What is a Presentation?
A presentation is a form of communication with an
The object of a presentation is to transmit information and
opinions to an audience in your own words, within a
limited amount of time.
An effective presentation should:
Who will I be speaking to?
What do I want them to know by the end of my
How will you make it easy for your audience to understand?
It explains the purpose of presentation
Attract & focus the attention of the audience
It gives a preview of the key points that the presentation will
Types of Presentation
• Informative :to provide interesting and useful information to
increase the knowledge of your audience.(giving information)
• Report : to give your audience an account of what you or
someone you represent has learnt or done.
• Persuasive : to convince your listeners to accept your proposal
• Special occasion: to give speech for some special event such
as in party, funeral, award, etc.
Types of presentation Example
Informative Lecturer to student
Report Constructor to top management
Persuasive Constructor to top management
Special occasion Emcee to guests (party)
Different types of presentation has:
Different skill to present
Different language (tone)
• Short talks that give already interested and
knowledgeable audience members the specific
information they need to do their jobs.
– Some briefings update listeners on what has happened in the past.
– Others briefings focus on the future.
– Length. Most briefings are short- usually no more than 2-3 minutes
on a given subject.
– Organization. Don’t require the kinds of attention-grabbing
introductions or conclusions. Organize in a simple way- topically or
– Content. Summarize a position. Most attendees already know why
they are there.
– Presentational aids. Some briefings may include simple visual aids,
but they rarely contain the kind of detail found in longer and more
– Language and delivery. Briefing are usually quite conversational.
Delivery is more matter-of-fact than dramatic.
• Teaches listeners how to do something such as: operate a
piece of equipment or use software, relate effectively with
the public, avoid or deal with sexual harassment.
Planning a Training Program:
1. Define the training goal
• Training always aims to change the way your audience
acts, so the place to begin is to identify who you want
to teach and the results you want to bring about.
Average Retention Rates of Various Training Methods
• An important learning principle,
supported by extensive research,
is that people learn best when
they are actively involved in the
• The “lower down the cone” you
go the more you learn and retain.
2. Develop a schedule and list of resources.
– After defined goals and identified target audience, you are
ready to design the training.
– This steps includes:
Figuring how much time you will need to plan and publicize
the training, and the steps you need to take between now
and the time you deliver it.
Identifying the staffing and physical resource you need, and
making sure they are available. Line up the facility, and
make sure it’s furnishings and layout suit your design.
Identify the materials participants will need (pens, name
tags, etc.) and the equipment you will use (computer,
projection system, etc.).
Creating/purchasing any necessary materials.
3. Involve the Audience
– Lecturing to a passive audience has its place, but it isn’t the only
way to train an audience.
– Hands-on experience is much better than just told them what to
do. E.g. train them by teaching them how to operate the
– A variety of other tools involve the audience in a way that
boosts both understanding and interest: quizzes, contests, and
having trainees teach one another.
– Letting them practice the skill that have teaching, having
volunteers demonstrate a skill, and let the whole audience
or group brainstorm and then let each group report back.
– Listeners likely to understand and remember a message
when use more than one approach. E.g. show a diagram,
display photo, bringing the object itself, illustrating a
process, and play video.
4. Organize your presentation
– The most reliable format is probably a problem solution
– The listeners are most likely to pay attention to the
information that provided when they view it as solving a
problem that they face.
5. Delivering the Training
– When you finally are ready to deliver the training, several
tips can help make it most effective.
6. Link the topic to the audience
– Sometimes the intrinsic interest of the subject is reason
enough to listen for people to pay close attention to a
session because they know these benefits are worth
something to them personally.
– If the subject that isn’t intrinsically interesting, boosts
interest by showing that listening will help audience avoid
7. Start with an overall picture
– Every presentation needs an introduction.
– A clear preview is really important.
