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Soft Skills 2011 Secretariat of the House of Federation .ppt

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Soft Skills 2011 Secretariat of the House of Federation .ppt

  1. 1. EMI Welcome! 1
  2. 2. Good Morning 2
  3. 3. EMI Training on Attitudinal Change and Team Building for Employees of Secretariat of the House of Federation April 20 & 21/2019 3
  4. 4. EMI Introduction 1. Name 2. Educational background 3. Work experience 4. What you like most 5. What you hate most 6. Future plan 7. What you would like to see in this training 8. Your experience in soft skills 4
  5. 5. EMI Facilitator: Temesgen Dagne (Ph.D., MBA, Mcom, PGDHRM, PGDIM, PGDIBO, DIM, BSc, AFP, CPMS, CLM) Lecturer, Researcher and Consultant 5
  6. 6. Training Ground rules  This is a training and is designed to be informal, however: 1. Respect others and their opinions; give them the space to successfully learn and grow. 2. Turn those phones off and put your beepers on vibrate – PLEASE? 3. Resist those that are trying to summon you until the break. 6
  7. 7. Training Rules 4. Ask questions anytime! 5. Bring good mood! 7
  8. 8.  Day 2: xxxx Reporter 8
  9. 9. 1. Xxx Energy Team 9
  10. 10. Responsibilities  Coordinator and Time Manager: xxx 10
  11. 11. EMI Objectives of the Training Upon completion of this training, the trainees are able to:  Understand the concepts of ethics and work ethics,  Understand emotional intelligence,  Describe the concept behind professionalism,  Explain critical thinking,  Explain employee commitment,  Explain employee attitude,  Appreciate teamwork and team building. 11
  12. 12. EMI Contents  Introduction to Soft Skills  Work Ethics  Emotional intelligence  Attitude  Critical Thinking  Commitment  Team building 12
  13. 13. 1. Presentation of concepts 2. Questions, Exercises and Reflections 3. Brainstorming 4. Group discussions 5. Group presentations 13
  14. 14. 1. Introduction to Soft Skills 14
  15. 15. 18th Century 19th Century 20th Century 21st Century Agricultural Age (farmers) Industrial Age (factory workers) Information Age (knowledge workers) Conceptual Age (creators and empathizers) Affluence Technology Globalization High Low 15
  16. 16. Soft Skills: Defined  Soft skills refer to a cluster of personal qualities, habits, attitudes and social graces that make someone a good employee and compatible to work with.  Skills, abilities and traits that pertain to personality, attitude and behavior  Unlike hard skills, which tend to be specific to a certain type of task, soft skills are broadly applicable. 16
  17. 17. Soft Skills: Examples of Interpersonal Attributes  Interpersonal abilities  Empathy  Leadership  Communication  Teamwork  Good manners  Ability to teach  Works well with diversity  Self-confidence 17
  18. 18. Soft Skills: Examples of Personal Attributes  Personal Attributes:  Optimism  Responsibility  Sense of humor  Integrity  Time management  Motivation  Common Sense It’s often said that hard skills will get you an interview but you need soft skills to get (and keep!) the job. 18
  19. 19. Soft Skills: What are they? 19
  20. 20. Hard Skills Skills that are learned to perform a specific job function and are more easily identifiable and quantifiable. Mostly about “what you know” VS Soft Skills Skills that are less tangible, and more associated with one’s traits or personality, that determine how we interact. Mostly about “how you act”. 20
  21. 21. 2. Ethics 21
  22. 22. “ A man without ethics is a wild beast loosed upon this world.” (Camus) 22
  23. 23.  Ethics is the study of standards of behavior which promote human welfare and the good.  Ethics is about how we behave, about the standards we hold ourselves.  Ethics is about how we treat each other, even those we do not know.  Ethics is obedience to the unforeseeable.  The rules and standards of a culture or group. 23 Concept of Ethics
  24. 24. Ethics can be really thought about at three different levels: 1. How we act as individual? 2. How we structure our organization and their work?, and 3. How we structure our society and our law? 24 Concept of ethics… cont’d
  25. 25.  In general, the term ethics refers to two things: 1. Ethics refers to well-founded/well- substantiated/standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. 2. Ethics refers to the study and development of one's ethical standards. Meaning, Ethics is the philosophical study of morality (moral philosophy). Concepts of ethics … cont’d 25
  26. 26. 26 Foundation of Ethics Individual ethics Family Situation Peer Experience Moral & value
  27. 27. 27 Why be Ethical?  It’s just good business.  It’s the smart thing to do.
