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Ammonia
Basic Flowsheet Elements
Chemistry of the Ammonia Process
Simplified Block Diagram of a Typical
1000 t/d Ammonia Plant
Simplified Block Diagram of a 2000
MTPD Methanol Flowsheet
Methanol
Purification
Reforming
Compression Distillation
Synthe...
Simplified Block Diagram of a
Hydrogen Flowsheet
Desulfurization
Primary Reforming
High Temperature
CO Shift
VHT-S101
VSG-...
Simplified Flowsheet for a Typical
Ammonia Plant
Natural
Gas
Steam
superheater
Air
Steam
30
bar
Steam
Steam
raising
350 C
...
Modern Conventional Flowsheets
 Main process steps are the same for all plants
 Main differences in equipment design
 U...
Modern Conventional Flowsheets
 HKBR
 Primary reformer with manifold/riser
 Haldor Topsøe
 Side fired reformer
 Radia...
Other Flowsheet Options
 Braun Purifier
 ICI AMV
 ICI LCA
 Dual Pressure Uhde Process
 HKBR KAAP (with/without purifi...
Braun Purifier Process
 Primary reformer exit temperature is 700°C
 Excess air is added to the secondary reformer
 Meth...
Braun Purifier Process
Cold Box
Purified Syn Gas
Waste Gas
Raw Syn Gas
Feed Effluent Exchangers
ICI AMV Process
 As with Braun - utilizes excess air to secondary
 Excess nitrogen is passed to the loop
 Loop runs at ...
ICI LCA Process
 Aim at small plant capacities (500 mtpd)
 Uses the GHR-Secondary concept
 Excess air is utilized to cl...
Dual Pressure Uhde Process
PGR Unit
Make up gas
from frontend
H2O
Ammonia from once through conversion
HP-
steam
C.W.NH3
N...
Dual Pressure Uhde Process
 Benefits of such a scheme realised at 3,000
mtpd +
 Although this is large capacity - all eq...
HKBR Purifier and KAAP
Primary
Reformer
Secondary
Reformer
Shift &
CO2
Removal
Purifier
CompressionKAAP
Meth’n
Dryers
Recy...
Linde LAC
 Key features are
 No secondary reformer
 Nitrogen is generated cryogenically and
added after a PSA unit
 No...
Linde LAC
Desulfurization
Primary Reformer
Isothermal Shift
PSA
Nitrogen Unit
Ammonia Synthesis
Other Flowsheet Options
 Use Gas Turbine to drive process air
compressor
 Can use effluent as combustion air
 Has 16-17...
Other Flowsheet Options
 Synthesis Gas driers
 Reduces H2O in syn gas
 H2O is a poison
 Activity increases
 Ammonia W...
Ammonia Flowsheet Data Analysis
Tool - VULCAN CERES
 Looks at all catalytic unit operations
 Highlights potential issues...
Ammonia plant flowsheets
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Ammonia plant flowsheets

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Basic Flowsheet Elements of Modern Ammonia Plant's

