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Surface and Subsurface Tile Drainage

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This Presentation covers the topic of surface and subsurface tile drainage which is the part of canal irrigation. The content covered in this has been explained thoroughly with theory and Diagrams related to the topics and consists of various pictures to explain the content completely .Thank you.

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Surface and Subsurface Tile Drainage

  1. 1. SURFACE & SUBSURFACE TILE DRAINAGE PREPARED BY:- CHARANJIV SINGH(CIVIL ENGG. B.TECH)
  2. 2. WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY DRAINAGE ? DRAINAGE IS THE PROCESS IN WHICH WATER LEACHES DOWNWARD FROM THE UPPER SOIL LAYERS TO LOWER LAYERS , OR HOW SURFACE WATER IS REMOVED. PROPER DRAINAGE IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE NOT ALL PLANTS PERFER MOIST CONDITIONS. IN NATURE CERTAIN MINERAL SUCH AS SAND PROVIDE RAPID DRAINAGE, WHILE HEAVY MINERALS LIKE CLAY CAN RESTRICT DRIANAGE. FOR CONTAINER AND POTTED PLANTS DRAINAGE IS FACILITATED BY HOLES IN THE BOTTOM OF POT.
  3. 3. TYPES OF DRAINAGE • SURFACE DRAINAGE • SUB- SURFACE DRAINAGE (TILE DRAINAGE)
  4. 4. SURFACE DRAINAGE SURFACE DRAINAGE IS VERY USEFUL IN REMOVING EXCESS WATER FROM LAND IN A CONTROLLED MANNER AND AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE, TO A ARTIFICIAL DRAINAGE SYSTEM OR NATURAL WATER COURSE . THIS SHOULD BE DONE WITH NO DAMAGE TO ENVIRONMENT. TYPICAL APPLICATION FOR USING SURFACE DRAINAGE INCLUDE • DRAINING LARGE QUANTITIES OF SURFACE WATER OFF LAND QUICKLY INTERCEPTING WATER FLOWING DOWN FROM UPPER SLOPE TO LOWER LYING LAND • INTERCEPTING RUN-OFF WATER FROM RESOURCES (EG. ROAD SIDE DRAINAGE, NEIGHBOURING PROPERTIES, DAM OVERFLOW). • ACTING AS A COLLECTOR SYSTEM FROM SUB-SURFACE ( MOLE AND TILE DRAINS) DRAINAGE SYSTEM.
  5. 5. Surface
  6. 6. TYPES OF SURFACE DRAINAGE • SHALLOW SURFACE DRAINS(UPTO 0.3M DEEP):- SHALLOW SURFACE DRAINS FORMED BY HAND SHOVEL OR SPINNER CUTTERS ARE MOST USEFULL FOR REMOVING PONDED WATER FROM SHALLOW DEPRESSIONS TO LARGE DRAINS OR STREAMS.
  7. 7. • DEEP SURFACE DRAINS (0.3M TO ~ 1M DEEP) MADE BY EXCAVATORS OR SPECIFIC DRAINAGE MACHINES ARE USUALLY "V" SHAPED WITH A FLAT BOTTOM WITH ENOUGH SLOPE (GRADIENT) TO ENSURE THAT THE WATER IS REMOVED QUICKLY BUT NOT CAUSE SCOURING OF THE DRAIN WALLS OR BOTTOM.
  8. 8. DISADVANTAGES OF SURFACE DRAINAGE • THEY NEED REGULAR CLEANING (SEDIMENT AND WEEDS) • CAN BE DANGEROUS TO ANIMALS, MACHINERY, AND PEOPLE (IF UNFENCED) • IF FENCED, CLEANING IS MORE DIFFICULT • FENCING ADDS EXTRA COST AND MAINTENANCE • TEND TO BECOME DEEPER AND WIDER IF NOT MAINTAINED BY PROFESSIONAL MACHINERY OPERATORS • NOT SUITABLE FOR SUB-SURFACE DRAINAGE • LOSS OF GROUND
  9. 9. SUB-SURFACE DRAINAGES ( TILE DRAINAGE) THE PROCESS OF DIRECTING EXCESS WATER AWAY FROM THE ROOT ZONES OF PLANTS BY NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL MEANS, SUCH AS BY USING A SYSTEM OF PIPES AND DRAINS PLACED BELOW GROUND SURFACE LEVEL.
