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How the World Views Migration
The potential role of diasporas in shaping
public opinion on migration
Connecting, Communicating and Networking with Diasporas
4-6 May 2016 - Dublin Castle - Ireland
Marzia Rango, IOM
Funded by the
European Union
• IOM‘s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC)
• Monitoring public opinion on migration
• Results from the IOM-Gallup report How the World Views Migration
• Challenges of research on public attitudes towards migration
• What role for diasporas? Discussion
Overview
IOM Global Migration Data Analysis Centre
(GMDAC)
Officially launched by DG Swing, on September 7th, 2015
Enhance IOM’s global migration data collection & analysis
Part of IOM’s HQ Global migration challenges
4 staff from Geneva + new recruits
3 key goals
1. Provide timely and authoritative analysis of data on global migration issues
2. Enhance IOM’s efforts to build the data capacities of Member States and Observers
3. Promote a better understanding and use of migration data, including IOM data
• Strong influence of public opinion on migration policymaking
• Public attitudes towards migration affect migrants (in origin/destination countries)
 Effectiveness of migrant integration policies
• Migration management includes managing perceptions of migration
 Learning about public opinion
Importance of monitoring public opinion on migration
IOM-Gallup report How the World Views Migration
• First global report on public attitudes towards immigration
Interviews with almost 184,000 adults across 142 countries, in 2012—2014
• Nationally representative samples of 1000 (or more) of population aged 15+
• Sample includes migrants and non-migrants (no migrant groups identified)
• 2 questions asked about immigration:
Now, I would like to ask you some questions about immigrants — people who have come to live and work in this
country from another country.
1. In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased or decreased?
2. Do you think immigrants mostly take jobs that citizens in this country do not want (e.g. low paying or not
prestigious jobs), or mostly take jobs that citizens in this country want?
IOM-Gallup report How the World Views Migration
Relationship between attitudes towards immigration and:
Personal characteristics
 Education, age, employment status of respondents
 Migrant status (native-born, first generation migrant, second generation migrant)
 Perceptions of economic conditions in the country
 Personal standard of living (getting better or worse)
 Household income (within country quintile)
Country context
 Top 10 Migrant Destination Countries
 Income group
 International Migration Policies
Globally, people are more likely to be positive rather than negative towards immigration
1. Geography of immigration attitudes
22%
5% 4%
13% 12%
30%
10%
34%
26%
39%
39% 40%
29%
52%
21%
28%
23%
18%
26%
24%
8%
22%
41%
34% 30%
21% 18%
30%
Global* Oceania Northern America Latin America and
the Carribbean
Africa Asia Europe
In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased, or
decreased?
Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer)
*Total group results are weighted by population size. Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Attitudes are vastly different across the Latin America and Caribbean region
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Attitudes are vastly different across the African region
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Residents in Western and South-East Asia more negative, more positive in Gulf countries
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Europe is the most negative region towards immigration – but opinions within Europe vary widely
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Attitudes towards immigration: Northern America
Opinions are mostly positive – in the U.S. residents are more likely to favour lower immigration than in Canada.
4% 4% 4%
39%
30%
40%
23%
22%
23%
34%
45%
33%
Northern America Canada United States
In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level,
increased or decreased?
Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer)
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Attitudes towards immigration: Oceania
Large majorities in Australia and New Zealand are in favour of increasing or maintaining immigration
levels in their countries.
22
5 6 3
34
26 25 30
21
28 30
19
22
41 40
48
Global Oceania Australia New Zealand
Present level Increased Decreased (Don’t know/Refused to answer)
In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level,
increased or decreased? (%)
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Attitudes towards immigration by share of international
migrants in the population
*United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), International Migrant Stock as a Share of the Total Population, 2013
27%
10% 6%
30%
54%
43%
23% 14%
16%
19% 22%
35%
Less than 3% 3-10% Over 10%
In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present
level, increased, or decreased?
Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer)
Share of international migrants in the total population*
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Global
attitudes
towards
immigration,
by education
Note: Primary or Less: completed primary education or less (up to eight years of basic education)
Secondary/some tertiary: some secondary education through three years of tertiary education
University: university degree (completed bachelor’s degree or equivalent)
2. Demographics of immigration attitudes
31%
15% 10%
31%
39%
36%
22%
20%
23%
17%
26%
30%
Primary or less Secondary/some tertiary University
In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present
level, increased, or decreased?
Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer)
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Attitudes towards immigration: native born vs. immigrants
22%
10% 10%
35%
44%
34%
20%
16%
20%
24%
30% 37%
Native-born Second-generation migrants First-generation migrants
In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level,
increased, or decreased?
Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer)
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Attitudes towards immigration by employment status
22%
15%
33% 41%
22% 23%
23% 22%
Not Unemployed Unemployed
In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its
present level, increased, or decreased?
Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer)
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Attitudes towards immigration by age
19% 23% 27%
35%
34%
34%
23% 22% 17%
22% 22% 21%
15-29 30-54 55+
In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present
level, increased, or decreased?
Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer)
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
3. Economics of immigration attitudes
In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its
present level, increased or decreased?
24%
17%
25% 42%
27%
20%
25% 21%
Excellent/Good Fair/Poor
How would you rate economic conditions in this
country today -- as excellent, good, only fair, or poor?
Present level
Increased
Decreased
(Don't know/Refused to answer)
25%
16% 13%
25% 40% 48%
27%
23% 17%
24% 21% 22%
Getting Better The Same (Vol.) Getting Worse
Right now, do you think the economic conditions in
your country, as a whole, are getting better or getting
worse?
Present level
Increased
Decreased
(Don't know/Refused to answer)
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Attitudes towards immigration by personal standard of living
23% 21% 20%
29% 38% 43%
24%
20% 18%
23% 21% 19%
Getting better The Same (Vol.) Getting Worse
Right now, do you feel your standard of living is getting better or
getting worse?
In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present
level, increased, or decreased?
Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer)
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Perception of job competition between nationals and immigrants
26
4
15 12 15
35
16
18
8
16 22 18
16
31
29
21
18
18
31
30 35
27
67
52 48
35
19 19
Global Northern America Oceania Europe LAC Asia Africa
Mostly take jobs that citizens in this country do not want Mostly take jobs that citizens in this country want
(Both) Don't know/Refused
Do you think immigrants mostly take jobs that citizens of this country do not want (e.g. low-paying or not prestigious jobs) or mostly take
jobs that citizens of this country want? (%)
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Perception of job competition between nationals and immigrants
Do you think immigrants mostly take jobs that citizens of this country do not want (e.g. low-paying or not prestigious
jobs) or mostly take jobs that citizens of this country want?
5% 7% 9%
41%
42% 42%
23%
29% 24%
31%
22% 25%
Mostly take jobs that
citizens in this country
do not want
Mostly take jobs that
citizens in this country
want
(Both)
Attitudestowardslevelsofimmigration
Present level
Increased
Decreased
(Don't know/Refused to answer)
Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
4. Government policies and immigration attitudes
24%
7%
19%
34%
42%
61% 35%
24%
15% 11%
23%
23%
19% 22% 23% 20%
No intervention Lower (decrease) Maintain (present level) Raise (Increase)
Government policies on immigration levels*
In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its
present level, increased, or decreased?
Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer)
*UN World Population Policies database, 2011 Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
Key take-aways
1. Opinions about migration around the world are not as negative as often portrayed
2. Lack of opinion for many people around the world  Potential to shape it
3. The economy is important but does not explain the full story  Cultural and social
dimensions
4. Contact between migrants and non-migrants matters  Potentially important role
for diasporas
Challenges of research on public attitudes towards
migration
Limitations of public opinion polls
Wording of questions and answer options may affect results
Superficiality (limited answers, no nuances of opinions)
Selection of answer options based on assumptions on what is relevant
Definitions rarely provided – who do people think of when they think of immigrants?
Lack of time to form an opinion
Interpretation of results problematic: assumptions
1. People have an opinion
2. Public opinion results from aggregation of individual opinions
Translation issues (international surveys)
Volatility of personal opinions (timing of survey)  importance of contextual factors
Gap: public opinion about emigrants/returnees
• People‘s opinions about emigrants may have an impact on effectiveness of diaspora initiatives in
countries of origin
• Limited empirical research on public opinion about emigration (IOM‘s World Migration Report 2011)
- Ambivalence towards emigrants: from home country abandonment to “national heroes”
• Return migration: largely understudied
- Attitudes towards returnees affect returning migrants and their decisions
- Ambivalence towards return migrants: from role-model status to “failure”
Final remarks
• Strong interplay between public opinion, migration policies and the media
 Role of governments
 Role of academia/policy analysts
 Need for more research on public opinion
• Migrants too often viewed as passive agents in the migration debate
 Enabling migrant voices to be heard
 IOM’s “I am a migrant” campaign (‘Je suis migrant’, ‘Soy migrante’)
• Personal experience often trumps stereotypes
• How can diasporas contribute in these areas?
Discussion
• Any existing diaspora initiatives to promote a more positive image of migrants?
• Any initiatives by media outlets/the private sector to give voice to migrants?
• Any initiatives from governments/IOs/CSOs to promote a more balanced migration
debate?
• Any new research that colleagues in academia wish to flag?