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Ammonia plant flowsheets

  1. 1. Ammonia Basic Flowsheet Elements
  2. 2. Chemistry of the Ammonia Process
  3. 3. Simplified Block Diagram of a Typical 1000 t/d Ammonia Plant
  4. 4. Simplified Block Diagram of a 2000 MTPD Methanol Flowsheet Methanol Purification Reforming Compression Distillation Synthesis Steam Raising Feedstock (CH ) 4 Water VHT-S103 20 m³ VSG-EZ200 VSG-Z101 40 m³ VSG-Z101 40 m³ VSG-A101 200 m³
  5. 5. Simplified Block Diagram of a Hydrogen Flowsheet Desulfurization Primary Reforming High Temperature CO Shift VHT-S101 VSG- Cl101 VSG- EZ200 VSG- Z101 VSG- F101 PSA etc SteamNatural Gas Feed Hydrogen
  6. 6. Simplified Flowsheet for a Typical Ammonia Plant Natural Gas Steam superheater Air Steam 30 bar Steam Steam raising 350 C 200 C Heat Recovery Steam raising Cooling Cooling Reboiler CO Cooling Preheater Heat Recovery Steam Boiler Process Condensate Quench Quench Liquid Ammonia H Hydrodesulphuriser Primary Reformer Secondary Reformer High Temperature Shift Low Temperature Shift Ammonia SynthesisMethanator Carbon Dioxide Purge Gas Cooling 400 Co 390 Co 2 790 C o 550 Co 1000 Co o 420 Co 150 C o 400 Co 470 C o o 220 C o 290 Co 330 Co 2 CO Removal2 220 bar Refrigeration Condensate Cooling Ammonia Catchpot
  7. 7. Modern Conventional Flowsheets  Main process steps are the same for all plants  Main differences in equipment design  Uhde  Top fired reformer  Proprietary exit header design  Secondary reformer has a riser  HP loop with radial flow converter
  8. 8. Modern Conventional Flowsheets  HKBR  Primary reformer with manifold/riser  Haldor Topsøe  Side fired reformer  Radial flow converter  S-200  S-250
  9. 9. Other Flowsheet Options  Braun Purifier  ICI AMV  ICI LCA  Dual Pressure Uhde Process  HKBR KAAP (with/without purifier)  Linde LAC  H2 Recovery is used on most modern plants
  10. 10. Braun Purifier Process  Primary reformer exit temperature is 700°C  Excess air is added to the secondary reformer  Methane slip typically around 2-2.5 mol %  Excess nitrogen (and methane) cryogenically removed downstream of methanator  Also removes water - ammonia synthesis catalyst poison  Improved synthesis lives  Can reduce SC ratio to 2.7-3.0  Small primary
  11. 11. Braun Purifier Process Cold Box Purified Syn Gas Waste Gas Raw Syn Gas Feed Effluent Exchangers
  12. 12. ICI AMV Process  As with Braun - utilizes excess air to secondary  Excess nitrogen is passed to the loop  Loop runs at low pressure (80-110 bara)  Use ICI LP Catalyst (74- Series)  Uses a saturator to saturate feed gas  This raises around 50% of the required steam  Can use SC ratio of 2.8  H2 Recovery in loop at loop pressure
  13. 13. ICI LCA Process  Aim at small plant capacities (500 mtpd)  Uses the GHR-Secondary concept  Excess air is utilized to close heat balance  Utilizes an ITS rather than HTS and LTS  A saturator for steam raising  A PSA system to remove the CO2 and excess N2  A low pressure loop (80 bara)  A tube cooled converter or Casale converter  No longer actively marketing
  14. 14. Dual Pressure Uhde Process PGR Unit Make up gas from frontend H2O Ammonia from once through conversion HP- steam C.W.NH3 NH3 C.W. C.W. C.W. HP- steam NH3 NH3 Off-Gas Ammonia from HP loop HP casing LP casing First ammonia converter Second ammonia converter Once through ammonia converter HP- steam Note: Molecular Sieves not shown
  15. 15. Dual Pressure Uhde Process  Benefits of such a scheme realised at 3,000 mtpd +  Although this is large capacity - all equipment is proven  Note the low pressure converter between stages of synthesis gas machine  Makes machine smaller  Makes loop pipework 24”  Uses Comp. J catalyst
  16. 16. HKBR Purifier and KAAP Primary Reformer Secondary Reformer Shift & CO2 Removal Purifier CompressionKAAP Meth’n Dryers Recycle Purge To Fuel Feed
  17. 17. Linde LAC  Key features are  No secondary reformer  Nitrogen is generated cryogenically and added after a PSA unit  No HTS/LTS - only Isothermal (ITS) shift  No methanation
  18. 18. Linde LAC Desulfurization Primary Reformer Isothermal Shift PSA Nitrogen Unit Ammonia Synthesis
  19. 19. Other Flowsheet Options  Use Gas Turbine to drive process air compressor  Can use effluent as combustion air  Has 16-17% O2 and is at 500°C  Braun plants  Install pre reformer  HT Retrofit  Many other reasons  Remove heat from duct  Uprate plant
  20. 20. Other Flowsheet Options  Synthesis Gas driers  Reduces H2O in syn gas  H2O is a poison  Activity increases  Ammonia Wash  As per Syn Gas driers  Booster converters  Drop load on loop and allow overall output increase  Quenches in Shifts
  21. 21. Ammonia Flowsheet Data Analysis Tool - VULCAN CERES  Looks at all catalytic unit operations  Highlights potential issues/in-correct data items  Functionality to address flowsheet options  Kellogg risers  Differential flowsheet conditions (Braun)  Use as a basis for  Predictions of future performance  Predictions of new catalyst options  Uprates

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