  28. 28. 28 We can always set the ethical bar higher!! OUR WORKPLACE SKILLS CHARACTER SYSTEM
  29. 29. 29 The Six Pillars of Character
  30. 30. 30 Trustworthy  Integrity  Honesty  Promise-keeping  Loyalty
  31. 31. 31 Respect  It is our duty to treat everyone with respect  Courtesy  Politeness  Dignity  Value the differences they bring into our workplace  Tolerance
  32. 32. 32 Responsibility  Don’t make excuses  Accept responsibility for decisions  Fulfill all obligations  Do not over-promise “Life is full of choices—what you do and don’t do matters” “Choosing not to choose is a choice.”
  33. 33. 33 Fairness  Listen  Make decisions based on careful and appropriate consideration
  34. 34. 34 Caring  Compassion and concern for others  Kindness and consideration  Mercy and forgiveness  Empathy  Gratitude and expressed thanks
  35. 35. 35 Citizenship  Play by the rules  Respect authority  Do your share  Within the workplace keep proper records  Follow office procedures  Be a good office neighbor and pursue the common good
  36. 36. Importance of Ethics in an Organization 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. Organizational Ethics • Organizational ethics is the ethics of an organization and it is how an organization ethically responds to an internal or external stimuli. • Organizational behavior is the behavior of humans who are part of an organization and the meanings that the people attach to their actions. • Culture includes the organization values, visions, norms, working language, systems, symbols, beliefs and habits. 38
  39. 39. Organizational Ethics… cont’d A healthy organization has the following characteristics: 1.Strong company leaders, 2.Strong communication, 3.Regard for and fair treatment of each employee, 4.Equal opportunity for each employee, 5.Employee pride and enthusiasm, 6.Acceptance and appreciation for diversity, 7.Investment in learning, training, and employee knowledge, 8.Lower than average turnover rates. 39
  40. 40. The Need for Ethics in an Organization Applying workplace ethics has the following significances: 1.Asset protection 2.Productivity and teamwork 3.Public image 4.Decision making 40
  41. 41. The Impact of Ethics and its Contribution  Employee commitment;  Customer loyalty and confidence;  Avoid legal problems and penalties;  Customer satisfaction;  The ability to build relationships with stakeholders;  Cost control; and  Performance, revenue, and profits. 41
  42. 42. Professional Ethics/Work Ethics  Professional ethics is the principle and standard that guide members of the profession in their interaction with internal and external stakeholders.  It is also a set of standard adopted by a professional community regulated by standards, which are often referred to as codes of ethics.  Work ethics is a sort of guideline which enables workers to differentiate the right way of conduct from the wrong way of conduct. 42
  43. 43. Elements of Work Ethics 1. Punctuality in regular work time 2. Avoiding absenteeism 3. Work discipline 4. Proper utilization of instruments of labor 5. Cooperation with fellow mates/teamwork 43
  44. 44. Concept of Professionalism ‘Profession’  is often used synonymously with ‘occupation’ to refer to the job someone does, or  a recognized type of work.  the term has additional connotations, relating to »high level of social status, »education, »expertise, »identity as occupational group and »a certain type of self-consciousness about ethics. 44
  45. 45. Professional defined… A professional is a person who is  educated and trained,  competent,  motivated,  impartial, and  working in a system dedicated to serving the public interest. 45
  46. 46. Professional defined…  Professionalization is connected with the progress of knowledge – the process is accelerated by scientific, technological and industrial evolution.  Reinforced by and reinforces social mobility for individuals, occupations, and individuals through their occupations. 46
