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Building the Protective Factors in the Community and Appropriate Response
The Connection BetweenBuilding the Protective Factorsin the Community andAppropriate ResponseAlicia Luckie, TTA CoordinatorFRIENDS National Resource Center for CBCAPApril 17, 2013FRIENDS National Resource Center for CBCAPA Service of the Children’s Bureau, a member of the T/TA Network
FRIENDS NRCThe FRIENDS NRC is funded byAdministration on Children, Youth andFamilies, Childrens Bureau to promote thepurposes of the Community-Based ChildAbuse Prevention (CBCAP) program.FRIENDS provides training & technicalassistance to lead agencies intended tobuild their capacity to meet requirements ofTitle II of the Child Abuse Prevention andTreatment Act as Amended in 2010.
Child MaltreatmentAbuse and neglect of children occursacross all ethnic, socioeconomic andreligious groups.There is no single, identifiable cause ofchild maltreatment; it occurs as a resultof an interaction of multiple forcesimpacting the family.
Child Maltreatment Data• In 2011, U.S. state and local child protective services(CPS) received an estimated 3.4 million referrals ofchildren being abused or neglected that totaled 6.2million children.• For FFY 2011, more than 2 million reports were screenedin, had a CPS response, and received a disposition. Thenational rate of reports that received a disposition was27.4 per 1,000 children in the national population.• CPS estimated that 676,569 children (9.1 per 1,000) werevictims of maltreatment.• Of the child victims, 78.5% were victims of neglect;17.6% of physical abuse; 9.1% of sexual abuse;U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration onChildren, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau. Child Maltreatment 2011. Washington, DC: Department ofHealth and Human Services; 2012. Available from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/research-data-technology/statistics-research/child-maltreatment
Risk Factors IndividualParentFamilyCommunityIndividualChildA combination ofindividual, relational,community, andsocietal factors thatcontribute to the risk ofchild maltreatment.Risk factors are thosecharacteristicsassociated with childmaltreatment—theymay or may not bedirect causes.
What we Know about ChildrenFirst 5 years are intense years of developmentBrain Growth and AbilityPhysical and Motor ActionsSpeech and Language DevelopmentSocial and Emotional Interaction with Others
What we know about childdevelopmentContinuous-orderlyprocessAge-specificdevelopmental tasksIndividual variationsHeredity (nature)Social-culturalenvironment (nurture)
What we know about FamiliesFamilies gain what they need to besuccessful when key protectivefactors are robust in their livesand communities
The Importance ofRelationshipsCaregivers are the active sculptors of their children’sgrowing brains.An environment of relationships shapes—intellectual, social, emotional, physical, behavioral,and moral developmentThe caregivers emotional availability and empathicresponsiveness is an important part of thatenvironment
Adverse Childhood Experience(ACE) StudyExamined the relationship between current adult health status, childmaltreatment, and family dysfunction.Categories of ACEs:Emotional AbuseSexual AbusePhysical AbuseEmotional NeglectPhysical NeglectMother Treated ViolentlyHousehold Substance AbuseHousehold Mental IllnessParental Separation or DivorceIncarcerated Household Memberhttp://www.cdc.gov/ace/about.htm
What we know about vulnerablechildren and their Families• Children under 5 are the fastest growing child welfarepopulation• Children 0-1 are most likely to die from abuse or neglect;they are 20% of the child welfare population• The trauma of being abused or neglected is dramaticallycompounded by removal from families at this importantstage of development• Childhood trauma can have a cascading impact onongoing development• Young children are among the most vulnerable forhaving lower levels of attachment skills, social andemotional competencies, self-assurance, confidenceand independence.
