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Agriculture and Development

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Lecture on Agriculture and Development

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Agriculture and Development

  2. 2. Countries of the First World  The term First World originally refers to the capitalist, industrialized countries, within the Western European and United States' sphere of influence, (e.g. member states of the NATO).  Nations with the most advanced economy, highest standard of living, the most advanced technology, the greatest influence in the world.  The term could also mean: industrialized nations, developed countries, rich countries or the civilized world, in contrast to the poor, under-developed un-civilized, exploited nations of the so called Third World. (http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/third_world.htm#Poverty)
  3. 3. Countries of the World First World: the United States and its allies Second World: the Soviet Union and its allies Third World: Non-aligned and neutral countries
  4. 4. List of First World Countries NATO Member States Belgium France Canada Denmark France Germany Greece Netherlands Italy Spain Norway Portugal USA Turkey United Kingdom US Allied Israel Japan South Korea Former British Colonies Australia New Zealand Neutral Austria Switzerland Ireland Sweden
  5. 5. Countries of the Second World  "Second World" refers to the former communist-socialist, industrial states, (formerly the Eastern bloc, the territory and sphere of influence of the Union of Soviet Socialists Republic) today: Russia, Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland) and some of the Turk States (e.g., Kazakhstan) as well as China.
  6. 6. Countries of the Third World  The term Third World was originally coined in times of the Cold War to distinguish those nations that are neither aligned with the West (NATO) nor with the East, the Communist bloc.  Today the term is often used to describe the developing countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania.  Many poorer nations adopted the term to describe themselves.
  7. 7. The world´s most impoverished countries. The least developed countries (LDCs) are a group of countries that have been identified by the UN as "least developed". United Nations used the following three criteria for the identification of the LDCs 1. a low-income estimate of the gross national income (GNI) per capita. 2. their weak human assets and 3. their high degree of economic vulnerability. There are 50 countries listed in the United Nations comparative analysis of poverty, 34 African countries, 10 Asian countries, 5 Pacific Island Nations and one Caribbean nation.
  8. 8. Poverty in the Philippines  87 million Filipinos  65 million poor Filipinos (80%) struggle to survive on equivalent of P98 (US$2) or less each day (2003)  46 million Filipinos hungry (by dietary needs)  Since 2000, average family incomes have dropped 10% corresponds to P60/person/day (US$1.20), average family size of 6
  9. 9. Forced abroad: overseas workers  9-10 million overseas Filipinos in 192 countries Equivalent to ¼ of labor force  Inc. temporary, irregular, permanent 3,200 Filipinos leave every day $13-15 B in remittances  five-fold increase from early 1980s  Families separated + discrimination, abuse and violations of their rights to decent wages and working conditions
  10. 10. Key Characteristics of Agriculture in a Developing Country Low Labor Productivity  Labor productivity (output per worker or output per hour of labor) is quite low in most developing countries.
  11. 11.  To feed these additional people will require higher yields on land already in agriculture or more agricultural land.
  12. 12.  There isn't enough land that could be economically converted to agriculture. Hence every available space is utilized for agricultural purposes.
  13. 13.  High cost of agricultural products and large percentage of income is spent on food.  The problem is not mainly on the availability of food but on the high cost of food items.
  14. 14. Food's Share of Household Expenditures Declines with Economic Growth  In general, as per capita income increases, the percentage of a household's income spent on food also declines.  As households earn more income, they choose to spend most of that additional income on things other than food.
  15. 15. Small Family Farms  "Small" here means the amount of land that can be farmed by a family without relying much on hired labor – perhaps only 2 hectares in many areas of developing countries but over 1000 hectares in many parts of the U.S., Australia, Canada and New Zealand.
  16. 16. Limited Commercialization  Small farms in developing countries tend to produce subsistence crops (for home consumption) instead of cash crops (for sale on the market).
  17. 17.  They tend to be much less specialized in the crops and livestock products produced than their counterparts in developed countries.  In brief, small farmers in developing countries have comparatively limited involvement in markets.
  18. 18. Selected Agricultural Statistics
  19. 19. Agricultural Growth Is Necessary for Economic Growth  Nearly every high-income country has a highly productive agricultural sector, and agricultural growth was in every case a critical component of the process of economic growth.
  20. 20.  Productivity growth in agriculture permits workers to move out of agriculture and into the production of other goods and services without having too much of an impact on domestic agricultural production.
  21. 21. Agriculture's Share of the Economy Declines with Economic Growth.  In general, as per capita income increases, production agriculture's percentage of the labor force declines.
  22. 22.  Agriculture's share of gross domestic product (GDP) also declines. GDP is a widely used measure of national income. Economic Dependence on Agriculture Percent of gross domestic product generated from the agricultural sector by country income level, 2003
  23. 23. Yields of rice, wheat, and corn in the ten largest developing countries in terms of population (China, India, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Mexico, Philippines, Vietnam) and the three largest developed countries (U.S., Japan, Germany).
  24. 24. What is Subsistence Agriculture?  Subsistence agriculture—involves food production mainly for the family and local community rather than for market  Farmers keep few if any livestock, often relying on hunting and fishing for much of their food supply
  25. 25.  Agriculture is the primary and often only source of income for poor rural people, most of whom depend on subsistence farming and fishing for their livelihoods.
  26. 26.  In general, illiteracy, unemployment and the incidence of poverty are higher among indigenous peoples and people living in the upland areas.  Overall, more than a third of the people in the Philippines live in poverty.
  27. 27. Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture  involves less-advanced technology;  reliance on machinery and chemicals will not be possible without a government support,  draft animals (carabaos and horses) are used as source of farm power and for transportation  dependent on rainfall as water source  involves more on growing of crops than raising animals
  28. 28. Slash and Burn Agriculture  Slash and burn agriculture is the process of cutting down the vegetation in a particular plot of land, setting fire to the remaining foliage, and using the ashes to provide nutrients to the soil for use of planting food crops (Stief, n.d.)
  29. 29. Steps done in slash and burn agriculture 1. Prepare the field by cutting down vegetation; plants that provide food or timber may be left standing. 2. The downed vegetation is allowed to dry until just before the rainiest part of the year to ensure an effective burn. 3. The plot of land is burned to remove vegetation, drive away pests, and provide a burst of nutrients for planting. 4. Planting is done directly in the ashes left after the burn.
  30. 30. Problems in Subsistence Agriculture  The practice of “slash and burn” farming leads to forest clearings  Planting in mountain slopes increases the risk of erosion  Fields may gradually lose the fertility they once had  Endangerment and extinction of biodiversity may be magnified
  31. 31. Problems in Subsistence Agriculture