  47. 47. Professionalism defined It is meticulous/careful adherence to undeviating/lasting/ • courtesy, • honesty, and • responsibility in one's dealings with citizens • a level of excellence that goes over and above the commercial considerations and legal requirements.  It means behaving in an ethical manner while assuming and fulfilling your rightful responsibilities in every situation every time, without fail. 47
  48. 48. 48
  49. 49. Characteristics of a Professional 1. Loyalty, 2. Neutrality, 3. Transparency, 4. Diligence, 5. Punctuality, 6. Effectiveness, 7. Possess intellectual capacity, 8. Impartiality etc. 49
  50. 50. Ethics issues at the workplace are: 1. conflicts of interest; 2. discrimination; 3. misuse of propriety; 4. fiddling of expense accounts; 5. misuse of organization’s assets; 6. misuse of information; 7. inaccuracies in documents and records; 8. receiving excess gifts and entertainment; 9. bribery; 10. fraud; and 11. embezzlement 50
  51. 51. 3. Emotional Intelligence 51
  52. 52. Emotions  Emotion refers to state of feeling that conveys information about relationships.  Emotions of wanting: greed, hope, envy, desire, love.  Emotions of not wanting: fear, shame, repulsion, contentment.  Emotions of having: happiness, pride, jealousy.  Emotions of not having: anger, sadness, distress. 52 52
  53. 53. Emotions 53 53
  54. 54. Emotional intelligence (EI)  The awareness of our own moods and attitudes and those of others.  Helps for managing ourselves well in our relationships with others.  It is the foundation for leadership and a corner stone of team building.  Intelligence stands for the capacity to reason about information. 54 54
  55. 55. The five dimensions of EI 1. Self Awareness 2. Self management 3. Self motivation 4. Social awareness 5. Social management 55 55
  56. 56. 1. Self-awareness • Deep understanding of one’s emotions, strengths and weaknesses. • Self awareness can be developed: • Listen to your listening. • Notice the origin of your story. • Observe your automatic ways of being. 56 56
  57. 57. EMI 57
  58. 58. Self Awareness – Maturity Continuum Put First Things First Begin with the End in Mind Be Proactive Sharpen the Saw Synergiz e Seek First to Understand, Then to be Understood Think Win-Win Private Victory Habit #3 Habit #2 Habit #1 Public Victory Habit #6 Habit #5 Habit #4 Renewal Habit #7 58
  59. 59. Johari window Known to self Not known to self Known to others Not known to others Open Unknown Hidden Blind Open area/self, free area/self Hidden area/self, Avoided area/self Unknown area/self Blind area/self/ spot 59
  60. 60. 2. Self-management  Self control  Trustworthiness  Conscientiousness  Adaptability  Innovativeness 60 60
  61. 61. 2. Self-management… 61
  62. 62. 3. Self-motivation  Channeling emotions in the service of a goal.  Delaying gratification and stifling impulses.  Drive to achievement and success.  More productive.  Show dedication.  Outstanding performance. 62 62
  63. 63. 4. Social Awareness  Empathy-ability to recognize emotions in others.  Do more than sense others’ emotions-care.  Reading the currents of office politics.  Sensitive to change them when the impact is negative.  Appreciating and accepting differences between people. 63 63
  64. 64. 5. Social management • The ability to induce desirable responses in others. 64 64
  65. 65. 4. Attitude 65
  66. 66.  a hypothetical construct that represents an individual's degree of like or dislike for an item.  “learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.”  “state of mind or feeling with regard to some matter” Concept of Attitude 67
  67. 67. Components of Attitude Cognitive Affective Behavioral Attitude 68
  68. 68. Attitude… 69
  69. 69. የጥናት ግኝቶች 1) በሕይወታችን 10% የሚይዘው በእኛ ላይ የሚደረግብን ድርጊት ሲሆን 90% የሚያዘው ደግሞ እንዴት እኛ ምላሽ እንደምንሰጥ ነው፡፡ ይኸ የሚያሳየው ሁሉ ነገር በእጃችን መሆኑን ነው፡፡ 2) ሰዎች ሥራና እድገት የሚያገኙት 85% በቀና አመለካከት ሲሆን 15% በእውቀት መሆኑን ያሳያል፡፡ 3) በ500 ኩባንያዎች ኃላፊዎች ላይ በተደረገ ጥናት 94% ኃላፊዎች ስኬታቸው የተመሰረተው በአመለካከታቸው መሆኑን ያመላክታል፡፡ 4) ሠራተኞች ከሥራ የሚባሩት 30% በብቃት ማነስ ሲሆን 70% ደግም በአመለካከታቸው ነው፡፡ 70
  70. 70. 71
  71. 71. 72
  72. 72. It is all about attitude 73
  73. 73. 74 Attitude is Everything. IT IMPACTS EVERYTHING YOU DO.
