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Located near Fatehgarh Sahib and Sirhind in Punjab, the Aam
Khas Bagh bears the historic stamp of three famous Mughal
emperors. Today it can be seen as a monument which
showcases traces of Mughal architecture, as it has not been
It was initially built by the first Mughal emperor of India, Akbar,
as a highway-inn getaway which can be used by common people
as well as the royalty during travelling to Lahore from Delhi.
After Akbar, it was rebuilt by Shah Jahan, another Mughal
emperor along with the Mughal military road stretching
between Lahore and Delhi. The royal couple used this place
as their stay halt while plying between Lahore and Delhi.
Later on, Jahangir also made some additions in this
monument. The garden area stretching over one and a half
mile was segregated into two parts - the Aam for public
use and the Khas for private use by the Royalty.
As per history, the city of Sirhind, witnessed repeated
wars between Mughals and Sikh forces 1708 AD,
1758 AD and 1768 Ad.
Thus, this garden went through excessive damage and
its tanks & waterways got filled with earth.
During the reign of Mughal emperor Akbar, it was built and
planned by the Mughal architect Hafiz Rakhna. He styled this
place as "Bagh Naulaka".
The Mughal emperors not only constructed the Aam-Khas Bagh
but they also developed its hinterland to ensure a pleasant and
comfortable stay for the visitors and Mughal royalties. Some of
the rare plants from the Mughal era are still extant in this
The Aam-Khas Bagh Complex was quite famous for its perfect
air conditioning system which Mughals used to call "Sarad
Khana". Along with air conditioning system, there existed Sheesh
Mahal, Daulat khana-e-Khaas, the tank and the Hamam which
possessed some unique methodology for heating the water.
The palace compound was beautified with a wide array of
fountains and waterfalls. Water for these was drawn from a
nearly located huge well and this water was circulated through all
the fountains with the help of undergrounds conduits.
The Garden complex has been designed on a north – south
central axis with three main enclosures falling on to the axis,
the rest are supporting.
The main architectural features of the complex are its buildings
like Sard Khana, Daulat Khana, Hammam, The tank,
Sheesh Mahal etc. and its complex water systems which
include water channels, fountains, chinikhana, wells, tanks etc.
with lawns and orchard around them.
There are ten enclosures of the garden complex which is
enclosed by 5.2m high thick brick wall, adorned with
The enclosure 1, 2 and 3 are the main enclosures which
are located in the central axis of the garden; the
enclosures 4 and 5 are located on the western side of the
central axis and the enclosures 7-10 are located on the
eastern side. While the enclosure 6 is on the central spine.
The complex was famous for a perfect air-conditioning system
called Sarad Khana. The hamamand the tank had unique
methods of heating water. The palace compound also had a set
of fountains. Water for the fountains was drawn from a huge well
nearby and circulated through underground conduits.
This is an air conditioned chamber of that time. The water was
pulled out through large pulleys from the adjoining well and was
passed through water channels running through the walls of this
building and was used for fountains and waterfalls.
The following monuments are situated in the vicinity of
Aam Khas Bagh.
This monument was built extensively under the reign of Mughal
It used to be an air conditioned chamber for which water was pulled
out from the adjoining well through large pulleys and was made to pass
through the water channels running all through the walls of this
The circulation of water made this place cool and air conditioned. This
water was also used for the waterfalls and fountains in the garden.
It was a double storeyed building, which was used by Shah
Jahan, as his residence. It was one of the most beautiful
buildings of that era.
All the main walls and rooms of this building were festooned
with some exclusive designs. The central hall of this building
was quite big and its eastern walls had two tall minarets. The
northern side possessed several tanks and fountains that added
extensive value to the grandeur of this building.
This beautiful monument was known for its astonishing
architecture and it was also built on the orders of
Jahangir, the Mughal emperor.
The domes of this beautiful building were bedecked with
glazed tiles, traces of which still exist today.
Shahi Hamam : This monument was constructed on the
orders of Jahangir, the Mughal emperor.
It was the channel of heated water where water was taken
inside through some underground terracotta channels where a
unique method for heating the water was applied.
The Tank : This tank was located marvelously between the
quarters that were built for Mughal employees.
There used to be a Mehtaabi Chabutra in the centre of this
tank which has now fallen down.