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defense mechanisms.

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Defence mechanism
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defense mechanisms.

  1. 1. An assignment on Defence Mechanism
  2. 2. Introduction :-  The term ‘ Defence Mechanism’ was first used by sigmund freud in his paper “The Neuro-Psychoses of defence” (1894).  Anna (1937) developed the ideas given by Freud and elaborated them, adding 5 other own .  In his psychoanalytical theory , Freud explained a defence mechanism is a tactic developed by ego to protect against anxiety .
  3. 3. A defence mechanism is the act or technique of coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable or negative impulses. The process is usually unconscious . Meaning :-
  4. 4.  For example :- if you are faced with a particularly unpleasant task our mind may choose to forget your responsibility in order to avoid the dreaded assignment . In addition to forgetting , other defence mechanism include rationalization , denial , repression , rejection etc .
  5. 5. Definition:-  in Freudian Psychoanalytical theory, Defence Mechanism are psychological strategies brought into play by the unconscious mind to manipulate , deny or distort reality in order to defend against feelings of anxiety & unacceptable impulses to maintain one’s self schema .  Defence Mechanism , in Psychoanalytical theory , any of a group mental processes that enables the mid to reach compromise solutions to conflicts that is unable to resolve .
  6. 6. Classification of defence mechanism :- Based on primitiveness Primitive less primitive Mature
  7. 7. Rationalization . Projection . Compensation . Regression . Sublimation . Withdrawal . Displacement . Simple denial . Fantasy .
  8. 8. Identification mechanism . Repression . Reaction formation . Negativism .
  9. 9. Is the substitution of a safe & reasonable explanation for the true cause of behaviour . It occurs when we tell an element of truth but deny the larger truth of the matter . Example:- a student who cheats on a test may say : “I only cheated on a few question , i know most of the answers”. 1)Rationalization
  10. 10. 2)Regression :- When someone is under a lot of stress, they return to behavior from an earlier stage of development. Also known as back journey .
  11. 11. Ex:- a lady regressed into adolescent starts to walk , talk or dress like as her younger self . When a person is confronted to some loss may be back journey to a stage which had been more pleasant & successful in his lifetime .
  12. 12. 3)Sublimation :-  Satisfying an impulse ( Ex- aggression) with a substitute object in a socially acceptable way .  This is similar to displacement but occurs when we manage to displace our emotions into a constructive rather than destructive manner .  Refocusing such unacceptable or harmful impulses into productive use helps a person to channel the energy that otherwise would be lost or used in a manner might cause a person more anxiety .
  13. 13. Example :- Sport is an example of putting our emotions into something constructive .
  14. 14. 4)Withdrawal :- If someone faces failure or rejection they try to withdraw from that situation . Ex:- fear of rejection in making friends .
  15. 15. 5)Displacement :-  To transfer an impulse or idea from a threatening object to a less threatening object .
  16. 16. Denial involves blocking external events from awareness . If some situation is too much to handle , the person refuses to experience it . Most people use denial in their everyday lives to avoid dealing wit painful feelings or areas of their life they don’t wish to admit . 6)Simple denial
  17. 17. 7) Identification mechanism :-  A focus on negative or feared traits i.e. if you are afraid of someone , you can practically conquer that fear by becoming more like them .  It can be identified as a mental mechanism beyond conscious awareness through which an individual tries to make himself like someone else .
  18. 18. Example:- an extreme example is Stockholm Syndrome whose hostage identifies with the terrorists . E.g.:- Patty Hearst & the Symbionse Libertian Army .
  19. 19. 8)Fantasy :- Is a sort of imagination which can provide an escape from frustration by giving us imaginary satisfaction . Fantasy is a mechanism of wishful thinking & important for creative thinking
  20. 20. 9) Compensation:-  It is a process of psychologically counterbalancing perceived weakness by emphasizing strength in other areas .  It may be positive or negative .  Ex:- when a person says, “I may not know how to cook but i can sure do the dishes”. or “OK, maybe I’ll never be able to pass the class, but I’ll have fun and that teacher will be sorry”
  21. 21. This defence mechanism helps to reinforce a person’s self esteem & self image . Direct compensation Indirect compensation  when we try to make up the deficiency in the same area by putting more effort , by taking guidance from people, tutors , teachers , guides etc.  Ex:-a physically unattractive adolescent becomes an attractive dancer .  When we try to make up the deficiency of an area into some other area .  Extreme form of indirect compensation in found in parents .  Ex:- If one is not good in sports , they can overcome in studies .
  22. 22. 10) Repression :-  This was the first defence mechanism that Freud discovered & the most important one.  It is an unconscious mechanism employed by the ego to keep disturbing or threatening thoughts becoming conscious .  It is the withdrawal from consciousness of an unwanted idea, affect or desire by pushing it down or repressing it , into the unconscious part of the mind .  It can be defined as Motivated Forgetting .
  23. 23. Example:- Hysterical Amnesia , in which the victim has performed or witnessed dome disturbing act & then completely forgotten the act itself & the circumstances surrounding it . Repression is caused due to forces active within ourselves . We try to forget what makes us feel inferior , ashamed , guilty & anxious .
  24. 24. 11) Reaction formation :- Expressing emotions that are the exactly opposite of what you feel.  Conceal anger/hate with kindness.  Teasing/bothering someone you like.  It is converting the dangerous or unacceptable thoughts , feelings or impulses into their opposites.  This is a point where a person goes beyond denial & behaves in the opposite way to which he or she thinks or feel .  It is also called Reversal Formation .
  25. 25. Example:- a woman , who is very angry with her boss and want to quit instead may be overly kind and generous towards her boss .
  26. 26. 12) Projection:-  Is the misattribution of a person’s undesired thoughts, feelings or impulses onto another person who doesn’t have thoughts, feelings or thoughts .  Projection occurs when an individual threatened by his own angry feelings accuses another of harbouring hostile thoughts .  People deal with unacceptable impulses by acting as if other people have them .
  27. 27. Example:- spouse cheats on wife and says that she is also a cheater .
  28. 28. 13)Negativism :-  Is a mechanism by which an individual draws the attention of other persons . The person develops strong and irrational resistance in accepting the suggestions of other .  The foundation of this mechanism is laid down in childhood . Most of the adults use negativism in milder forms in special situations . They don’t oppose but they do resist suggestion given by other .
  29. 29. Conclusion:-  Defence mechanism helps to reduce the anxiety & help an individual to adjust better . But too much of everything is bad . Same is true with defence mechanism . Children should be guarded against too much use of defence mechanism . Because once they start using them it will became a habit with them & later on they will be using it unconsciously .
  30. 30. References:-  McLeod, S. A. (2009). Defense Mechanisms. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/defense- mechanisms.html .  Defense mechanism: Encyclopaedia Briticana .  John M. Grohol. Psy .D , Psych central .
  31. 31. Thank you

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