  74. 74. Impacts of Attitude: Do Attitude cause Behavior? 75 Life is 10% what happens to YOU and 90% how YOU respond to it.
  79. 79.  Attitudes Matter at Work; Because attitudes to work and/or employing organisation might affect:  whether a person seeks a new job,  how co-operative they are with others at work,  whether they present a positive image of the organisation to clients or customers,  how they react to change,  how hard they work (motivation),  their psychological or physical health. 80
  80. 80. 1. Positive Attitude  Positive attitude helps you cope more easily with the daily affairs of life.  It brings optimism into your life, and makes it easier to avoid worry and negative thinking.  Positive attitude leads to happiness and success and can change your whole life. It brings constructive changes in one’s life. Types of Attitude 81
  81. 81. 1. Positive thinking, 2. Constructive thinking, 3. Creative thinking, 4. Expectation of success, 5. Optimism, 6. Motivation to accomplish your goals, 7. Being inspired. Manifestations of Positive Attitude 82
  82. 82.  The tendency of a person that result in an undesirable outcome for individuals and organizations.  It is characterized by a great disdain for everything.  Negative attitude is contagious and therefore avoiding people with one is the best way of prevention.  Once you have a negative attitude, you will unlikely be able to recover and self fulfilling prophecy takes a hold. 2. Negative Attitude 83
  83. 83. 6 - 84 Root Causes of Negative Attitudes  Low self-esteem  Unresolved conflict  Work that is not satisfying  Fear or uncertainly
  84. 84. 85
  85. 85. The CHOICE is YOURS! With a Bad Attitude YOU can Never have a Positive Day and with a Positive Attitude YOU can Never have a Bad Day.
  86. 86. 87 Attributes of Positive Person  Confident  Caring  Assertive  Patient  Humble
  87. 87. 88 Attributes of Negative Person  Unhappy  Pessimistic  Unpleasant  Defensive  Argumentative  Confrontational  Disruptive
  88. 88. 89 Benefits of Positive Mental Attitude 1.The Individual  Increases Confidence  Reduces stress  Career success  High productivity  Improves interpersonal relations  Is energizing
  89. 89. 90 Benefits of … cont’d  The Organization 1. Fosters Teamwork 2. Solves Problems 3. Makes For Congenial Atmosphere 4. Increases Productivity 5. Breeds Loyalty 6. Reduces Stress
  90. 90. 91 Effects of negative attitude on the Individual  Self doubt  Poor self esteem  Increases stress  Bitterness  Resentment  Poor Health
  91. 91. 92 Effects of negative attitude on the Organization  Low productivity  Low morale  Coworker conflicts  Scares of customers  Poor quality work
  92. 92. Strategies to bring Attitude Change 1. Providing information 2. Resolving discrepancies 3. Influence of friends and peers 4. Co-opting/include in your group 93
  93. 93. Creating a Positive Attitude in the Workplace  Lead/teach/support by example-be a new positive cure,  Try to find the positive for everyone,  Associate yourself with happy people,  Read inspiring stories,  Read inspiring quotes,  Learn to master your thoughts,  Learn concentration and meditation,  Recognize and support 94
  94. 94. Creating a Positive Attitude … cont’d  Discourage retro-virus submission (live in the now),  Promote anti-viral acknowledgements (list the 10 best things about working here),  Smile and be happy,  Self image and self reformation,  Education and hard work,  Discipline and organization,  Belief in goodness's and truth. 95
  95. 95. Tips for Improving Your Own Attitude  Don’t associate with people who have hostile attitudes, you might get infected,  Practice optimism and positive self-talk (inner voice),  Dwell on positives,  Maintain perspectives/choose battles carefully,  Become a problem-solver,  Be alert. Creating a Positive Attitude … cont’d 96
  96. 96. Tips for Improving Your Own Attitude  Utilize self-control,  Manage stress,  Stay physically healthy,  Empathize. Creating a Positive Attitude … cont’d 97
