Self Concept is an individual conceptualization about
how one thinks about himself or herself.
It is a subjective sense of unconscious and conscious
thoughts, attitude and perceptions.
Self concept provides a frame of reference that effects
the management of all situations and relationship
At the end of this unit, learners will be able to:
1. Define self perception/ self concept pattern.
2. Describe the functions of self and self concept
3. Discuss how self concept develops through out the
4. Discuss factors that can effect self concept
5. Identify possible manifestation of altered self concept
6. Apply nursing process for a person with an altered
5. Definition of Self Concept
Self concept is an individuals identity about how one
thinks about himself or herself. It means how one
thinks or how one feels about himself or herself. (By
Self-concept i s one’s mental image of oneself
Self concept is the way we picture ourselves including
our traits and values.
6. Self-Concept /Self Perception
• The set of beliefs that we hold about who we are is
called the self concept.
• It can also be defined as the sum total of an
individual’s beliefs about his or her own personal
• It is basically the individuals image of the kind of
person he or she is. Especially included in this are the
awareness of being (What I am) and awareness of
function (What I can do).
7. Self-Concept /Self Perception
Perception: the ability to see, hear, or become aware of
something through the senses
Self-Perception: is one's self-concept, self-knowledge,
selfesteem, & self-assessments in order to define one's self-
Self-Schema: refers to the beliefs and ideas people have
Self Concept: A self-concept is a reflection of the reactions of
others towards an individual
8. The Role of the “Self”
Self: A person's essential being that distinguishes them
from others, especially considered as the object of
Capacity for self-reflection is necessary for self-
Private, “Inner” Self
Public, “Outer” Self
9. The ABCs of the Self
The self concept includes
2. Behavioral aspect
3. Affective aspect
10. COGNITIVE ASPECT: SELF SCHEMA
Self schemas are “cognitive generalizations
about the self, derived from past experience,
that organize and guide the processing of self-
How do we come to know ourselves, develop a
selfconcept, and maintain a stable sense of
11. AFFECTIVE/EVALUATIVE ASPECT : SELF ESTEEM
“self esteem reflects the perceived difference between
an individual’s actual self concept (who I think I really
am) and some ideal self image (who I would really
like to be).”
How do we evaluate ourselves, enhance our self-
images, and defend against threats to our self-
William James (1890) expressed the relationship this way.
Self esteem= success/pretension
Pretension (ideals against which individuals assess their actual self
12. BEHAVIORALASPECT : SELF PERCEPTION
How do we regulate our actions and present ourselves
according to interpersonal demands?
Darl Bem (1972) influential self perception theory
reflects we observe our behavior and the situation in
which it took place, make attributions about why the
behavior occurred, and draw conclusions about our
own characteristic and disposition.
In other words we come to understand ourselves the
same way we perceive and understand others.
13. Johari Window
Known by self Unknown by Self
Known by other OPEN ARENA BLIND SPOT
14. Mechanism of Self Concept
There are three mechanisms of self concept,
Real Self}………………Positive self concept
Characteristics of a Positive Self-Concept
• Ability to accept criticism and not become defensive
• Setting obtainable goals
• Willingness to take risks and try new experiences
15. Components of Self-Concept
A positive self concept gives a sense of meaning,
wholeness, and consistency. It has following
i. Self Identity
ii. Body Image
iii. Role Performance
iv. Self esteem
18. Components of Self-Concept
A sense of personal identity is what sets one person
apart as a unique individual.
Identity includes a person’s name, gender, ethnic
identity, family status, occupation, and roles.
One’s personal identity begins to develop during
childhood and is constantly reinforced and modified
19. Components of Self-Concept
Body image is an attitude about one’s physical
attributes and characteristics, appearance, and
Body image is dynamic because any change in body
structure or function, including the normal changes
of growth and development, can affect it.
20. Components of Self-Concept
Self-esteem is the judgement of personal performance
compared with self-ideal.
Self-esteem is derived from a sense of giving and receiving
love, and being respected by others.
Self-ideal serves as an internal regulator to support self-
respect and self-esteem
Two sources for esteem are self and others.
A person develops high self-esteem when he or She
receives positive Feed back from both Self and others.
22. Components of Self-Concept
4. Role Performance
Role refers to a set of expected behaviors determined by
familial, cultural, and social norms.
The level of self-esteem is dependent upon the
selfperception of adequate role performance in these
various social roles.
Stressors Affecting Role Performance
Whenever a person is unable to fulfill role responsibilities,
self-concept is impaired.
Global Self: is the term used to describe the composite
of all basic facts, qualities, traits, images and feelings
one holds about oneself. It includes:
1. Basic facts: sex, age, race, occupation, cultural
background, sexual orientation
2. Person’s position with social groups
3. Qualities or traits that describe typical behaviours,
feelings, moods and other characteristics (generous,
hot-headed , ambitious, intelligent etc)
• Involves the “ideal” self --- the self a person wants to
be. It is the setting of present and future goals.
• Expectations for self flow from various sources.
• The ideal self constitutes the self one want to be.