– Without an overview, listeners can become so confused by
the informational trees that they won’t be able to see the
– Orient the audience by sketching the highlights of your
8. Emphasize the organization of your material
– You can use a number of devices to help listeners understand the
structure of your material:
Use sign posts
Use repetition and redundancy
Add internal summaries and previews
9. Cover only necessary information
– If cover topic in too much detail, you are likely to bore or
even antagonize your listeners.
– Just tell the listeners what they need to know, and tell them
just that much.
– If they want more information, they will probably ask for it.
• Increase listeners’ understanding of a subject.
• For examples:
An orientation session for new workers;
A meeting with a new employee benefits package is
A purchasing policy is explained.
• 2 strategies will help make your ideas easy to follow is:
– Avoid Jargon
Introducing to trainees to specialized terms and language.
Some jargons is necessary, but don’t use any more than necessary
– will probably bore them and leave them so confused that they’ll
give up trying to understand the material you are explaining.
– Link the Familiar to the Unfamiliar
People have the best chance of understanding new material
when it bears some relationship to information they already
Without a familiar reference point, listeners may have trouble
understanding even a clear definition.
• Definition of persuasion
• Goal of persuasion
• Persuasion Process
• Type of persuasion
• Persuasion technique
• Persuasion strategies
• Persuasion structure
What is Persuasion?
• Longman Dictionary
The act of persuading someone to do something.
• Jeseph A. Devito (Human Communication)
Is the process of influencing another person’s attitudes,
beliefs, value and behavior.
• Robert N. Yale
(Ph.D., Communication, Purdue University, West Lafayette,
– Communication between two ore more people with an
intent to change, reinforce or create attitudes, beliefs and
Goal of Persuasive Speaking
• To strengthen or weaken (reinforce) attitudes,
beliefs or value.
• To change attitudes, beliefs and value
• To create attitudes, beliefs and value
• To motivate to action
– Any observable physical action
– the feeling that something is definitely true or definitely exists
– what people feel is good or bad, ethical or unethical
– the way that you behave towards someone or in a particular situation,
especially when this shows how you feel
Type of Persuasive Speech
• Persuasive Speeches on Question of Fact
• Persuasive Speeches on Question of value
• Persuasive Speeches on Question of Policy
What is true/ false?
What happened/ didn’t happen?
What exists/ doesn’t exist?
Is it good or bad?
Is it ethical or unethical?
Is it right or wrong?
Is it better or worse?
What should be done?
What should not be done?
FACT • Do pets improve our health?
• Did Neil Armstrong really land on the moon?
• Do mermaid really exists?
VALUE • Are labor union good for employer?
• Is glucose good to mix in baby milk?
• It is ethical to ask what is the interviewee race?
POLICY • Should people wash their hands many times during
• Should restaurants be force to remove menu items
that contain alcohol?
– “Requesting something small, something that your
audience will easily agree too”
– “First make a large request that you know it will be
refused and then follow it with more moderate request”
c) Logical Appeals
• What audience want to hear
• How to attract their attention
• Know what is their attitude, belief, value and
b) Use Logical Appeals
• Reasonable and sensible
• using a thinking process in which facts and ideas
are connected in a correct way
• Three kinds of reasoning:
1. Reasoning from specific instance & generalizations
2. Reasoning from cause and effects
3. Reasoning from sign
– Reasoning from specific instance & generalizations
o Examine several specific instance(example) and then make
a generalization about the whole.
– Reasoning from cause and effects
o Cause to effect
o Effect to cause
– Reasoning from sign
o Involve drawing an conclusion on the basis of the presence
of sign because the frequently occur together.
o Medical diagnosis is good example
c) Use Emotional Appeals
• relating to your feelings, needs, desires and
• Powerful means of persuasion
• Involve Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs”
– Seek to fulfill the needs at the lowest level first and then only when those
need is satisfied do the needs at the next level.
d) Use Credibility Appeals
• Is the degree to which your audience sees you as
a believable spokesperson
• the quality of deserving to be believed and
• Credibility components:
I. Competent & Knowledgeable
II. Good characteristic
III. Charisma & dynamic
• Include both knowledge and expertise
• The more knowledge and expertise the audience
sees you as having, the more likely the audience
will believe in you.