What does the research indicate?• CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT, STRONG FAMILIESAND OPTIMAL CHILD DEVELOPMENT AREOUTCOMES THAT ARE TIED TOGETHER• RISK IS NOT PREDICTIVE—BECAUSE OFPROTECTIVE FACTORS• FIVE SPECIFIC PROTECTIVE FACTORS ARE TIEDTO CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT, STRONGFAMILIES AND OPTIMAL CHILD DEVELOPMENT• YOU CAN BUILD THESE PROTECTIVE FACTORSIN MANY DIFFERENT SETTINGS
Therefore…..• Children in families involved with child welfareneed particular focus on their developmentalneeds• Developmental supports for these children mustbe informed by an understanding of the impactof trauma on development• There must also be intentionality about how tosupport the capacity of families and caregiversto keep children safe and support their earlydevelopment
THE STRENGTHENING FAMILIESAPPROACH• Through small changes in everydaypractice, builds on family strengths, buffersrisk, and promotes better outcomes.• Builds on existing strategies and systems,and links them to community opportunities.• Grounded in research, practice andimplementation knowledge from multiplefields; links disciplines and service sectors.
Protective FactorsFactors that can protect families and promote resilience.Protective factors serve as a buffer against adversity andwhen present in families, the likelihood of childmaltreatment goes down.A Protective Factors framework focuses on preventionstrategies based on building strengths with families ratherthan focusing exclusively on risks and deficits.
Mobilizing partners,communities and families tobuild family strengths, promoteoptimal development and reducechild abuse and neglectWhat it is all about…
The Protective FactorsKnowledge of Parenting and of Child andYouth DevelopmentParental ResilienceSocial ConnectionsConcrete SupportsSocial and Emotional Competence of Children-Nurturing and Attachment
Knowledgeof Parentingand of Child and YouthDevelopmentUnderstanding and utilizing effective childmanagement techniques and having age-appropriate expectations for children andyouth’s abilities.
Knowledge of Parenting and ChildDevelopmentWhat we know:• Knowledge of the normalrange of development• Understanding howparenting impactsdevelopment• Understanding of theirchild’s particulardevelopmental needs• Understanding disciplineWhat you can do:• “Just in time” parentingeducation• Guided observation of theirchild’s behavior• Trusted authorities• Safe environments• Opportunities to try outnew strategies with theirchild
Parental ResilienceHaving adaptive skills and strategies topersevere in times of crisis. Family’s ability toopenly share positive and negative experiencesand mobilize to accept, solve, and manageproblems.
Parental ResilienceWhat we know• Hope and Optimism• Problem solving skills• Ability tomaintain/restore calm• Self-care• Help seeking• Future orientationWhat you can do• Support for parentaldecision-making• Validation andencouragement• Support for self-care• Training/support inproblem solving
Social ConnectionsWhat we know:Social networks infusedwith:• Positive emotionalsupport• Positive parenting norms• Resource sharing andmutual helpWhat you can do:• Connect isolated families to peers• Create group activities andenvironments for social sharingand mutual support activities• Create a socially inclusive culture• Help parents choose positivesocial connections
Concrete SupportsAccess to tangible goods and services to helpfamilies cope with stress, particularly in timesof crisis or intensified need.
Concrete SupportsWhat we know:• Many families do not getthe services they areeligible for• Stigma is a significantbarrier to families gettingCAN prevention services• Navigation of servicesystems is hard• Service can be provided ina way that underminesfamiliesWhat you can do• Use trusting relationshipsas the gateway to otherservices• Support familiesknowledge of and ability toaccess what is in thecommunity• Serve as an advocate forexisting services• Build service networks
Social and Emotional Competence ofChildrenChildren’s age appropriate ability to regulate theiremotions, engage with others, and communicatefeelings.
Children’s Social EmotionalCompetenceWhat we Know:• Social emotionaldevelopment isfoundation skill• Early childhood mentalhealth issues are morecommon than we think• Supporting children’ssocial emotionaldevelopment impactsparentsWhat you can do:• Social emotionaldevelopment activitiesfor kids• Connections to children’smental health supports• Help parents understandchildren’s socialemotional issues
Nurturing and AttachmentThe emotional tie along with a pattern ofpositive interaction between the parent andchild that develops over time.
