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Deliberative governance on vulnerability to climate change: voices from Madhesi farmers

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Presented by IWMI's Floriane Clement at the Nepal Annual Conference on Nepal and the Himalaya, in Kathmandu, on July 22, 2015.

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Deliberative governance on vulnerability to climate change: voices from Madhesi farmers

  1. 1. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI Water for a food-secure world www.iwmi.org Dr Floriane Clement, IWMI-Nepal Annual Conference on Nepal and the Himalaya Kathmandu 22 July 2015 Deliberative governance on vulnerability to climate change: voices from Madhesi farmers Photo credit: Pawan Kumar/ Himalay Film
  2. 2. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Context • Massive investment on adaptation to climate change in the development sector • Climate change debates largely driven by natural scientists and risk-hazard perspective
  3. 3. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world • Constructivist approach: ‘various groups of people conceive of the world in different ways’ (Hajer and Wagenaar 2003: 11) • Plural framings contingent upon social values, economic interests and organizational structures • Difficult to separate facts from values (Forsyth, 2005) • ‘Governance is seen to be as much about shared problem construction as it is about collective solutions’ (Leach et al., 2007: 28) Reflexive Governance
  4. 4. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Connecting Farmers’ Voices to Climate Change Policies and Discourses in Terai-Madhesh • Participatory video (2013); 12 films produced • Responses of 24 policy-makers video-recorded • Audiovisual material compiled in a 35’ film Photo credit: Pawan Kumar/ Himalay Films
  5. 5. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Using audiovisual material for deliberative and reflexive governance • Evocativeness and action orientation • Can be easily spread and disseminated
  6. 6. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Deliberative dialogues • Screenings in 6 VDCs – 200 farmers • 2 radio roundtable discussions on local and national radios • 2 workshops Photo credit: Pawan Kumar/ Himalay Films
  7. 7. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Framings of vulnerability Risk-hazard and entitlement approaches (Ribot, 2010)
  8. 8. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world NAPA Climate change Agriculture and Food Security Water Resources and Energy Forests and Biodiversity Public Health Urban Settlements and Infrastructure Climate induced Disasters
  9. 9. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Farmers’ views Failure of agriculture Migration Changes in weather patterns Lack of access to agricultural inputs Poverty Lack of infrastructure Lack of access to irrigation facilities Dowry system Poor education system Lack of employment opportunities Interventions not reaching the poor Poor discriminated in accessing facilities Poor’s voices not heard
  10. 10. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world NAPA (GoN 2010) Farmers Perspective Risk hazard approach – impact of CC on different sectors Entitlement approach – CC one of the multiple factors creating vulnerability Causes of vulnerability Natural environment, household characteristics, local context Lack of and unequal access to public services and facilities; lack of accountable government representatives ; lack of influence in decision-making Type of interventions Technical and managerial options (e.g. construction of water storage, adoption of drought-resistant crop varieties and organic farming practices) defined for each sector/domain in isolation Technical interventions Role of actors Government to coordinate programmes and deliver public services Local people to better adapt through increased awareness and adoption of better practices Government to deliver public services and monitor service delivery Local people to raise their voice, ask for funds and keep the government accountable
  11. 11. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Root causes of vulnerability Climate change or lack of public facilities and services? • “Plants are drying because of a lack of irrigation”; “Because of a lack of irrigation water, farming is a failure” Poverty or unequal access to basic services? • : “the government doesn’t provide these facilities. Only the rich people receive benefits and nobody listens to the poor”. • “Teachers in public schools educate their own children …uh.. in private schools. Public schools are only the choice of poor children”.
  12. 12. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world “The failure of agriculture” • “Farming is impossible” • “Nothing seems possible” • “Without migration, men would have eaten men” • “What to say, we are in trouble here”
  13. 13. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Creating a new discursive space • Film well acknowledged • Stakeholders’ discourses opened a bit to new spaces but overall did not change – Farmers emphasized government’s lack of accountability and declining level of community cooperation – Civil society advocated for a right-based, demand-based and participatory approach – Government representatives stressed the need for farmers to adopt good practices
  14. 14. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Conclusion • Need for the facilitator to simplify and synthesise the different storylines in play to allow stakeholders engaging a dialogue • Objective is not for stakeholders to reach a consensus but rather to acknowledge multiple framings and unpack their social and political-economic underpinnings
  15. 15. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world THANK YOU

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