  10. 10. ADVANTAGES OF SUB-SURFACE DRAINS • PREVENTS WATER OVERFLOW • SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS WORK BY DIRECTING WATER AWAY FROM YOUR PROPERTY TO PREVENT FLOODING. TOO MUCH WATER IN YOUR GARDEN WILL, NO DOUBT, KILL YOUR PLANTS. IT CAN ALSO LEAD TO THE COLLECTION OF STAGNANT WATER, WHICH IS MOSQUITO BREEDING GROUND • DECREASES POSSIBILITY OF TOXIC MATERIALS • THERE’S A DANGER OF TOXIC CONTAMINATION WHENEVER A FLOOD OCCURS. IF YOU HAVE A SUB DRAINAGE SYSTEM INSTALLED, IT WILL ENABLE YOU TO GET RID OF EXCESS WATER AND REDUCE THE LIKELIHOOD OF CONTAMINATING YOUR WATER SUPPLY. • REDUCES SOIL EROSION • PASSIVE WATER ACCUMULATION CAN MAKE SOIL MUDDY OVER TIME, WHICH CAN CAUSE THE SOIL TO ERODE. SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REDUCE THE CHANCE OF SOIL EROSION IN YOUR GARDEN BY MAINTAINING BALANCED MOISTURE.
  11. 11. TYPES OF SUB-SURFACE DRAINS • THERE ARE FOUR MAIN TYPES OF SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS. THESE ARE: • CORRUGATED AND PVC SLOTTED SUBSURFACE PIPES • MOLE DRAINAGE INCLUDING: • MOLE DRAINS MOLE DRAINS OVER COLLECTOR PIPE SYSTEMS GRAVEL MOLE DRAINS • INTERCEPTOR DRAINS • GROUND WATER PUMPS
  12. 12. SUB-SURFACE PIPES • SUBSURFACE PIPES CAN BE USED TO DRAIN HEAVY (CLAY) POORLY DRAINED SOILS SUCCESSFULLY BUT THEIR SPACING WOULD NEED TO BE SO CLOSE TOGETHER THAT THEY ARE UNECONOMIC IN EXTENSIVE FARMLAND SYSTEMS. • SUBSURFACE PIPE DRAINAGE WAS REFERRED TO AS 'TILE DRAINAGE' IN THE PAST DUE TO THE USE OF SHORT CLAY PIPES. CLAY WAS EXPENSIVE AND DIFFICULT TO LAY AND HAS NOW BEEN REPLACED BY SLOTTED PVC OR FLEXIBLE CORRUGATED PLASTIC PIPES OF VARIABLE DIAMETERS.
  13. 13. MOLE DRAINAGE • MOLE DRAINAGE CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS MOLE DRAINS, MOLE DRAINS OVER A COLLECTOR PIPE SYSTEM OR GRAVEL MOLE DRAINS. THE SUITABILITY OF EACH TYPE WILL DEPEND ON THE CLAY CONTENT AND TYPE, SAND AND/OR STONE IN THE PROFILE, GRADIENT AND OUTFALL LOCATION. THE ACTION OF THE MOLE PLOUGH FORMS A MOLE CHANNEL IN THE AREA OF THE SOIL PROFILE WITH A SPECIFIC CLAY CONTENT. THE PLOUGH ALSO CRACKS THE SOIL PROFILE IMMEDIATELY ABOVE THE MOLE CHANNEL ALLOWING WATER TO FLOW INTO IT.
  14. 14. INTERCEPTOR DRAINS • THESE DRAINS ARE INSTALLED AT THE BASE OF SLOPES AT THE CHANGE OF GRADIENT, USUALLY WHERE A STEEPER SLOPE MEETS THE FLATS TO INTERCEPT THE DOWNHILL FLOW OF SUBSURFACE WATER. OFTEN THE SOIL TYPE ON THE SLOPE IS MORE PERMEABLE THAN THOSE OF THE FLATS AND THIS FORCES THE WATER TO COME TO THE SURFACE, USUALLY AT THE CHANGE OF SLOPE.
  15. 15. PUMP OUTLET • THESE REMOVE WATER FROM AQUIFERS SO THAT THE WATER TABLE WILL FALL OR BE MAINTAINED AT A SUITABLE LEVEL BELOW THE GROUND SURFACE. • THE ACT OF PUMPING CAUSES A DRAWDOWN OF GROUND WATER LEADING OUT FROM THE PUMP'S LOCATION WITH ITS EFFECT BEING MUCH LESS AT DEPTH. THE EXTENT OF EFFECT WILL DEPEND ON AQUIFER DEPTH, SOIL TYPE, HEIGHT OF WATER TABLE, ETC. • THE COST, BENEFITS, DISADVANTAGES, AND MOST IMPORTANTLY, WHETHER THEY CAN BE USED OR NOT AND THE NEED FOR A PERMIT MUST BE DISCUSSED WITH THE REGIONAL RURAL WATER AUTHORITIES. GROUND WATER PUMPING WILL NOT BE DISCUSSED FURTHER IN THIS WET SOILS MANAGEMENT SERIES.