  97. 97. Tips to change attitude of others 1. Educate regarding appropriate attitude 2. Teach by coaching, role play 3. Provide positive reinforcement 4. Help identify triggers to the “attitude” and help with coping skills to combat the situation. 5. Participatory decision making 6. Better communication Creating a Positive Attitude … cont’d 98
  98. 98. Job Related Tips  Look for creative ways to make tasks more interesting,  Try sharing or trading tasks,  Ask for more responsibilities,  Adjust your schedule to best manage boredom,  Look for alternatives. Creating a Positive Attitude … cont’d 99
  99. 99. THREE TYPES OF JOB RELATED ATTITUDES  Job satisfaction - Individual’s pleasurable or positive emotional state toward his job  Job Involvement - the degree to which people immerse themselves in their jobs - It is identifying with one’s job  Organizational commitment - it is about employees loyalty towards their organizations - It is identifying with one’s organization
  100. 100. 101
  101. 101. To change your life-change your attitude. 103
  102. 102. Exercise 1. Conduct SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) of your organization in connection with work ethics and professional ethics. 2. How do you evaluate the attitude of: a) employees towards their (1) work, (2) managers (3) customers and (4) peers b) managers towards their (1) employees (2) work (3) customers and (4) managers c) The community towards your organization 3. Suggest possible remedial actions to fill the gaps in connection with bad work ethics and attitudes 104
  103. 103. 5. Critical Thinking 105 "As a man thinketh in his/her heart so is he/she.”
  104. 104. Introduction  Sitting on top of your shoulders is one of the finest computers on the earth.  But, like any other muscle in your body, it needs to be exercised to work its best.  That exercise is critical thinking. 106 I think, therefore I am. Rene Descartes
  105. 105. What is Critical Thinking?  Critical: means requiring careful judgment.  Thinking: means to have an opinion, to reflect on or ponder, to call to mind or remember to devise a plan, to form a mental picture of (image), to reason.  Thinking is basically any mental activity; can be aimless and uncontrolled; it may serve a purpose.  Critical thinking is controlled, purposeful and more likely to lead to obvious beneficial results.  Put your thinking cap on: think seriously about something. 107
  106. 106. What is Critical Thinking? … cont’d  Commonly called problem solving.  Not being content with the first solution to a problem, but thinking more deeply about it.  Knowing, understanding, analyzing, synthesizing, applying and evaluating the idea or problem.  Looking for what is implied in a question rather than what is stated?  Applying the rules of logic to problem solving.  Not letting reason be clouded by emotion. 108
  107. 107. Critical Thinking… cont’d  A self-directed process by which we take deliberate steps to think at the highest level of quality.  Making reasoned judgments that are logical and well-thought out.  Objective analysis and evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgment.  The ability to think clearly and rationally, understanding the logical connection between ideas. 109
  108. 108. Components of Critical Thinking  Interpretation  Analysis  Inference  Explanation  Evaluation  Self-regulation 110
  109. 109. Successful intelligence depends on 3 thinking skills: Practical Creative Analytical
  110. 110. Types of Thinking 1. Red thinking 2. Green thinking 112
  111. 111. 1. Red Thinking Red Thinking stops and assesses itself before going forward. Disciplined Seeks the truth Self assessing Critical Thinking Self correcting Probing  In red thinking mode, we actively work to eliminate prejudices, biases, dysfunctional thinking from our thinking.  We actively work on our thinking.  We rigorously apply intellectual standards to our thinking. 113
  112. 112. 2. Green Thinking Unconscious mixture of high quality and low quality thinking: Spontaneous Subconscious Uncontrolled Impulsive Self protecting Unanalyzed Reflexive Self validating  Includes ideas that are invalid, as well as nonsense, confusion, stereotypes, and prejudices.  The key is that we cannot distinguish the difference between high and low quality thought in green thinking mode.  Green thinking goes without assessing itself. 114
