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Word formation

The Study of the Language, Chapter 5
By George Yule

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Word formation

  2. 2. 1-Coinage 2-Borrowing 3-Compounding 4-Blending 5-Clipping 6-Acronyms 7-Abbreviations 8-Backformation 9-Conversion 10-Paired word sound play 11-Scale change 12-Multiple processes A DOZEN WAYS TO MAKE NEW ENGLISH WORDS
  3. 3. 1. COINAGE (NEOLOGISM) process of inventing or making up new words (neologisms) in order to suit certain purposes. These are often invented by companies with new products or processes, or taken from names. “to coin a phrase” Examples: xeroxkleenex Vaselineyahoo Google Skype Nylon
  4. 4. 2. BORROWING (LOAN WORDS) -Words are created by borrowing from another language and incorporating into English. -Sometimes the original meaning is altered, and the pronunciation may change. Since some words were borrowed long ago, it may be hard to recognize that they were ever not part of English. Examples: Tortilla nuance coup de gracechaos kowtowalchemy espresso
  5. 5. taking over of words from other languages – loan words: alcohol (Arabic), lilac (Persian), boss (Dutch), pretzel (German), piano (Italian), croissant (French), robot (Czech), tycoon (Japanese), yogurt (Turkish), zebra (Bantu), shampoo (Hindi), rodeo (Spanish). Loan – translations or calque: From German Ubermensch to superman; also French un gratteciel to skyscraper.
  6. 6. 3. COMPOUNDING A new word is composed of two free morphemes to create a new meaning. Examples: -buyout-spyware-textbook -ringtone - wallpaper-underestimate -freefall-makeover-overstate -turnaround-upstage
  7. 7. HOW TO PUNCTUATE? Sometimes compound words are two distinct words, sometimes they are hyphenated, and sometimes they are simply pressed together into a new word. Hmmmmm…..Jet lag, jet-lag, or jetlag?
  8. 8. 4. BLENDING A new word is created from blends or parts of morphemes in two other words to form a new single morpheme. 1.Combining beginning part of a word with the end part of another word to form a new word – gasoline + alcohol – gasohol;smoke + fog – smog; breakfast + lunch – brunch; motor + hotel – motel;television + broadcast – telecast 2. Combining beginning part of a word with the beginning part of another word to form a new word – teleprinter + exchange – telex; modulator + demodulator – modem
  9. 9. 5. CLIPPING (OR SHORTENING) a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form Examples: gasoline – gas; advertisement – ad; condominium – condo;facsimile – fax; telephone – phone; math, lab, prof, gym, Sam, Sue,Tom, Ed, etc.
  10. 10. 6. ACRONYMS The first letter of a group of words is combined into a single word. The resulting word is sometimes capitalized Examples: – CD(compact disk); VCR (video cassette recorder); PIN (personalidentification number); ATM (automatic teller machine); NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization); NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration);UNESCO(United Nations Educational Scientific andCultural Organization); radar (radio detecting and ranging
  11. 11. 7. ABBREVIATIONS The first letters of a group of words are combined into a single word whose letter names are pronounced separately. Examples: RSVPR&B LOLB&B ASAP AKA RIP
  12. 12. 8. BACKFORMATION a reduction process – Typically, a word of one type (usually a noun) is reduced to form another word (usually a verb). Examples: „televise‟ (from television), „donate‟ (from donation) `opt`(from option), „babysit‟ (from babysitter). Backformed verbs – work, edit, sculpt, burgle, peddle, swindle from nouns – worker, editor, sculptor, burglar, peddler,swindler by removing agentive morpheme [-er]
  13. 13. Hypocorism (favored in Australian and British English): First, a longer word is reduced to a single syllable, then -y or -ie is added to the end – „Aussie‟ (Australian), „telly‟ (television), „bookie‟ (bookmaker),„brekky (breakfast), „hankie (handkerchief).
  14. 14. (9) Conversion:a change in the function of a word („functional shift‟) or („category change‟) without any reduction: 1. N to V: paper – papering; butter – buttered; bottle – bottled; vacation – vacationing; salt – salted; milk – milked. 2. V to N: guess – a guess; spy – a spy; run – a run; printout – a printout. 3. V to Adj: see through – see-through material; stand up – standup comedian. 4. Adj to V: dirty – dirtied; empty – emptied; total – totaling. 5. Adj to N: crazy – a crazy, nasty – a nasty 6. Post conversion semantic change; a doctor – to doctor a manuscript; total – to total a car to run around – a runaround (excuses, delays, deceptions)
  15. 15. 10. PAIRED WORD SOUND PLAY A “double word” is created in two ways: 1-the second word has a change of vowel, usually formed lower in the mouth. 2-the second type is a rhyme, with the first consonant changing. There may be a slight onomatopoetic association, but not always. Changed vowelrhyme hip hophelter skelter singsongwilly nilly wishy washybow wow seesawhurdy gurdy splish splashnitwit
  16. 16. 11. SCALE CHANGE Affixes are added to a base word to indicate its dimension, sometimes using affixes from other languages dropletnanosecond hankiemicromanage operettaSupersize
  17. 17. 12. MULTIPLE PROCESSES Most words are formed through multiple processes! -deli is borrowed from German (delicatessen) and then clipped -snowball is compounded from two free morphemes to form a noun, then converted into a verb (snowballed, etc.); -Internet is a product of clipping (international plus network), blending (inter+net) and conversion (netiquette) Loss of capital letters + derivation: „waspish‟ from WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) + suffix -ish.
  18. 18. (13) Derivation: most common word-formation process – accomplished by adding small ‘bits’ called ‘affixes’ (prefixes, suffixes, and infixes) to the words. -Prefixes: co-, ex- re-, un-, pre-, mis-, dis-, co-author, ex-wife, reexamine, unhappy, prejudge, mislead, disarm. -Suffixes: -ful, -ness, -ish, -ism, -less careful, goodness, childish, terrorism, hopeless. -Infixes: not normally found in English. An example from Kamhmu, a language spoken in South East Asia, infix -rn- (to drill) see – srnee (a drill) (to chisel) toh – trnoh (a chisel) (to eat with a spoon) hiip – hrniip (a spoon) (to tie) hoom – hrnoom (a thing with which to tie)
  19. 19. Q-Can you identify the different word-formation processes involved in producing each of the underlined words in these sentences? ?TBDon‟t you ever worry that you might get-1 machine?xeroxDo you have a-2 !fandamntasticThat‟s really-3 every Saturday night.partiesShiel still-4 .kickassfrom Zee Designs areskateboardsThese new-5 .vet, not adocWhen I'm ill , I want to see a-6 thebabysittingwhen I wasburgledThe house next door was-7 Smiths` children. .comfyit is nice and-sofaI like this old-8
  20. 20. do you have?RAMHow much-9 !techieYour friend Jason is such a-10 that site.bookmarkYou should-11 .bloggersWe are paying too much attention to-12 .downloadsSubscribers have unlimited-13 who rarely leave theirnetizensThere are some teenage-14 rooms. more carefully.keyboardI can`t get some of the students to-15