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Closures ppt

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about types of closures used for packaging and labelling of dosage forms

Transcription

  1. 1. TYPES OF CLOSURES USED FOR PACKAGING OF DOSAGE FORMS
  2. 2.  closures are devices and techniques used to close or seal a bottle, jug, jar, tube, can, etc. Closures can be a cap, cover, lid, plug, etc.  closures tightly packs the container to exclude oxygen,carbondioxide,moisture , microorganisms ,prevents the loss of water and other volatile substances from the product
  3. 3.  Purpose of closures :  Many containers and packages require a means of closing. It can be a separate device or seal or sometimes a integral latch or lock. Depending on the contents and container, closures have several functions:  Keep the container closed and the contents contained for the specified shelf life until time of opening  Provide a barrier to dirt, oxygen, moisture, etc. Control of permeation is critical to many types of products: foods, chemicals, etc.  Keep the product secure from undesired premature opening  Provide a means of reclosing or reusing the container  Assist in dispensing and use of product  Allow reasonable ease to open the container by the intended user. Difficult to open containers may cause wrap rage. The force or torque required to open a closure is an important consideration for packaging engineers  Many types of packaging with their closures are regulated for strength, safety, security, communication, recycling, and environmental requirements.
  4. 4.  Types of closures (a)RUBBER CLOSURES (b)CAPS & OVERSEALS screw cap crown cap Snap on Friction fit (c)SPECIAL TYPES Tamper-evident Dispensing Child-resistant
  5. 5.  RUBBER CLOSURES
  6. 6.  Rubber consists of several ingredients,one of them is elastomer.rubber compounds used in pharmaceutical packaging contain only limited number of ingredients,which are difficult to extract.these closures do not pose a problem and can used in contact with large number of drug preparations.  Rubber closures for containers for aqueous parenteral preparations have been classified into 2 types,according toB.P.Type I are to be preferred:Type II closures are those,which have mechanical properties suitable for special use,cannot meet the requirements as severs as those for the 1st category because of the chemical composition.  Fragmentation test and self sealability of closures of parenteral preparation is given by…..
  7. 7. Place a volume of water corresponding to nominal volume minus 4ml in each of 12 clean vials Close vial with closure and secure caps for 16hours Pierce the closures with 21 SWG hypodermic needle and inject 1ml water and remove 1ml air Repeat the above operation 4times for each closure Count the number of fragments visible to the naked eye Total number of fragments should not be more than 10 except butyl rubber where the fragment should not exceed 15
  8. 8. SELF SEALABILITY (IP 1996) TEST FOR RUBBER CLOSURES APPLICABLE TO MULTIDOSE CONTAINERS ONLY Fill 10 vials with water to nominal volume and close the vials with closure,secure the cap Pierce the cap 10times at different sites with 21SWG hypodermic needle
  9. 9.  Immerse the vials in 0.1%w/v solution of methylene blue under reduced external pressure for 10min Restore the normal pressure and keep the container immersed for 30minutes Wash the vials.None of the vials should contain trace of coloured solution
  10. 10.  CAPS AND OVERSEALS : These are used to secure the rubber closure to the container in order to maintain the integrity of the seal under normal conditions of handling and storage.It includes:  Screw cap A screw cap or closure is a common type of closure for bottles, jars, and tubes Common screw closures: Plastic bottle with plastic screw cap, Dispensing closure for salad dressing (with inner seal), Break- away closure for syrup, Dispensing pump closure, Dispensing closure (with inner seal), Spray pump, Metal closure on glass jar, Child resistant closure, Cap on toothpaste, Measuring cap
  11. 11.  A "sports cap", which appears on many water bottles, seen in closed configuration at left an in open configuration at right, availing the water to pass around the central blue piece.  Usage  A screw closure is a mechanical device which is screwed on and off of a "finish" on a container. Either continuous threads or lugs are used. It must be engineered to be cost-effective, to provide an effective seal (and barrier), to be compatible with the contents, to be easily opened by the consumer, often to be reclosable, and to comply with product, package, and environmental laws and regulations. Some closures need to be tamper resistant and have child-resistant packaging features.