  113. 113. The Critical Thinking Mind = The Educated Mind 115
  114. 114. Importance of Critical Thinking 116
  115. 115. Attitude/Skills of Critical Thinkers  Active thinkers  Knowledgeable of their biases and limitations  Fair-minded  Good communicators  Emphatic  Open-minded  Independent thinkers  Creative and committed to excellence 117
  116. 116. Attitude/skills of Critical Thinkers … cont’d  Curious and insightful  Humble  Proactive  Honest with themselves and others, admitting when their thinking maybe flawed or requires more thought  Flexible  Organized and systematic in their approach  Cognizant of rules of logic  Realistic  Team players. 118
  117. 117. Standards for Critical Thinking 1. Universal intellectual standards for Critical Thinking:  Clarity  Accuracy  Precision  Depth  Breadth  Logic, applied to managerial reasoning 119
  118. 118. Standards for Critical Thinking…. Cont’d Additional intellectual Standards … cont’d 1. Confidence 2. Interdependence 3. Fairness 4. Responsibility 5. Risk taking 6. Discipline 8. Perseverance 9. Creativity 10. Curiosity 11. Integrity 12. Humility 120
  119. 119. Standards for Critical Thinking 2. Professional Standards  Sound ethical standards o When critically thinking must have a sense of their own values, beliefs, feelings and their clients/client’s family's values, beliefs, feelings  Scientific based practice with standards developed by experts o Evidenced based practice o Standards developed as a result of evidence 121
  120. 120. 6. Employee Commitment 123
  121. 121. Concepts of Employee Commitment  Commitment is dedication to a particular organization, cause, or belief, and a willingness to get involved.  People who are committed to an organization or effort truly believe that it is important, and they show up, follow through, and stick with it. Some examples of how people show commitment  Get to the program early  Make sure people understand what is at stake  Take a public stance  Stay late 124
  122. 122. Commitment… cont’d  Commitment is defined as the act of binding yourself to a course of action.  Commitment is at root of personal decision, whether at work or at home.  It rests on three main ideas: (a) giving the best of one-self, (b) going the extra mile, and (3) not abandoning the situation you find yourself in. 125
  123. 123.  Commitment means showing up and doing what it takes for however long it takes to achieve.  Commitment is one of the bases of integrity.  A person who is able to make and keep commitments has learned how to earn trust and respect from those around them, including themselves.
  124. 124.  Commitment is doing what you say you are going to do, and when you say you are going to do it.  Commitment is the little engine of dependability: without it nothing happens.
  125. 125.  Commitment is not won or created overnight. It takes time to nurture it, yet it is very easy to lose. Why?  Commitment is based on trust, and trust is like a glass. Once it is broken, it is very difficult to put it back together again without the cracks showing.
  126. 126. Importance of Commitment  Commitment is the most important factor after a person’s culture.  It builds a person’s motivation and confidence to engage in the new behaviors required by change.  The more committed people are, the more influential they will be.  Committed people don't give up.  People will cooperate more when committed.  Committed people will be more effective.  People do not follow uncommitted leaders. 130
  127. 127. Commitment requires balancing two behaviors—supporting and improving.  Focus on what is important  Lead by example  Reward success  Manage disrespect  Look for a better way  Learn from others  Challenge current expectations  Risk making changes Supporting Improving Building Commitment
  128. 128. Tips for building commitment  Commitment grows steadily but often slowly. Be patient.  Appreciate whatever level of commitment a person can make.  You can always encourage people to do more. If they do, great. If they don't, appreciate them for what they can do.  People are often yearning for meaning in their lives.
