts or flow rates are described as gallon per flush (gpf) or gallon per minute (gpm). Efficiency standards also typically leave it to fixture manufacturers to meet these goals without compromising performance. The standards can also apply to the sale and installation of plumbing fixtures in addition to their manufacture. Today, nine states have their own mandatory standards for plumbing fixtures while others are using financial incentives, community planning efforts, and water conservation requirements for public buildings to promote the adoption of efficient fixtures. 8.3 Drainage System Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from an area. The internal drainage of most agricultural soils is good enough to prevent
  27. 27. 27 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 severe waterlogging (anaerobic conditions that harm root growth), but many soils need artificial drainage to improve production or to manage water supplies. 8.4 Water recycling Most buildings use municipal drinking water for all uses, but many applications (such as irrigation, toilet flushing, decorative fountains) do not require it. Wastewater recycling is the reuse of water after it is no longer potable.
  28. 28. 28 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 9. COMPONENTS OF INTELLIGENT BUILDING 9.1 Landscaping Energy-efficient landscaping is a type of landscaping designed for the purpose of conserving energy. There is a distinction between the embedded energy of materials and constructing the landscape, and the energy consumed by the maintenance and operations of a landscape. Design techniques include:  Planting trees for the purpose of providing shade, which reduces cooling costs.  Planting or building windbreaks to slow winds near buildings, which reduces heat loss.  Wall sheltering, where shrubbery or vines are used to create a windbreak directly against a wall.  Earth sheltering and positioning buildings to take advantage of natural landforms as windbreaks.  Green roofs that cool buildings with extra thermal mass and evapotranspiration.  Reducing the heat island effect with pervious paving, high albedo paving, shade, and minimizing paved areas.  Site lighting with full cut off fixtures, light level sensors, and high efficiency fixtures 9.2 Orientation In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it does not involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices. The key to design a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate performing an accurate site analysis. Elements to be considered include window placement and size, and glazing type, thermal insulation, thermal mass, and shading.
  29. 29. 29 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 9.3 Use of low embodied energy materials Embodied energy is the sum of all the energy required to produce any goods or services, considered as if that energy was incorporated or 'embodied' in the product itself. The concept can be useful in determining the effectiveness of energy-producing or energy-saving devices, or the "real" replacement cost of a building, and, because energy-inputs usually entail greenhouse gas emissions, in deciding whether a product contributes to or mitigates global warming. One fundamental purpose for measuring this quantity is to compare the amount of energy produced or saved by the product in question to the amount of energy consumed in producing it. Embodied energy is an accounting method which aims to find the sum total of the energy necessary for an entire product life-cycle. Determining what constitutes this life-cycle includes assessing the relevance and extent of energy into raw material extraction, transport, manufacture, assembly, installation, disassembly, deconstruction and/or decomposition as well as human and secondary resources. Different methodologies produce different understandings of the scale and scope of application and the type of energy embodied.
  30. 30. 30 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 10. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS The Intelligent Building has following advantages: 1. Higher level of security and safety 2. Simplified operation for users and administrators 3. Simpler staff tracking 4. Reduced administration costs 5. Smartcards-single card for security and cash transactions 6. Reduced system costs by sharing infrastructure 7. Easier integration into university systems 8. Information can be delivered to all the interested parties in the manner they need 9. Increased mobility-not tied to a specialist workstation 10. Training is minimised, use standard operating environments. The Intelligent Building has following disadvantages: 1. Increased complexity of system 2. Very high initial cost 3. Normal building last longer than intelligent building.
  31. 31. 31 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 11. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF INTELLIGENT BUILDING An intelligent building starts with an environmentally friendly design. It creates a project that is environmentally friendly and energy efficient ties in closely with many of the intelligent attributes. Intelligent buildings are designed for long-term sustainability and minimal environmental impact through the selection of recycled and recyclable materials, construction, maintenance and operations procedures. Providing the ability to integrate building controls, optimize operations, and enterprise level management results in a significant enhancement in energy efficiency, lowering both cost and energy usage compared to non-intelligent projects. The benefits of an intelligent building potentially include energy savings, reducing the cost of changing occupancy and configuration (churn), maintaining a comfortable, safe and secure environment, and improving user productivity. ...Intelligent buildings may also be referred to as smart buildings. 12. ECONOMY CONSIDERATION Creating an intelligent building does require an investment in advanced technology, processes, and solutions. An upfront investment is required to realize a significant return later on. It is unrealistic to expect to make a project intelligent unless there is early buy in on investment. One of the challenges is to educate owners on the benefits of an intelligent building design. This makes the education of both owners and architects about the benefits of intelligent solutions critical for success.
  32. 32. 32 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 13. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORDINARY BUILDING AND INTELLIGENT BUILDING Intelligent building adjusts the inside functional aspects such as lighting, ventilation, air conditioning, etc. automatically with the changes in environmental conditions controlled by computer. In ordinary building there will be different room conditions depending on the changes in the environmental conditions. While planning an intelligent building, a Building service engineer, an Architect & Hardware Engineer is required, but in case of ordinary building, a Building service engineer and an Architect is enough. In an Intelligent Building, the security system, communication system, etc. are coordinated and automatically controlled by computer work station. The cost of construction of Intelligent Building is very high as compared to an ordinary building. The development cost of an Intelligent Building is 8 - 10% higher than that of an ordinary building. But this can be justified by the resulting energy saving, which is only 25 – 35% of energy required by normal building.
