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Phenomenology (Philosophy)

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Phenomenology (Philosophy)

  1. 1. Phenomenology By Elete Shola Tabitha
  2. 2. PHENOMENOLOGY  Phenomenology is not simply an approach to philosophy, but more than that, as Giorgi has said, it is a way of seeing.  Phenomenology is concerned with the study of experience from the perspective of the individual, ‘bracketing’ taken-for-granted assumptions and usual ways of perceiving  It is to illuminate the specific, to identify phenomena through how they are perceived by the actors in a situation.  Phenomenology is a practice of carefully describing and unfolding what is given to us in perception to describe a "lived experience"
  3. 3. In the human sphere this normally translates into gathering ‘deep’ information and perceptions through inductive, qualitative methods such as: interviews, discussions, participant observation, representing it from the perspective of the research participant(s)
  4. 4. Transcendental Phenomenology Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)  What is Phenomenology?  CONTRA Descartes and Locke, Husserl argues that in order to answer the question of how we can  have knowledge of the world ; we ought to turn our attention to the study of our experience of it.  Phenomenology studies the structure of various types of experience including: Perception Thought Memory Imagination There is “natural attitude” (our everyday involvement in the world) and “phenomenological attitude” (the philosophical act of pure reflection (where we suspend the natural attitude).
  5. 5. The structure of these forms of experience typically involves what Husserl called "intentionality", that is, the directedness of experience toward things in the world, the property of consciousness that it is a consciousness of or about something. By “going back to the things themselves” Husserl meant the entire field of original experience. He came to the point that the ultimate root of Philosoiphy and of all rational assertions was not to be found in a concept, nor in a principle, not in the Cogito in the whole field of our lived experience. Going back to the phenomenon, to that which presents itself to man, seeing things as they really are, independent of any prejudice.
  6. 6. To a carpenter it is aTOOL. To a retailer it is MERCHANDISE.. To a killer it is aWEAPON. To a lecturer it is a PROP. To my girlfriend it is a NUISANCE. To a communist it is a SYMBOL The Hammer: It is many things to many people. Critique of Science Husserl argued that the scientific method was delusional. The impossibility of casual passive observation meant that the notion of 1.Observing the world 2.Discerning Patterns 3.Deriving Laws Was not as simple as scientists would have us believe. Rather, our attention is always directed at the object of our experience and so before the scientist can only prove the accuracy of their original assumption.
  7. 7. He also came up with the main insight of phenomenology: THE INTENTIONALITY OF CONSCIOUSNESS. Every conscious act intends something. Consciousness is consciousness of something other than itself. If an act is present, the object is also present. Therefore, the character of the object is co-determined by the character of the act. Consciousness does not just adapt itself to the object passively but rather, its very essence is to form meaning, to give meaning to the object. noesis The intentional process of consciousness is called noesis. Phenomenology describes the objects of consciousness. noema, The Ideal context of noesis is noema. Phenomenology also describes consciousness itself.
  8. 8. Let us return to our hammer; we have already spoken about the different ways we may encounter it, as a tool, a weapon etc. But have we gone far enough? Our questioning is only beginning. What are the assumptions governing your experience of this hammer at this moment? Scientific Assumptions Perceptive Assumptions Sociological Assumptions How do these affect your experience? Hermeneutic (interpretive) Phenomenology • Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) • Hans-George Gadamer and Paul Ricoeur • Disagrees with Husserl’s epoche. • An effort to “get beneath” the subjective experience and find the genuine, objective nature of things. • Focuses on the relationship between the event and the person, and how meaning is formed in that relationship. • Leads to endless possibilities and endless interpretations. • Our relationship with things is not the object/subject relationship.
  9. 9. To conclude our example of the hammer: The Rational Approach would deny the possibility of having certain knowledge; under the method of radical scepticism. The EmpiricalApproach would affirm the scientific existence of the hammer but would give us no information about the hammer as we experience it. The HusserlianTranscendental model would ask us to gain knowledge of the hammer as-it-is-in-itself by bracketing off the presuppositions and schema that we bring to the act of perceiving it. The Hermeneutic model would argue that the hammer has no Being.Any knowledge we can gain about the hammer must be first examined for hermeneutic impurities and is subject to change. How to Philosophise with a Hammer
  10. 10. THANKYOU!!!

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