  129. 129. Sustaining Commitment  Welcome people into your organization.  Be clear about the mission.  Model commitment.  Give people work to do.  Build organizational culture of appreciation and respect.  Be patient and appreciate people's commitment.  Encourage people to do more.  Listen, listen, listen.  Support people’s leadership.  Celebrate success
  130. 130. Types of Commitment 134
  131. 131. Affective Commitment  Employees who feel a sense of affective commitment identify with the organization, accept that organization’s goals and values, and are more willing to exert extra effort on behalf of the organization. Continuance Commitment  Continuance commitment exists when there is a profit associated with staying and a cost associated with leaving.  Tends to create a more passive form of loyalty. 135
  132. 132. Normative Commitment  The sense that people should stay with their current employers may result from personal work philosophies or more general codes of right and wrong developed over the course of their lives.  Build a sense of obligation-based commitment among employees. 136
  133. 133. 7. Teamwork 137
  134. 134. Brainstorming  Have you ever participated in a working group/team in your organization? For what purpose?  What have you experienced, good or bad?  What do you think are the difference between a team and a group 138
  135. 135. Group  Is a collection of individuals: That may or may not have common purpose. Who have relations to one another that make them interdependent to some significant degree. 139
  136. 136. Team  Is a group of people:  Who need to work together closely to get a task done well.  With complementary skills who are committed to a common goal/purpose, with performance targets and approach for which they hold themselves accountable.  Organized to work together to accomplish a set of objectives that cannot be achieved effectively by individuals. 140
  137. 137. EMI Team Vs Group 141
  138. 138. A B 142
  139. 139. Group  Task and individual oriented  Low level of interdependence  Avoid risks  Leadership is solo  Membership selection is not that much important  Competition is inward Team  Oriented towards team goals and agendas  High level of interdependence and synergy  Risk is accepted  Leadership is shared  Membership selection is important  Competition is with the outsiders 143
  140. 140. Group  Performance is measured indirectly, by leaders influence on others  No membership obligation  No commitment to goal  Are told what to do, no creativity  Training is individualistic  May or may not participate in decision making Team  Performance is measured directly by collective work procedure  Members feel sense of ownership  Commitment to goal jointly established  Take initiative to contribute to organizations success  Skills and talents developed are for success of team goals, synergy  Group decision making 144
  141. 141. EMI Team Building 145 “Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success.” Henry Ford
  142. 142. Brainstorming Question Why do you think is teamwork important to the organization? 146
  143. 143. Why Team? 1. The power of team is greater than the individual 2. Good team work will produce synergy. 3. Demand of today’s competition 4. Complexity of work process 5. Need for improved quality and quantity of output 6. Introduction of Participative management, employees empowerment, self management 147
  144. 144. Advantages of Teams to the Organization: Team work enhances Innovation and creativity Faster achievement of goals Reduced differences, conflict, and turnover Restoration of members’ dignity Staff satisfaction due to empowerment 148
  145. 145.  Is the process of working with a team to clarify its task and how team members can work together to achieve it.  It’s main purpose is to create synergy. Synergy = team members together achieve more than each individual can. ( 2+2=5) 149 Team Building
  146. 146. Principles of Team Basics 150 Small numbers Meaningful purpose Clear performance goals TEAM BASICS Mutual accountability Complementary skills Well-defined Working approach
  147. 147. Existing teams might regress back to an earlier stage of development Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning Stages of Team Development 151
  148. 148. Forming  In this stage:  Most team members are positive and polite.  Some are anxious, as they haven't fully understood what work the team will do.  Others are simply excited about the task ahead.  Members typically keep their true feelings private  A leader should play a dominant role here, because team members' roles and responsibilities aren't clear.  This stage can last for some time, as people start to work together, and as they make an effort to get to know their new colleagues. 152
  149. 149. “Working together isn’t always easy” 153
  150. 150. Storming  People start to push against the boundaries established in the forming stage.  Storming often starts where there is a conflict between team members' natural working styles.  Some may question the worth of the team's goal, and they may resist taking on tasks.  This is the stage where many teams fail. 154
  151. 151. Norming  People start to resolve their differences, appreciate colleagues' strengths, and respect leader’s authority.  Team members know one another better,  they may socialize together, and  they are able to ask one another for help and provide constructive feedback.  People develop a stronger commitment to the team goal, and show good progress towards it 155