• How to demonstrate your competence?
Tell listener of your competence
Mention a variety of research source
Stress the competencies of your sources
• Audience sees high moral character in you,
they will think you credible and they will
• a natural ability to attract and interest other
people and make them admire you
• Is a combination of your personality and
dynamism(the way in which things or people
behave, react, and affect each other)
– Attention gather
– Use logical appeal
– Persuade again or final persuasion
Welcoming A Guest or Group
• welcoming someone, your remarks often set
the tone for the whole event.
• Warmth and sincerity in words and behavior
Tips to welcoming a guest/group:
Say who you are
Identify the person or people you are
Thank the guest or group for coming
Tell why the occasion is especially important
The Speech Of Introduction
Introduce another speaker or series of
1) Establish connection:
2) Establish the speaker’s credibility:
be consistent in style and manner with the major speech
avoid covering what the speaker intends to discuss
avoid overselling the speaker
Tips will help your introduction be success:
Plan your remarks carefully in advance. Don’t take an
Your introduction should appear spontaneous and
natural, even though it is planned. Practice your
delivery so you won’t have rely notes
Look at audience, not at the person being introduce
Keep the introduction short. (1-2 minute)
The Speech of Presentation
Explain why the presentation is being made
– State the reason for the presentation and state the reason for the presentation
and state the reason for the award.
Effective Award presentation:
If everyone knows who is receiving the award,
mention the person’s early in your remarks. If the
audience doesn’t know who is receiving the
award , you might want to build suspense by
withholding his or her name until the end.
State the name and nature of the award
State the criteria for the selection
Relate the way (or ways) in which the recipient meets the
criteria, using specific example.
Make the presentation
Be sure that the person receiving the award- not you, the
presenter- is the center of attention and focus
The Speech Of Acceptance
Expresses thanks for the award
– Thanks those who gave the award
– Thanks those who helped
– State the meaning of the award to you
– Say thank you again
The Speech To Secure Goodwill
Attempts to secure or more often, to regain
the listeners’ good graces.
– Stress benefits the audience may derive
– Stress uniqueness
– Establish your credibility and the credibility of the subject
– Avoid being obvious
– Avoid pleading in your effort to secure goodwill
The Speech Of Dedication
Gives specific meaning to some event or
– Explain why you’re giving the speech
– Explain what is being dedicated
– Stated who is responsible for the event or object
– Say why this is significant
– Especially to your specific listeners
The Commencement Speech
Celebrates the end of some training period
– Consider the values of a temporal organizational pattern
– Learn something about the training organization and demonstrate this
knowledge in your speech
– Be brief
– Congratulate the larger audience
Not only those who went through the training
Offer some motivational message
Offer your own good wishes
Seeks to praise someone who has died
– Show the connection between yourself and the person you’re eulogizing
– Be specific
– Stress that the person is deserving of your praise
– Show your listeners what they can learn from this person
The Inspirational Speech
Seeks to inspire the audience, to get listeners to think in a positive
– Demonstrate your close connection with the audience
– Be enthusiastic
– Stress emotional appeals
– Emphasize the positive
The Farewell Speech
Transition between what was and what will be
– Thank those who helped you; portray the positives of the past
– Explain your reasons for making the transition
– Offer good wishes to your audience plus some words of wisdom
– Some motivational message
Celebrates a person or an occasion, appreciate
and recognize accomplishment as well as hope
for the future.
Hint to choose the right words:
– Choose the time wisely
– Be prepared
– Look spontaneous
– Be visible and audible
Be brief; focus attention on the person or event you’re
toasting. 30-60second (normal). 2 minute (maximum)
Avoid references that listeners may not understand
Make it clear that this is the end of your speech when
you raise your glass
The special occasion speech needs to be developed
with an awareness of the cultural norms and rules
specific to the occasion and the audience members.
Especially relevant here is the distinction between
individualist and collectivist cultures.
If you fail to identify your audience and purpose of
the presentation, you would not be able to get your
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