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Indian ethos from Vedanta in Business

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Indian ethos from Vedanta in Business

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This ppt presents how learnings from India epic scriptures and Upanishads forms basic of business management

This ppt presents how learnings from India epic scriptures and Upanishads forms basic of business management

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  1. 1. Concept, Components of Indian Ethos Principles of Indian Ethos Teaching from major Indian Scriptures, Application of Indian Ethos to Management Quality of work life and Indian Ethos Indian ethos
  2. 2. Ethos Oxford defines ethos as : “The characteristic Spirit and Beliefs of community/ people” which distinguishes one culture from the other. Indian ethos is drawn from the Vedas, the Ramayana, Mahabharat, the Bhagwadgita, and Upnishads.
  3. 3. Ethos vs. Ethics Ethos is a discipline that examines one’s morality or the moral standard of the society. Where as ; Ethics means expected standards in terms of your personal and social welfare. It includes honesty, morality, responsibility etc.
  4. 4. Difference Between Ethics and Ethos Ethics Ethics is a set of principles that guide the behavior of an individual as regard to what is right and what is wrong, good and bad, moral, immoral Ethics are derived from Shastra Ethics are universal in nature Ethics determine Functions such as paap,punya, Swarg, narak etc Example- Truth, Violence, donation, kindness Ethos Ethos is a character or fundamental values of a person, people, culture or movement It is based on customs and traditions Ethos is derived from culture Ethos are culture It determines cultural behavior or culture Welcome,Pranam, love to youngsters
  5. 5. Indian Ethos Indian Ethos refers to values , beliefs or ideals that are drawn from Indian Customs and traditions. Indian ethos refers the values and beliefs of our traditional scriptures such as Vedas, Upanishads and epics like Ramayana, Maharashtra and Bhagwad Gita.
  6. 6. Indian Ethos in Management 'Indian Ethos in Management' refers to the values and practices that the culture of India (Bharatheeya Sanskriti) can contribute to service, leadership and management. These values and practices are rooted in Sanathana Dharma (the eternal essence), and have been influenced by various strands of Indian philosophy.
  7. 7. What is Indian Ethos For Management? It means application of principles of management revealed in our ancient wisdom described in Upanishades and Gita. The following basic principles of management are as per ancient Indian Wisdom and Insight :
  8. 8. Principles of Indian Ethos: Divinity of all souls Dignity of work Ananda or Bliss Equanimity Know Yourself Unique Work Culture Vasundhra Kutumbakam Holistic Approach to Management Work Results and Detachment Co-operation Equal Importance to Subjectivity/Objectivity
  9. 9. Know Yourself: Who are you? All of us are part of supreme power (GOD) & hence all of us have all the divine qualities like integrity, patience, courage, loyalty, forgiveness, service attitude i.e. mind so if you try to develop our self by improving our qualities we will not only make our self happy but also the society be live in. Each Soul is a Potential God A human being has a soul, a spark of Divine.The Divide resides in the heart of a person. The Divine means perfection in knowledge, wisdom and power. Therefore, a human being has immense potential power or energy for selfdevelopment. The partnership of God and Man can bring about extraordinary or miraculous result. Indian wisdom indicates that productivity of human being is more important than plant capacity. Hence, management is helping ordinary people to produce extraordinary results.
  10. 10. Holistic Approach Holistic Approach in Management is based on spiritual principle of unity, oneness, non-dual or Advaita concept. Under this principle of unity, the universe is an undivided whole where every particle is connected with every other particle. Hence, entire Humanity is ONE. Management must recognise Oneness of Humanity. Respect the Divine in all beings. We should behave in same way of manner which we expect from others. Efficiency & effectiveness in an organization will increase only when there is co-operation team spirit & positive energy in employees.