What Next?• Ensure that children in AR are connected toquality developmental supports• Support parents-birth, foster, and adoptive intheir role as protective factor builders forthemselves and their children• Respect parents as decision-makers fortheir family and support them in that role
• Fundamental shift in worker family relationship• Protective factors at the heart of a family-centered, strength-based, trauma-informedpractice approach• Applying the new brain science to create adevelopmentally informed model• Balancing risk mitigation with well-beingpromotionA Strengthening Families Paradigmfor Child Welfare
NEW “FAMILY VALUES”• Recognition of importance of families• Diminishing stigma and labeling• Acknowledging diversity among families• Reducing the distance betweenprofessionals and families• Partnerships among services and betweenservices and people are essential• Everyone has a role and can play it!
Building Partnerships with Parents• Relationship-based practice in childwelfare• Promoting parenting alliances andparenting communities• Shifting the balance of power / ‘agent ofchange’ in family strengthening
Building Partnerships with ParentsRequires paradigm shift in child welfare:• Parents are consciously building protectivefactors in their families• Staff are partnering with parents intentionallyand positively with respect and compassion• Strengths-based, family-centered, trauma-informed, and developmentally appropriate• Family advocacy
Building Partnerships with ParentsStrategies include:– Adopting decision-making tools and processes thatinclude parents as partners i.e. teaming,– Collaboration with others who have partnerships withparents– Protective Factors-based Parent& Community Cafes (withstaff involved as parents)– Protective factors training for parents– Parent leadership training– Parent-led advisory groups with power to affect systemschange
Applyinga ProtectiveFactorsFrameworkAcross the Child Welfare ContinuumPrevention/diversionIntake/InvestigationCase PlanningIn-home careOut-of-home carePermanency, Exit and After CareSystemsInfrastructure
Protective & Promotive Factors in Practice• Assess not just around risk, but aroundprotective factors• Use the protective factors to inform planningaround differential response or other alternativeresponse activitiesAND…• Ensure that developmental progress isassessed as part of early assessmentsIntakeandInvestigation
Protective & Promotive Factors in Practice• Include specific objectives around protective factorswithin case plans• Develop case planning tools that include anorientation around building protective factors• Engage partners that can support the building ofprotective factors in family team meetings and othercase planning processes• Engage courts, judges, attorneys and other staffjudges may use such as CASAs around a protectivefactors frameworkAND…• Ensure that developmental supports are included aspart of the case planCasePlanning
• Ensure workers have understanding ofdevelopment stages and needs of children• Realign training to include protective andpromotive factors as a part of family centered,trauma-informed practice.• Create opportunities for cross training of childwelfare staff with early childhood education,family support and staffs from other disciplines.• Support training of contract and service agencypartnersProfessional Development
Employing a community approach tochild welfare•Community Cafes•Community Planning•Building collaboration among serviceentities
Bringing the ProtectiveFactorsFrameworkto Life in YourWork• Online training to supportimplementation of theStrengthening Families™Protective FactorsFramework in multiplesettings• Systems may use forawarding CEUs, credit• Free of charge• 7 courses,each about2 hours in lengtho Introduction to theFramework (also useful asa stand-alone orientation)o A course on each of the 5Protective Factorso A wrap-up course thatmoves users fromknowledge to actionFind at www.ctfalliance.org/onlinetrainingContact firstname.lastname@example.org
FEDERAL PARTNERSAdministration for Children, Youth and Families:Children’s Bureau, Office on Child Abuse and NeglectAdministration on Children and Families, Office ofChild Care and Office of Head StartMaternal and Child Health Bureau (ECCS)Substance Abuse and Mental Health ServicesAdministration (SAMHSA), local Project Launch sitesDepartment of Defense, New Parents Program andFamily Advocacy Program
Map of implementing StatesIDAZUTMTWYNMCOALFLSCTNKYINOHNCSDKSNEMNWIIAILMOARMSOKNDORCA NVWATXWVPAMEVANYLAGAMIMDAKDCNHHIVTMARICTNJDEActive in SFNNNot-active in SFNN, but some state levelImplementation strategy in place
Contact InformationAlicia Luckie, TTA CoordinatorFRIENDS NRC for CBCAPaluckie@friendsnrc.orgwww.friendsnrc.orgFRIENDS National Resource Center for CBCAPA Service of the Children’s Bureau, a member of the T/TA Network