1. UNIT I
Definition, Evolution of Entrepreneurs & Entrepreneurship,
Concept of Entrepreneurship & Intrapreneurship,
Characteristics and skills of Entrepreneurs, Functions and
Types of Entrepreneurs, Growth of entrepreneurship in India.
11. Medieval Age
• During the Harappa civilizations around 2700 BC, there was an internal and
external trade culture. Due to this, most foreign countries recognize Indian
• Moreover, the increase in trade occurred during the era of Mughal rule. The
popularity of Indian products, arts, crafts, Vedic tools, foods, and much more
attracted attention from different parts of the world.
• Different countries like UK, France and Portugal expanded their colonies in
different parts of the world.
• However, a significant entrepreneurial change occurred when the East India
Company started its business from the Bay of Bengal and later occupied parts of
Bengal. It indirectly linked the entire Indian state into one business ecosystem.
• There were some major downsides to the colonial mindset of England. However,
it also played some good aspects in developing entrepreneurship in India.
12. Modern and pre-independence
• The first cotton textile mill was revolutionized in 1854 by an Indian entrepreneur,
Kawasji Dover. It was one of India’s boldest steps in the modern development of
• JamsetjiTata founded the companyTata Group in the year 1868. With the
foundation of theTataGroup, he has created a bar for entrepreneurship
development in India.
• 1874 Cotton Mill by JRDTata,TISCO by DorabjiTata, 1932TataAirlines,Tata Steel
Plant, and more were high-rate businesses in India. At the same time, it has also
played a major role in various independence initiatives.
• Prime Minister Nehru adopted the economic structure line of the Soviet
Union. It gave a major push to the New Industrial Policy of 1956. Similarly,
this policy liberalized the bar and standards set by the British government,
which were the ultimate impediment to industrial development.
• Economic reforms were carried out in the initial phase of governance. Also,
prominent economists adopted the Mahalanobis model, which primarily
aims to support entrepreneurs.
20. The EssentialTraits of an Entrepreneur
1. Resilience: Entrepreneurs who are successful are resilient and able to recover from setbacks.They possess the capacity to
persevere through difficulties and continue forward motion.
Example: Byju's, an Indian ed-tech startup, faced multiple challenges in its early years, including difficulty securing funding
and building a user base. However, the company remained resilient and is now valued at over $16 billion.
2. Innovation: Entrepreneurs who are able to innovate and think outside the box can create unique products or services that
stand out in the market.
Example: Example: Ola, an Indian ride-hailing platform, was founded in 2010 as an alternative to traditional taxis.The
company's innovative business model has helped it become one of India's most successful startups.
3. Customer Focus: Successful entrepreneurs are often customer-focused, understanding the needs and preferences of their
Example: Zomato, an Indian food delivery platform, has built its business on providing customers with a seamless and
convenient experience. The company has expanded rapidly in recent years and is now worth more than $5 billion.
21. The EssentialTraits of an Entrepreneur
4. Risk-taking: Entrepreneurs who are willing to take risks and pursue bold ideas can create
new opportunities and disrupt established industries.
Example: Paytm, an Indian digital payments platform, was founded in 2010 when digital
payments in India were still in their infancy.The founders of the company took a risk on a new
and untested business model, which has paid off handsomely. Paytm is now one of the most
valuable startups in India.
5. Adaptability: Entrepreneurs who are successful must be able to adapt to changing
circumstances and respond to new challenges.
Example: during the COVID-19 pandemic, PharmEasy, an Indian healthcare startup, was able
to pivot its business model to meet the growing demand for online medical consultations and
• A person within a large corporation who takes direct responsibility for
turning an idea into a profitable finished product through assertive risk
taking and innovation.
• Intrapreneurs have entrepreneurial skills blended with managerial skills but
operate within the confines of an organization.
23. Positive differences between entrepreneur vs
company/organization often has capital to fund the project
intrapreneurs do not have to worry about finding the talent to get tasks performed
intrapreneurs can use the branding of the company/organization to get their ideas to
24. Name some companies started by
• Second Life
26. Intrapreneurial Activity
• Spotting ways to improve service
• Save time, money, or make life easier
•Visualizing variations of current products / services
• Realizing new communication avenues with customers
• Enhancing the quality
• New ways to get the job done quicker or smarter
27. Implementing the Intrapreneurship Culture
• Encourage employees to be creative and to look for new ways to improve your current way of
• Grant intrapreneurs something akin to ownership rights in the internal intraprises they create
• Encourage company wide involvement by insisting on truth and honesty in marketing and
• Treat intrapreneurial teams as profit centers rather than as cost centers
• Allow team members a variety of options in jobs, in innovation efforts, alliances, and exchanges
• Encourage employees to develop through training programs
30. What is an Entrepreneur?
• An entrepreneur is someone who sets off to
build their own business from scratch.
What is an Intrapreneur?