  11. 11. Equal Importance to Subjectivity/Objectivity- Indian ethos for management distinguish subject and object. Subject is subtle and intangible. Object is gross or concrete, and tangible or invisible. Human and ethical values or qualities such as courage, vision, social awareness, fearlessness and clear mind, truth, etc are subjective, subtle and intangible concept. These represents divine wealth. Inner resource of human being are more powerful than external resources. Eg- Japan could prosper in industry, business and trade due to optimum utilisation of inner resources. Japan does not have coal, mineral and petroleum. ‘Creator is subjective. Creation is objective’. Therefore, manager must develop third eye, the eye of vision, intuition, foresight and such other divine qualities or values. This is the essence of Indian ethos for management.
  12. 12. Sewa Or Service Attitude: The person should have altitude of service providing & at the same time have happy face i.e. smile on face.eg: organization should be service oriented & not profit oriented, provide best possible service to your entire customer. Karma Yoga (selfless work) It is yoga of moral endeavour, self-less service to others. It brings about union of human being with the Divine. Work is done as workship to the Divine in human beings who is also all pervading in the universe(which is just a projection of the Divine). Gita evolves moral and ethical theory of human conduct and expounds the art of right living- the doctrine of duty with discipline and devotion without attachment to work and agency. Do your duty without ego and without calculations of gain or loss. Let not the fruit of action motivate you. Let not the fruits divert your concentration on work. Pour your heart and soul in the performance of your assigned duty. Concentrate your attention only on your present job.
  13. 13. Self Sacrifice: Self sacrifice refers to sacrifice of self ego. We should be ready to sacrifice for others. Team Spirit: Treat work as YAJNA – together i.e. T- Together E- Everyone, A- Achieves, M- More.
  14. 14. Present Moment: Think only about a) What is there in front of you at present? b) We cannot change the past or predict future. c) So have total focus & dedication present in situation. d) Do not take unnecessary stress of work, take it as a play. Perfection In Work: Bhagwad Gita emphasizes on while doing your present duty we should use our judgment & perform with utmost concentration. Do work without expecting what will be the result. “Do the works for the sake of your organization result will follow automatically” Self Motivation: No one can encourage us for long. Nobody can encourage us more than our self. “Work should be worship”. If we love the work we do it will bring happiness & effectiveness. “Do what you love to do a& love what you are doing”
  15. 15. Bliss (Ananda): Happiness of Soul. One should be equanimous i.e. accept pleasure and pain joys and sorrows is a part of life. Dharma – Right Artha – Money Kama – Work Moksha – Freedom Dignity of Work: Dignity of work is much important as far as Indian ethos is concerned. No work is great or small. Each work whether it is a peon’s job or General Manager’s job, is of equal importance, worthy & honorable. It lays stress on “Sarvabhutastha Atmanam Sarvabhutani Chatmani” which means to treat all as equals.
  16. 16. Components of Indian ethos Indian believe: 1. Ego sublimation rather than ego assertion 2. Sacrificing spirit rather than fighting spirit 3. Team achievement rather than individual achievement 4. Spiritual attainment rather than material prosperity 5. Self control rather than outside control 6. Concept of duties rather than concept of rights 7. Yielding rather than dominating 8. Concern for this age world and improvement 9. Respect for and search for all truth whatever be its source
  17. 17. Management attitude Humanizing organization Interiorizing (self) management Self introspection Brain stilling Stepping back Self dynamising meditation Role of intuition (feeling) Need of the Indian ethos
  18. 18. Management attitude: Top management must have firm belief in values-oriented holistic management of business. The management is called upon to meet expectations of all stakeholders, e.g., employees, customers, citizens and shareholders and fulfill the social responsibility. Profit is earned through service and satisfaction of all these interested parties Humanizing organization: There are three aspects of humane organisation : 1. Inter-personal relations 2. Man- machine equation and 3. Inner management- mental and spiritual. An organisation can create best inter-personal relations based on promotion from within, equality, autonomy, self-esteem and fraternal affection. Unity, harmony and effective communication can assure team spirit and team work in an organisation. Interiorizing (self) management: Self management: The manager is first a man and then a manager. The manager should first learn to manage and control himself. Without selfmanagement and control, how can he manage and control others? The first need is to understand and know himself. This is a course in the subjective system of management.