Contact
Marzia Rango
Research Officer
IOM Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC)
Berlin
mrango@iom.int
www.gmdac.iom.int
gmdac@iom.int
Twitter: @IOM_GMDAC

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How the world views migration - by IOM Global Migration Data Analysis Centre

  • 1. How the World Views Migration The potential role of diasporas in shaping public opinion on migration Connecting, Communicating and Networking with Diasporas 4-6 May 2016 - Dublin Castle - Ireland Marzia Rango, IOM Funded by the European Union
  • 2. • IOM‘s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) • Monitoring public opinion on migration • Results from the IOM-Gallup report How the World Views Migration • Challenges of research on public attitudes towards migration • What role for diasporas? Discussion Overview
  • 3. IOM Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) Officially launched by DG Swing, on September 7th, 2015 Enhance IOM’s global migration data collection & analysis Part of IOM’s HQ Global migration challenges 4 staff from Geneva + new recruits 3 key goals 1. Provide timely and authoritative analysis of data on global migration issues 2. Enhance IOM’s efforts to build the data capacities of Member States and Observers 3. Promote a better understanding and use of migration data, including IOM data
  • 4. • Strong influence of public opinion on migration policymaking • Public attitudes towards migration affect migrants (in origin/destination countries)  Effectiveness of migrant integration policies • Migration management includes managing perceptions of migration  Learning about public opinion Importance of monitoring public opinion on migration
  • 5. IOM-Gallup report How the World Views Migration • First global report on public attitudes towards immigration Interviews with almost 184,000 adults across 142 countries, in 2012—2014 • Nationally representative samples of 1000 (or more) of population aged 15+ • Sample includes migrants and non-migrants (no migrant groups identified) • 2 questions asked about immigration: Now, I would like to ask you some questions about immigrants — people who have come to live and work in this country from another country. 1. In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased or decreased? 2. Do you think immigrants mostly take jobs that citizens in this country do not want (e.g. low paying or not prestigious jobs), or mostly take jobs that citizens in this country want?
  • 6. IOM-Gallup report How the World Views Migration Relationship between attitudes towards immigration and: Personal characteristics  Education, age, employment status of respondents  Migrant status (native-born, first generation migrant, second generation migrant)  Perceptions of economic conditions in the country  Personal standard of living (getting better or worse)  Household income (within country quintile) Country context  Top 10 Migrant Destination Countries  Income group  International Migration Policies
  • 7. Globally, people are more likely to be positive rather than negative towards immigration 1. Geography of immigration attitudes 22% 5% 4% 13% 12% 30% 10% 34% 26% 39% 39% 40% 29% 52% 21% 28% 23% 18% 26% 24% 8% 22% 41% 34% 30% 21% 18% 30% Global* Oceania Northern America Latin America and the Carribbean Africa Asia Europe In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased, or decreased? Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer) *Total group results are weighted by population size. Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 8. Attitudes are vastly different across the Latin America and Caribbean region Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 9. Attitudes are vastly different across the African region Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 10. Residents in Western and South-East Asia more negative, more positive in Gulf countries Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 11. Europe is the most negative region towards immigration – but opinions within Europe vary widely Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 12. Attitudes towards immigration: Northern America Opinions are mostly positive – in the U.S. residents are more likely to favour lower immigration than in Canada. 4% 4% 4% 39% 30% 40% 23% 22% 23% 34% 45% 33% Northern America Canada United States In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased or decreased? Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer) Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 13. Attitudes towards immigration: Oceania Large majorities in Australia and New Zealand are in favour of increasing or maintaining immigration levels in their countries. 22 5 6 3 34 26 25 30 21 28 30 19 22 41 40 48 Global Oceania Australia New Zealand Present level Increased Decreased (Don’t know/Refused to answer) In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased or decreased? (%) Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 14. Attitudes towards immigration by share of international migrants in the population *United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA), International Migrant Stock as a Share of the Total Population, 2013 27% 10% 6% 30% 54% 43% 23% 14% 16% 19% 22% 35% Less than 3% 3-10% Over 10% In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased, or decreased? Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer) Share of international migrants in the total population* Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 15. Global attitudes towards immigration, by education Note: Primary or Less: completed primary education or less (up to eight years of basic education) Secondary/some tertiary: some secondary education through three years of tertiary education University: university degree (completed bachelor’s degree or equivalent) 2. Demographics of immigration attitudes 31% 15% 10% 31% 39% 36% 22% 20% 23% 17% 26% 30% Primary or less Secondary/some tertiary University In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased, or decreased? Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer) Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 16. Attitudes towards immigration: native born vs. immigrants 22% 10% 10% 35% 44% 34% 20% 16% 20% 24% 30% 37% Native-born Second-generation migrants First-generation migrants In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased, or decreased? Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer) Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 17. Attitudes towards immigration by employment status 22% 15% 33% 41% 22% 23% 23% 22% Not Unemployed Unemployed In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased, or decreased? Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer) Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 18. Attitudes towards immigration by age 19% 23% 27% 35% 34% 34% 23% 22% 17% 22% 22% 21% 15-29 30-54 55+ In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased, or decreased? Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer) Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 19. 3. Economics of immigration attitudes In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased or decreased? 24% 17% 25% 42% 27% 20% 25% 21% Excellent/Good Fair/Poor How would you rate economic conditions in this country today -- as excellent, good, only fair, or poor? Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer) 25% 16% 13% 25% 40% 48% 27% 23% 17% 24% 21% 22% Getting Better The Same (Vol.) Getting Worse Right now, do you think the economic conditions in your country, as a whole, are getting better or getting worse? Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer) Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 20. Attitudes towards immigration by personal standard of living 23% 21% 20% 29% 38% 43% 24% 20% 18% 23% 21% 19% Getting better The Same (Vol.) Getting Worse Right now, do you feel your standard of living is getting better or getting worse? In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased, or decreased? Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer) Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 21. Perception of job competition between nationals and immigrants 26 4 15 12 15 35 16 18 8 16 22 18 16 31 29 21 18 18 31 30 35 27 67 52 48 35 19 19 Global Northern America Oceania Europe LAC Asia Africa Mostly take jobs that citizens in this country do not want Mostly take jobs that citizens in this country want (Both) Don't know/Refused Do you think immigrants mostly take jobs that citizens of this country do not want (e.g. low-paying or not prestigious jobs) or mostly take jobs that citizens of this country want? (%) Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 22. Perception of job competition between nationals and immigrants Do you think immigrants mostly take jobs that citizens of this country do not want (e.g. low-paying or not prestigious jobs) or mostly take jobs that citizens of this country want? 5% 7% 9% 41% 42% 42% 23% 29% 24% 31% 22% 25% Mostly take jobs that citizens in this country do not want Mostly take jobs that citizens in this country want (Both) Attitudestowardslevelsofimmigration Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer) Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 23. 4. Government policies and immigration attitudes 24% 7% 19% 34% 42% 61% 35% 24% 15% 11% 23% 23% 19% 22% 23% 20% No intervention Lower (decrease) Maintain (present level) Raise (Increase) Government policies on immigration levels* In your view, should immigration in this country be kept at its present level, increased, or decreased? Present level Increased Decreased (Don't know/Refused to answer) *UN World Population Policies database, 2011 Source: IOM-Gallup (2015) How the World Views Migration
  • 24. Key take-aways 1. Opinions about migration around the world are not as negative as often portrayed 2. Lack of opinion for many people around the world  Potential to shape it 3. The economy is important but does not explain the full story  Cultural and social dimensions 4. Contact between migrants and non-migrants matters  Potentially important role for diasporas
  • 25. Challenges of research on public attitudes towards migration Limitations of public opinion polls Wording of questions and answer options may affect results Superficiality (limited answers, no nuances of opinions) Selection of answer options based on assumptions on what is relevant Definitions rarely provided – who do people think of when they think of immigrants? Lack of time to form an opinion Interpretation of results problematic: assumptions 1. People have an opinion 2. Public opinion results from aggregation of individual opinions Translation issues (international surveys) Volatility of personal opinions (timing of survey)  importance of contextual factors
  • 26. Gap: public opinion about emigrants/returnees • People‘s opinions about emigrants may have an impact on effectiveness of diaspora initiatives in countries of origin • Limited empirical research on public opinion about emigration (IOM‘s World Migration Report 2011) - Ambivalence towards emigrants: from home country abandonment to “national heroes” • Return migration: largely understudied - Attitudes towards returnees affect returning migrants and their decisions - Ambivalence towards return migrants: from role-model status to “failure”
  • 27. Final remarks • Strong interplay between public opinion, migration policies and the media  Role of governments  Role of academia/policy analysts  Need for more research on public opinion • Migrants too often viewed as passive agents in the migration debate  Enabling migrant voices to be heard  IOM’s “I am a migrant” campaign (‘Je suis migrant’, ‘Soy migrante’) • Personal experience often trumps stereotypes • How can diasporas contribute in these areas?
  • 28. Discussion • Any existing diaspora initiatives to promote a more positive image of migrants? • Any initiatives by media outlets/the private sector to give voice to migrants? • Any initiatives from governments/IOs/CSOs to promote a more balanced migration debate? • Any new research that colleagues in academia wish to flag?
  • 29. Contact Marzia Rango Research Officer IOM Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) Berlin mrango@iom.int www.gmdac.iom.int gmdac@iom.int Twitter: @IOM_GMDAC