  152. 152. Performing  Hard work leads, without friction, to the achievement of the team's goal.  The leader, can delegate much of the work, and can concentrate on developing team members.  It feels easy to be part of the team at this stage, and people who join or leave won't disrupt performance 156
  153. 153. Adjourning  Is a stage of task accomplishment and eventual disengagement/disbandment  Putting closure on tasks  Members are acknowledged for their contributions and the overall group success.  Common for temporary teams that separate when the project is completed  Putting closure on relationships  Members who have developed close working relationships with colleagues, may find this stage difficult, particularly if their future now looks uncertain. 157
  154. 154. 158 Techniques of Effective Team Building
  155. 155. Brainstorming  What do you think are the qualities of a good team?  With a partner, make a list of what makes a team effective? List them.  Think about your own work teams – what potential conflict do you think are there?  How can this be dealt with? 159
  156. 156. Team Cohesiveness  Refers to the tendency of a team to stick together and remain united to satisfy objectives and members satisfaction  It also refers to the overall force that cause individuals to remain in a group  Strength of the bonds linking the group members to the group, the unity of the group, the feeling of attraction for specific group members  Cohesiveness is important because it has been found to be related with team productivity. 160
  157. 157. Cohesion & Performance Performance Success Cohesion 161
  158. 158. 162 Three major consequences of cohesiveness: 1. Greater interaction (participation) between groups 2. Lower turnover and absenteeism 3. Higher productivity N.B Cohesiveness is important because it has been found to be related group productivity
  159. 159. Discussion point  What are Factors affecting Group cohesiveness and performance? 163
  160. 160. 164 Factors affecting team cohesiveness  Team size: large group size (5, 7, 9) assumed to be optimum number to create effective group  Performance of the team members: success and attractiveness of the group, improves cohesiveness a  Skill complimentary:  Communication: more easily members communicate freely with each other, the greater the likelihood of group cohesiveness  External threats: When there exist threats in the environment, high degree of cohesiveness
  161. 161. 165 Group Properties—Cohesiveness Increasing Group Cohesiveness 1) Make the group smaller. 2) Encourage agreement with group goals. 3) Increase time members spend together. 4) Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5) Stimulate competition with other groups. 6) Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7) Physically isolate the group.
  162. 162. 166 Group Properties—Size Group Size Performance Other Conclusions • Odd number groups do better than even. • Groups of 5 to 7 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups. Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually
  163. 163. Questions for reflection  What is your experience about social loafing?  Possible solutions to address the problem social loafing 167
  164. 164. 168 Managing teams and groups for high performance Social loafing/  The human tendency to put forth less effort in a group than individually.  Results in possibly lower group performance and failure to attain group goals Reducing social loafing  Make individual efforts identifiable and accountable.  Emphasize the valuable contributions of individual members.  Keep group size at an appropriate level.
  165. 165. Roles of Team Members  Clarity at the start helps to reduce friction- roles/ shared goals/ conflict resolution…  Allows people to get credit for their achievements  Clear responsibility and timelines for tasks avoids undue last minute pressure  Roles need to be shared where possible to avoid boredom and assist in retention 169
  166. 166. Factors Critical for Effective Teams  Team Goals  Team Structure  Roles within Teams  Timelines for Teamwork 170
  167. 167. Basic Team Skills The following features are fundamental to good teamwork:  Trust : making sure you meet all commitments and maintain confidentiality when required  Sharing information: to assist others do their job  Flexibility: show a willingness to cooperate and help others when possible  Good manners: doing small, simple things, e.g. thanking colleagues for their help 171
  168. 168. Team Communication Teams need to master 3 types of communications:  The team members need to communicate well with each other.  The team needs to communicate well with other teams at work.  The team has to communicate directly with their external customers. 172
  169. 169. Conflict Resolution  Because of an inability to resolve conflict the team may splinter and sub-groups may form.  Anticipate conflict, know why it arises and have personal and team strategies to deal with it.  Importance of protocols to manage conflict and other problems "Don't blame the people. Blame the system" 173
  170. 170. Comments 174
  171. 171. 175
  172. 172. Address: Temesgen Dagne Ethiopian Management Institute Tel: 0911 103995 E-mail: teme2112@gmail.com You can download books from http://gen.lib.rus.ec 1
  173. 173. I wish you success in your Attitudinal Change and Team Building journey!!! 177