• An intrapreneur is an employee responsible
for innovating change at an existing
company. A sort of entrepreneur within the
The Advantages of Being an
• Free ownership
• Thrilling experience
The Advantages of Being an
• Low risk
• Perks, Leverage, and Salary
34. • Trading Entrepreneur
a person who undertakes business-related activities. These types of entrepreneurs
usually buy finished products in bulk from manufacturers at some discount.They then
sell these products directly or with the help of retailers or vendors with profits.
• Manufacturing Entrepreneur
manufacturing entrepreneurs transform raw materials into finished products according
to the customer's needs.
• Agricultural Entrepreneur who primarily do agricultural work.
• Technical Entrepreneur who use to start and continue industries primarily based
on science and technology
• Non-Technical Entrepreneur non-tech entrepreneurs are those who work for
innovations using traditional methods. they create better relationships and meet
35. • Private Entrepreneur A private entrepreneur is the only person who plays the sole
proprietor role for a business venture and bears the risk associated with it.
• State Entrepreneur the government is the sole owner of the enterprise and will bear
all the profits and losses involved with it.
• Joint Entrepreneurs When a business or industrial undertaking is established and
operated jointly by the private entrepreneur and the government, it is called joint
entrepreneurship. However, the sharing percentages generally depend on the type of
business and the agreement between the two parties.
• Men Entrepreneurs When any business venture is formed, managed and operated by
men, these men are referred to as men entrepreneurs.
• Women Entrepreneurs When any business venture is formed, managed and operated
by women, these women are referred to as women entrepreneurs. Besides, if women
have a minimum 51 percent share of the capital, they can also be known as women
36. • Small-Scale Entrepreneur If an entrepreneur has invested up to a maximum of 1
crore in starting an enterprise, including plant and machinery, such entrepreneur is
called Small Scale Entrepreneur.
• Medium-Scale Entrepreneur If an entrepreneur has invested a minimum of 1 crore to
a maximum of 5 crores in starting an enterprise, including plant and machinery, then
such entrepreneur is called Medium Scale Entrepreneur.
• Large-Scale Entrepreneur If an entrepreneur has invested more than 5 crores in
starting an enterprise, including plant and machinery, such an entrepreneur is called a
large-scale entrepreneur.This includes any investment above 5 crores.
• Innovative entrepreneurs, also known as innovators, are the type of entrepreneurs who
usually come to the market with new ideas or innovations. Such entrepreneurs always
try to innovate and invest their time and money in research and development.
37. • Imitative entrepreneurs or imitating entrepreneurs are often called 'copy cats'.
This is because these entrepreneurs mainly follow and adopt the innovative
entrepreneurs' existing successful enterprise system.
• Fabian entrepreneurs are defined as those types of entrepreneurs who generally
do not seek to implement changes in their enterprise techniques.They are very
careful in applying any approach and cautious in exercising any change.
• Drone entrepreneurs are defined as entrepreneurs who do not like to adopt any
changes in their enterprise techniques.They strictly follow their traditional
strategies or methods for development, production or marketing.
39. Transformation of Entrepreneurship in India
Liberalization Providing some provisions in different parts of
It boosts the private sector, including banks and
the stock market
Privatization Disinvestment of Public Firms to reduce the
Promote the national entrepreneurs for good
Globalization Welcoming FDIs, and FPI Creating SEZ and
Corridor for foreign companies
The New Economic Policy of 1991 was a huge turning point. This policy has included three
major aspects, which are as follows.
40. Programs Launched as Part of the Startup India
1. Startup India Action Plan: On January 16, 2016, a Startup India Action
Plan was unveiled. The Action Plan comprises 19 action items spanning
across areas such as "simplification and handholding", "funding support
and incentives" and "industry-academia partnership and incubation".
2. Fund of Funds for Startups (FFS) Scheme: To meet the funding needs of
startups, the government established FFS with a corpus of ₹10,000 crore.
The monitoring agency is DPIIT, and the operating agency is the Small
Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI).
41. Programs Launched as Part of the Startup India
3. Credit Guarantee Scheme for Startups (CGSS): The government has set up the
Credit Guarantee Scheme for Startups to provide credit guarantees on loans made to
DPIIT-recognised startups by Scheduled Commercial Banks, Non-Banking Financial
Companies (NBFCs), and Venture Debt Funds (VDFs) under SEBI-registered
Alternative Investment Funds. The purpose of CGSS is to provide credit guarantees up
to a certain limit against loans extended by member institutions (MIs) to finance
eligible borrowers, namely DPIIT-recognised startups.
4. Regulatory Reforms: Since 2016, the government has implemented over 50
regulatory reforms to improve the ease of doing business, the ease of raising capital,
and the compliance burden on the startup ecosystem.
42. Programs Launched as Part of the Startup India
5. Ease of Procurement: To facilitate procurement, central ministries and
departments have been directed to relax the prior turnover and prior
experience in public procurement requirements for all DPIIT-recognized
startups, subject to meeting quality and technical specifications. Additionally,
the Government e-Marketplace (GeM) Startup Runway has been created,
which is a dedicated section for startups to sell products and services directly
to the government.
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