  16. 16. DRAWDOWN CURVES IN A FULLY SATURATED SOIL, WATER FLOWS INTO THE TILE DRAIN ALONG THE PATH. SINCE THE QUANTITY OF WATER MOVING BETWEEN ANY TWO FLOWS LINES IS THE SAME , THE DRAWDOWN WILL BE MORE NEAR THE TILE THEN AT A POINT RATHER AWAY. AFTER THE SATURATED SOIL HAS DRAINED FOR A DAY OR SO , THE RESULTING WATERTABLE AS SHOWN BELOW. WITH THE SERIES OF TILE DRAINS , THE SUBSOIL WATER LEVEL DIRECTLY OVER THE DRAIN, IS LOWER THAN THE LEVEL MIDWAY BETWEEN TH.
  17. 17. DISADVANTAGES OF SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE • IT CAN BE EXPENSIVE TO INSTALL AND MAINTAIN • SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS CAN BE COSTLY TO INSTALL. ADDITIONALLY, IT WILL NEED TO BE MAINTAINED ON A REGULAR BASIS TO ENSURE IT FUNCTIONS CORRECTLY. MAKE SURE YOU CHECK FOR BLOCKAGES AND DEBRIS THAT MAY BE OBSTRUCTING THE FLOW OF WATER REGULARLY. • CAN CONTAMINATE BODIES OF WATER • IF NOT WELL MAINTAINED, SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS CAN CONTRIBUTE TO CONTAMINATION ISSUES. IT CAN CHANNEL NITRATE DIRECTLY INTO LARGE BODIES OF WATER CLOSE TO YOU SUCH AS RIVERS AND LAKES. • IF YOU FIND IT CHALLENGING TO GET RID OF THE WATER THAT ACCUMULATES IN YOUR GARDEN OR AROUND YOUR HOME, THEN MAYBE YOU SHOULD CONSIDER INVESTING IN A SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEM. GET IN TOUCH WITH TECHNO PAVE FOR A QUOTE TODAY.
  18. 18. DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR TILE DRAINAGE THE CLOSED DRAINS ARE GENERALLY SPACED AT SUCH A DISTANCE AS TO BE CAPABLE OF LOWERING THE WATERTABLE SUFFICIENTLY BELOW THE ROOT ZONE OF THE PLANT. FOR MOST OF THE PLANTS , THE TOP POINT OF THE WATERTABLE MUST BE ATLEAST 1-1.5 M BELOW THE GROUND LEVEL; ALTHOUGH THIS DISTANCE MAY VARY FROM 0.7 – 2.5 M , DEPENDING UPON THE SOIL AND CROP . THE TILE DRAINS MAY BE PLACED AT ABOUT 0.3M BELOW THE DESIRED HIGHEST LEVEL OF WATERTABLE.
  19. 19. SIZE OF THE TILE DRAINS THE TILES DRAINS ARE DESIGNED ACCORDING TO THE MANNING’S FORMULA TO CARRY A CERTAIN DISCHARGE DECIDED BY D.C AND DRAINAGE AREA .THE DRAINS ARE LAID ON A CERTAIN LONGITUDINAL SLOPES VARYING FROM 0.05 TO 3% .A DESIRABLE MINIMUM WORKING GRADE IS 0.2 %. WHERE SUFFICENT SLOPE IS NOT AVAILABLE , THE GRADE MAY BE REDUCED TO 0.1%. DEPENDING UPON THE GIVEN SLOPE OF THE SOIL SURFACE AND THE DEPTH OF OUTLET , SUITABLE VALUES OF LONGITUDINAL SLOPE CAN BE GIVEN TO THE TILES . THEIR SIZES CAN BE EASILY EVALUATED FROM MANNING’S FORMULA . 10-15 CM TILES ARE MINIMUM RECOMMENDED SIZES.
  20. 20. THE END THANK YOU Sumbitted by:- • Charanjiv Singh CRN:- 1714033 • Animesh Dhara CRN:- 1714013 CLASS:-D2-CE-A

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