  19. 19. Self introspection We have to embark upon self-study, self analysis and self criticism to locate areas of friction and disharmony. We should prepare a balance sheet of our own strengths and weaknesses. our mind and heart may indicate weak spots. By regular introspection we would find out solution to problem so that the concerned parts of our being can be persuaded and guided to play the desired role. Brain stilling (Decision-making in silence) The western management resorts to brain-storming, i.e., loud thinking by managers for decisions to solve management problems. The Indian insight advocates a better alternative in the form of brain-stilling. For rational and enduring decisions, silent mind is a much more effective medium to get sound and lasting solution to all management problems. By this method the manager and his employees come into contacts with the inner mind or higher consciousness for arriving at proper solution to their
  20. 20. Stepping back The stepping back or drawing back into yourself is another device of learning to go deep within and look; you can remain quiet and call on the inner consciousness force and wait for a while for an answer. Then you know exactly what to do. Remember therefore, that you cannot receive the answer before you are very peaceful. The stepping back from a situation for a while enables you to control and even master the situation. When you have a problem to solve, when you are caught in a difficulty, try this method. ‘Never decide anything, never speak a word, never throw yourself into action without stepping-back.’ Self dynamising meditation A dynamic meditation is meditation of transforming of lower consciousness into higher consciousness. Hence we call it transforming meditation. It opens the third eye of wisdom through insight. Through meditation, in a silent and calm mind, you are able to contact this centre or higher conciousness. This is called consciousness approach to management, a process of ‘within to without’ management. The management and workers must have absolute faith or trust on the Supreme’s Infinite Power. Our inner being has the true knowledge. It says, “ I know, I cannot give reasons, but I know.”
  21. 21. Role of intuition (feeling) Intuition is the act of coming to direct knowledge or certainty without reasoning or inferring. It is immediate cognition by the inner mind and when fully developed is efficient and effective for taking prompt and sound decisions. Intuition skills enable one to cope with confidence the fluctuating environment and rapid changes. Faith is Prerequisite to develop and realize the power of intuition. In the scheme of management as per Indian ethos, the inner mind and the inner aspects of man are emphasised and the inner being has to develop for manifestation in the physical. In the management process consciousness is the approach, harmony is the tool and perfection is the aim. Centralisation of authority is meant to diffuse and decentralise functions and the power to perform them.
  22. 22. Managerial effectiveness under Indian ethos in management Basic of difference Western management Management Based on Indian ethos Belief Production, productivity, profit at any cost Material gain, with belief in achieving human and social welfare also Guidance Management guided by mind only, led away by ego and desire, soulless management Management by consciousness power beyond mind, i.e., soul. Interiorized management Emphasis Worker development, management of others, profit maximization. Human being given only lip sympathy Development of man, integrated growth, harmony, happiness and health, Management of self Tools 5Ms as resources- men, money, materials, machines, markets. Science and technology information for decision marking Men, machines, materials and methods as conscious partners all having consciousness whether manifested or dormant. Information and intuition for decision. Ethics and values combined with skills
  23. 23. Basic of difference Western management Management Based on Indian ethos Problem solving Conflict resolution by negotiation, compromise, arbitration, liquidation of differences only for a temporary period. No reference to higher consciousness Conflict resolution through integration and synthesis on stressing super ordinate common goals so that enduring harmony and unity is assured. Self introspection, stepping back aids the search for solution Decision making Brain storming (round table approach) Brain stilling (entering the room of timeless silence) Development Physical, vital and mental only. Soul or spirit ignored. Material development only, even at the cost of man and nature Integrated development, whole man approach, breath control and meditation emphasized. Human enrichment and total quality Approach External behavior. Mental, material, selfish only- soulless Noble attitudes. Inner guidance, team spirit, total harmony, global good
  24. 24. Business ethos principles practiced by Indian Companies Indian companies are guided by certain rules of conduct in the form of ethical and moral standards. Some of the business ethos principles, practiced by Indian companies are listed below 1. Principle of `sacrifice’ An individual is trained by the principle of `sacrifice’ through the process of `give and take’ policy. A person, who is willing to sacrifice part of his bread or effort, commands a superior place in the organization. 2. Principle of `harmony’ An individual is trained in such a way that to avoid conflicts and friction one should be guided by certain set of moral conducts and principles. 3. Principle of `non-violence’ This principle protects an organization from strikes and lockouts and unnecessary avoidable conflicts.