  33. 33. 33 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 14. INTELLIGENT BUILDING IN INDIA The need for Intelligent Buildings rose with the emergence of the IT sector. IT firms need uninterrupted working environment for 365 days a year. Some kind of round the clock monitoring is also necessary. Techno-campus of Cognizant Technology Solutions, Thoraipakkam on old Mamallapuram road is one of the Intelligent Buildings in India. It took 14 months to evolve a fully integrated design plan and arrive at the IBMS solution that covers security, safety and automation, and since January 2004 the concept has been functional in the 400,000-sqft complex. Some of the features of Intelligent Building Management System in Cognizant are: 1. Smoke detection systems 2. Bio metric finger scanning systems 3. 73 CCTV cameras 4. Control of HVAC 5. Control of water levels in overhead tanks 6. Automatic lighting control
  34. 34. 34 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 15. FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF INTELLIGENT BUILDING The most successful intelligent buildings indicate that the greatest advantages come from integrating communications and ensuring that the traditional systems have the ability to intercommunicate and interoperate. A single operator interface must recognize status and control information of all available systems. The primary benefit comes from the shared space, infrastructure and operating staff. Current trends to work from home encourage remote interaction with building communications and services. These trends are being influenced by technologies and the current market situation. Construction methods and technologies are breaking down some conventional barriers. Increasing concern with environmental impacts and with security needs are market forces that influence intelligent buildings functionality. Intelligent buildings depend on the increasing reliability of secure and resilient communication infrastructures. Mobile telephones are well established, encouraging mobile communications in many other forms. This technology has value for in-building applications. For the occupants/tenants and the operators, these technologies yield substantial efficiencies. These evolving concepts will lead to intelligent building technologies that are not yet on the drawing board. Creating intelligent source-efficient building in all its subsystems determines the path of sustainable living on earth.
  35. 35. 35 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 16.CHALLENGES FACING INTELLIGENT BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES Challenges to the widespread introduction of intelligent building technologies arise from many diverse considerations. A significant consideration is always the financial impact, including capital costs, expense costs and revenue. Good business practice requires that financial implications must be correctly assessed, taking into consideration the time value of money and the effect of taxation. Low initial costs are attractive to developers, while the owners/operators and occupants/tenants are more interested in long term operational costs. Intelligent building technologies offer significant opportunities to generate increased revenue. Intelligent buildings offer more value, hence sell and/or rent for higher prices and/or more rapidly. Financial decisions based on the comparison of alternative plans of action that consider only initial cost will inevitably be wrong. If the revenue stream of the alternatives is the same, then revenue can be ignored and the continuing expenses can be factored in using the metric present worth of annual charges (PWAC). If the alternatives are expected to generate different amounts of revenue, which will generally be the case when intelligent building technology applications are under consideration, the correct metric is net present value (NPV). The initial cost must, of course, be considered, but should only be the deciding factor when the correct metrics for the comparison of alternatives, (PWAC where expected revenue is uniform and NPV where expected revenue varies) are the same or very close.
  36. 36. 36 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 17. LIFE SPAN OF INTELLIGENT BUILDING The evolution of electronic technology is moving rapidly, with lifespans and life-cycle times in the range of five to ten years. Buildings typically have a lifespan between major refits of approximately 25 years, or two to three technology cycles [4]. A significant advantage of intelligent building technologies is the ability to upgrade the electronics while continuing to use the cabling that is already in place. Equipment and system vendors have an opportunity to design graceful growth into their product evolution plans; to enable their products that are in service to be upgraded to add the most recently introduced features and functions. Building automation depends on many systems and components. Existing solutions will continue to function with the current implementation and capabilities, when newer products in the market place have displaced the installed product.
  37. 37. 37 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 18. CONCLUSION The Intelligent Building is clearly the building of the future. The goal of having an intelligent building only starts with early planning in the design stage. In many ways, this mirrors the design and fulfillment of many green projects today, but it uses technology to provide for a superior space. The intelligent building uses eco-friendly construction materials with proper water management system provided. In the intelligent building, proper orientation and landscaping is provided. There are enormous benefits to be gained by creating intelligent buildings. By supporting the tenants in as many services as possible the building owners also gain from the profits realized from these services and tenants profit from the discounts to be had on their end as well. Reduced energy costs are seen as a major benefit of intelligent building technologies equated to HVAC. However, other benefits, e.g., reduced staff levels and improved occupant satisfaction, are often overlooked. The degree of confidence in intelligent building technologies is inadequate largely because of a lack of awareness and understanding of its value. There is a lack of properly assessable intelligent building technology reference projects. Intelligent building technologies are generally available, but not yet widely adopted and many changes and initiatives are needed for use of these technologies to become widespread.
  38. 38. 38 AIETM/CE/2016-2017 19. REFERENCES 1. www.Google.com 2. www.Youtube.com 3. www.wikipedia.com 4. Books on building construction 5. Amatya S., “Intelligent Building Research, A Review”, Automation in Construction 14(2005)

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