• Self expectations develop unconsciously early in
childhood and are based on image of role models
such as parents
• Self-Ideal is the perception of behavior based on
personal standards and self-expectations.
26. Social Self
Social self is how a person perceived by others and
The Self in a Social Context/background
They focus on explaining an individual's actions within a
It investigates the question of how the personal self
relates to the social environment
Self esteem is the evaluative and affective component
of self concept
The appraisal of oneself in relationship to others,
events, or situations.
Maslow’s Subsets of Esteem Needs:
1. Self-esteem (strength, achievement, mastery,
2. Respect needs or the need for esteem from others
28. Development of Self-Concept
Self-concept evolves throughout life and depends to an
extent on an individual’s developmental level.
Formation of Self-Concept
1. Infant learns physical self different from environment.
2. If basic needs are met, child has positive feelings of
3. Child internalizes others people’s attitudes toward
4. Child or adult internalizes standards of society.
29. Stages in Development of Self
Self-awareness (Newborn (28-Days)infancy=1year)
Self-recognition (18 months) Toddler and
Self-definition (3 years) Preschooler
Self-concept (6 to7years) School Age Adolescence
30. DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-CONCEPT
Various psychosocial theories have been developed to explain
the development of self-concept. A discussion of Erikson’s
theory of psychosocial development related to self-concept
Erikson’s (1963) psychosocial theory states that an individual’s
development proceeds throughout life. Each of his eight
developmental stages includes psychosocial tasks that need to
32. Factors Affecting Self-perception
• Altered Health Status
• Developmental considerations
• Heredity & Culture
• Internal and external resources
• History of success and failure
• Crisis or life stressors & coping
• Aging, illness, or trauma
33. Obtaining a Client History of Self-Concept
• How would you describe yourself?
• How do others describe you?
• What has been your greatest accomplishment?
• How does this make you feel?
• When you receive praise, do you feel worthy of it?
• What do you admire most about yourself?
• How do you react when you experience failure?
• How do you cope with failure?
• Have you experienced past or recent changes in body image, self-
esteem, or role performance?
• Have you experienced feelings of powerlessness or hopelessness?
• Who do you consider your support group?
• What do you do to make yourself laugh
34. Nursing Diagnosis
• Disturbed Body Image
• Parental Role Conflict
• Disturbed Personal Identity
• Ineffective Role Performance
• Chronic Low Self-Esteem
• Situational Low Self-Esteem
• Disturbed Personal Identity
• Social Isolation
• Risk for Compromised Human Dignity
• Risk for Loneliness
35. Activities/Helping Patients Maintain Sense of
• Communicate worth with looks, speech, and judicious
• Acknowledge patient status, role, and individuality.
• Speak to patient respectfully.
• Offer simple explanations for procedures.
• Move patient’s body respectfully if necessary.
• Respect patient’s privacy and sensibilities.
• Acknowledge and allow expression of negative feelings.
• Help patients recognize strengths and explore
36. Conti …
• The following are activities that the nurse can teach the client
to engage in to increase one’s self-esteem:
• Taking good care of self
• Taking time to do enjoyable activities
• Spending time with people that make you feel good about
• Learning something new
• Forgiving yourself
• Doing something nice for someone else
• Positive self-talk
• Giving yourself rewards
37. Self Concept and Nursing Process
i. Observe for behavior that suggest an alteration in
the client’s self concept.
ii. Assess the client’s cultural background.
iii.Determine the client’s feelings and perceptions
about changes in body image, self esteem or role
iv.Assess the quality of the clients relationship.
v. Assess the client’s coping skills.
38. Self Concept and Nursing Process
Although their multiple nursing diagnosis label for
altered self concept the following list provides
examples of self concept, related nursing diagnosis.
i. Impaired adjustment.
iii. Disturbed body image.
iv. Caregiver role strain
39. Self Concept and Nursing Process
v. Decisional conflict.
vi. Ineffective coping.
ix. Low self esteem
x. Risk for loneliness
xi. Ineffective sexuality pattern
xii. Risk for self directed violence.
40. Self Concept and Nursing Process
i. Select therapies that strengthen or maintain the
client’s coping skills.
ii. Involve the client to ensure that realistic therapies
iii.Minimize stressors affecting the clients self concept.
41. Self Concept and Nursing Process
As with all the step of the nursing process, a
therapeutic nurse client relationship is central to the
implementation phase. Once the goal and outcome
criteria have been developed, the nurse considers
nursing interventions for promoting a healthy self
concept and helping the client move towards the
42. Health Promotion:
The nurse may work with clients to help them develop
healthy life style behaviors that contribute to positive
self concept. To facilitate the client for adequate sleep
and rest and stress reducing practices may make
health self concept. E.g. Guided imaginary.
• Sandy L. Brook introduction to nursing self concept,
• Michael A Bettman FACRS “Self Esteem article” 1960.
• Thomas Fuller Ph.D/MCPR “Teaching and Learning”
• John Jackson M.D “Manual of nursing research 6th
• Bell state university school of nursing (2001). Clinical
preceptor information, retrieved March 5, 2003.