  25. 25. 4. Principle of `reward’ The one who performs well are encouraged to do so. This implies that the activities of individuals need to be monitored and encouragement in the form of `rewards’ may cultivate the spirit of higher productivity among groups. 5. Principle of `justice’ The one who works hard is `rewarded’ and the one who fails to do so is `punished’. This is essence the principle of Justice. 6. Principle of `Integrity’ An integrated mind is more productive. Groups are encouraged to stay united in order to reap the benefits of division of labour.
  26. 26. Application of Indian Ethos to Management – Indian ethos provides that „Business‟ need not be regarded evil, tainted and unethical. Business is sacred. It is a matter of attitude, approach and level of management consciousness. One can do business, make money, earn profit, build up property and even then it can be managed with due recognition to human and ethical values and respecting all persons in the enterprise and in the society as human beings. Indian ethos demands subjective management system, giving due importance to virtues like compassion, honesty, co-operation etc.
  27. 27. Teaching from major Indian Scriptures ScriptureDescription ScriptureDescription TheVedas TherearefourVedasviz.Rig-Veda,Yajur-Veda,Sama-Veda,andAtharva-Veda. The primarythoughtintheVedasisamysticconceptionoftheuniverse.Thewholeeffort oftheVedaisdirected towardsonegoal–toachieveunionoftheindividualSelf (Atman)withtheworldSelf(Brahma). Upanishads TheVedantaseekstoknowtheultimatereality(Brahman)andthecause behind everything.Inthispursuititseekstodetachfromthematerialworld andunitewithBrahman(Godorsupremeconsciousness). BhagavadaGita It depictslessonsonspiritualityandethicsthroughadialogue between LordKrishnaandthewarriorArjunawhoisatagreatcrisisofhislife.TheKarma Yoga,SamkhyaYoga,Bhakti YogaandthenotionofthreeGunas(Sattwa,Rajas, Tamas)haveveryimportantimplicationsinthecontext ofethicalleadership, decisionmakingandmanagementwhichwewilldiscuss subsequently.
  28. 28. Scripture Description Scripture Description Ramayana It depictsthedutiesofrelationships, portraying ideal characters liketheideal father, ideal servant,theideal brother,theideal wifeandtheideal king.Apartfromthis, the Ramayanaalsoteacheshowthetemptation for lust canbringapowerfulandwell establishedman’sdoomsday. Buddhism (1)Thefounderofthis schoolwasGautamSidhharthawholater becameLord Gautam Buddha.TheBuddhismis basedonthefournobletruths: (i) Suffering exists; (ii) There is acauseofthesuffering;(iii) Sufferingcanbeeradicated;(iv)Thereis ameansfor eradicationofthatsuffering.Buddhaestablishesthateverythingontheearthis non- permanent.And,nothingonearth is self. Henceeverythingonthis earthis “anatta”or not-self.Finally, Buddhataughttheeightfoldpath toliberation fromall suffering. Patanjali Yoga It represents aformofpersonaldiscipline whereweintegrate thebodyandthesoul, the individualself (Atman)withtheUniversalself (Brahman).AccordingtoPatanjali, Yogais thecontrolofthemodificationsofthemind.It is mindthat leads to orto liberation;thatmosthumanproblemsarementalandthat theonlyremedyto solvethem is mentaldiscipline
  29. 29. Quality of work life and Indian Ethos 1 Why work? – Topurify my mind and heart and to become wise. To provide public benefit. 2.What is work? – Tonurture each other. My work is a for of yagna, sacrifice. I develop the spirit of sacrifice. It is a worship of the Divine. 3.How to work? – With the spirit of renunciation, i.e.. Tyag and to serve others. I must work without self-interest. 4.Spirits of work : Excellence in work. Perfection in work and quality of output.
