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Methods for Characterization of Epitaxial Thin Films

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Methods for Characterization of Epitaxial Thin Films

  1. 1. Methods for Characterization of Epitaxial Thin Films - Matthew Clark - PLT (110) Pt (110) Analysis of thin film materials http://www.rigaku.com/en/products/xrd/ultima/app033 (accessed Nov 15, 2016).
  2. 2. Thin Films • Crucial to the success of modern electronic devices • Allows for complex layering in devices • Many different deposition techniques: PLD, ALD, Sputtering, Spin coating etc. Substrate (mm) Deposited Thin Film (nm - μm)
  3. 3. Epitaxy • Perfectly epitaxial thin films consist of ordered crystallite domains matching the structure of the underlying substrate • Necessary to maximize desired properties of anisotropic materials Substrate Film Polycrystalline Film Epitaxial Film Substrate Film
  4. 4. Pole Figure Diagrams • X(α), φ(β) scan • Used to determine degree of preferred orientation • Pole figures are measured along varying crystallographic orientations • Tailoring of preferred orientation crucial to device engineering Polycrystalline Randomly Oriented Polycrystalline Degree of Orientation Crystallographic Texture http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/crystallographic_texture/texture_representation.php (accessed Nov 18, 2016).
  5. 5. Relationship Between Film and Substrate • Heteroepitaxy • If lattice mismatch between film and substrate is small material can conform to substrate • Relaxation can create dislocations or defects Res, H.; Zimmerman, M. High Resolution X-ray Diffractometry. www.bruker-webinars.com.
  6. 6. Reciprocal Space Mapping • 2θ/ω , ω2θχ/φ , φ scan • 2D representation of 3D intensity data • Allows for characterization of lattice distortion/ relaxation • Epitaxial orientation (Mosaicity) Konya, T. The Rigaku Journal 2009, 25 (2).
  7. 7. In Plane Diffraction • 2θχ/φ , φ scan • Reflection Intensities of thin film often weak with respect to substrate • Diffraction from lattice planes normal to the substrate observed • Measurement depth is controllable Kobayashi, S. The Rigaku Journal 2010, 26 (1).
  8. 8. Current Work • In situ determination of lattice strain pole figures (Kazimirov et al.) • Employing lattice strain helps to develop modeling methodology capable of predicting alloy behavior • In situ growth studies using synchrotron radiation (Kawamura et al.) • Diffraction experiments performed at elevated temperatures throughout growth stage • Synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy (Chen et al.) • Laser additive formation, preferred orientation sometimes may deviate from the axial direction of the actual growth
  9. 9. References • Li, X.; Sundaram, S.; Disseix, P.; Gac, G. L.; Bouchoule, S.; Patriarche, G.; Réveret, F.; Leymarie, J.; Gmili, Y. E.; Moudakir, T.; Genty, F.; Salvestrini, J.-P.; Dupuis, R. D.; Voss, P. L.; Ougazzaden, A. Optical Materials Express 2015, 5 (2), 380. • Analysis of thin film materials http://www.rigaku.com/en/products/xrd/ultima/app033 (accessed Nov 15, 2016). • Crystallographic Texture http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/crystallographic_texture/ texture_representation.php (accessed Nov 18, 2016). • Res, H.; Zimmerman, M. High Resolution X-ray Diffractometry. www.bruker-webinars.com. • Kobayashi, S. The Rigaku Journal 2010, 26 (1). • Inaba, K. The Rigaku Journal 2008, 24 (1). • Konya, T. The Rigaku Journal 2009, 25 (2). • Mitsunaga, T. The Rigaku Journal 2009, 25 (1). • Nagao, K.;Kagami, E The Rigaku Journal 2011, 27 (2). • Xue, J.; Zhang, A.; Li, Y.; Qian, D.; Wan, J.; Qi, B.; Tamura, N.; Song, Z.; Chen, K. Sci. Rep. Scientific Reports 2015, 5, 14903. • Miller, M. P.; Bernier, J. V.; Park, J.-S.; Kazimirov, A. Review of Scientific Instruments 2005, 76 (11), 113903. • Lamberti, C. Surface Science Reports 2004, 53 (1-5), 1–197. • T. Kawamura, Y. Watanabe, S. Fujikawa, S. Bhunia, K. Uchida, J. Matsui, Y. Kagoshima, Y. Tsusaka, Real-time observation of surface morphology of indium phosphide MOVPE growth with using X-ray reflectivity technique, J. Cryst. Growth 237 (2002) 398 


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