  30. 30. Explain dimensions of work Ethos Protecting the interest of the Organization Appropriate System Proper Communication System Sense of Loyalty towards organization Discipline
  31. 31. Management ethics is the ethical treatment of employees, stockholders, owners and the public by a company. A company, while needing to make a profit, should have good ethics. Employees should be treated well, whether they are employed here or overseas. By being respectful of the environment in the community a compound ethics, and good, honest records also show respect to stockholders and owners. Most of us would agree that it is ethics in practice that makes sense; just having it carefully drafted and redrafted in books may not serve the purpose.
  32. 32. Of course all of us want businesses to be fair, clean and beneficial to the society. For that to happen, organizations need to abide by ethics or rule of law, engage themselves in fair practices and competition; all of which will benefit the consumer, the society and organization. Ethics are about making choices that may not always feel good or seem like they benefit you but are the'right' choices to make. They are the choices that are examples of 'model citizen' and are the examples of 'golden rules' like; don't hurt, don't steal, don't be dishonest, don't lie. But if we take Ethics as a subjective philosophy then what will happen to these golden rules. Especially at the time of facing an ethical dilemma how one should decide - what is ethical and what's unethical? Organization provides rules, regulations, code of conduct, protocols which provide guidelines to work, it shows how to walk, but it does not show the correct path to walk on. Ethical dilemmas faced by managers are often more real to life and highly complex with no clear guidelines, whether in law or often in religion.
  33. 33. Concept of work in Vedanta Work is here considered as an exercise of energy. A living being has no alternative but to be working physically or mentally. A non working body is a dead body. A man has to work to realize that divinity residing in him. Thus attitude towards work is quite different. An Indian does not work for a livelihood only, but he considers it as his duty( Sadhana), as Indian philosophy teaches that every work you perform can only be an offering to that divine in you.
  34. 34. Indian ethos in management: Indian management is slowly emerging to promote equally excellence and spiritual enrichment both in individual and collective life.The salient ideas and thoughts of Indian ethos in management revealed by our scriptures are: 1. Atmano Moksharathan, Jagat hitaya All work is an opportunity for doing good to the world and thus gaining materially and spiritually in ourlives. 2. Archyet Dana ManabhyamWorship people not only with material things but also by showing respect to their ever present divinity within 3. Atmana Vindyate ViryanStrength and inspiration for excelling in work comes from the divine, God within, through prayer, holyreadings and unselfish work.
  35. 35. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4VbDJbTacFE
  36. 36. 4. Yogah karmasu kaushalam. Samatvam yoga uchyate He who works with calm and even mind achieves the most 5. Yahishi Bhavana yasya siddhi bhavati tadrishiAs we think, so we succeed, so we become. Attention to means ensures the end 6. Parasparam bhavayantah shreyah param bhavapsyathahBy mutual co- operation, respect and fellow feeling all of us will enjoy the highest good both materialand spiritual.
  37. 37. 7. Tesham sukhm tesham shanty shaswatiInfinite happiness and infinite peace comes to them, who see the Divine in all beings.8. Paraspar Devo BhavRegard the other person as a divine being. All of us have the same consciousness though ourcontainers are different
  38. 38. Prevalence This theme is embedded in varying levels as part of programmes in business management offered by various business schools and universities. FMS-WISDOM at Banasthali Vidyapith under the National Resource Center setup by Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, developed video based modules with focus on Indian ethos for management teachers. IIM Calcutta has a centre for human values to foster research and academic activities in the domain of Indian ethos. IIM Indore organised a conference on Indian Management in December 2017 . IBA Banglore linked cultural symbols to the idea of Indian ethos

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