  12. 12.  Crown cap  Crown caps Main article: Bottle cap Beverage bottles are frequently closed with crown beverage caps. These are shallow metal caps that are crimped into locking position around the head of the bottle.  Bottle cap For the Nestlé candy, see Bottle Caps (candy). A generic 21-teeth crown cork bottle cap
  13. 13. Bottle caps are a type of closure used to seal the openings of bottles of many types. They can be small circular pieces of metal, usually steel with plastic backings, and for plastic bottles a plastic cap is used instead. A bottle cap is typically colorfully decorated with the logo of the brand of beverage. Caps can also be plastic, sometimes with a pour spout. Flip-Top caps like Flapper closures provide controlled dispensing of dry products  Other types plastic bottle screw Bottle closure pull-off bottle cap used to seal cap a plastic bottle
  14. 14. Snap on Some closures snap on . For opening , the top is designed to pry off, or break off, or have a built in dispenser Friction fit
  15. 15.  Some containers have a loose lid for a closure. Laboratory glassware often has ground glass joints that allow the pieces to be fitted together easily.  An Interference fit or friction fit requires some force to close and open, providing additional security. Paint cans often have a friction fit plug.
  16. 16. Special types of clousres Tamper evident Layers of tamper resistance: carton with adhesive, shrink band, cap, innerseal Main article: Tamper resistant Main article: Tamper-evident Resistance to tampering is required for some types of products. Container closures can be one of several layers of packaging to deter tampering and to provide evidence of attempts at tampering.Various types of tamper evident packagings are listed.They are-
  17. 17.  Film wrappers breakable cap ring systems  Blister packs sealed tubes  Bubble packs plastic blind end sealed tubes  Heat shrunk bands or wrappers sealed cartons  Paper foil for plastic packs aerosol containers,and  Bottle with inner mouth seals metal and composite cans  Tape seals Dispensing  A wide variety of convenience dispensing features can be built in to closures. Spray bottles and cans with aerosol spray have special closure requirements. Pour spouts, measuring attachments, sifting devices, etc. are common. Child-resistant Main article: Child-resistant packaging Child-resistant packaging or C-R packaging has special closures designed to reduce the risk of children ingesting dangerous items. This is often accomplished by the use of a special safety cap. It is required by regulation for prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, pesticides, and household chemicals.
  18. 18.  Examples .  spray bottle coffee tin – square can with friction fit closure rubber stoppers on flasks
  19. 19.  spray duster with long tube for dispensing  Closure and roll-on device for deoderant Inverted catsup bottle with innerseal and dispensing closure Bottle of Geritol with a child resistant cap
  20. 20.  References  REFERENCE :  http://www.google.co.in/search?tbm=isch&hl=en&source=hp&biw=1440&bih=809&q=dispe nsing+cap&gbv=2&oq=dispensing+&aq=7&aqi=g10&aql=undefined&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=4580l 14749l0l18l18l7l1l1l0l416l2612l2-3.4.1l8  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=RU BBER+CLOSURES&oq=RUBBER+CLOSURES&aq=f&aqi=g1&aql=undefined&gs_sm=s&gs_u pl=898013l906085l0l28l17l0l5l5l0l460l2693l2-1.2.4l7  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=VIA LS&oq=VIALS&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql=undefined&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=14585l17901l0l19l9l0l0l0l0l6 07l1864l3-1.2.1l5  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=dis pensing+cap&oq=dispensing&aq=8&aqi=g10&aql=undefined&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=19301l24985l 0l14l12l0l1l1l0l1050l3752l2-1.3.2.1.0.1l9  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=tam per+evident+cap&oq=tamper+evident+&aq=5&aqi=g8&aql=undefined&gs_sm=c&gs_upl=551 1l6246l0l5l5l0l0l0l0l957l957l6-1l1  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=chil d+resistant+closures&oq=child+resistant&aq=1&aqi=g3&aql=undefined&gs_sm=c&gs_upl=89 67l15095l0l32l18l0l3l3l0l425l2304l0.1.2.2.2l9  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=frict ion+fit+closures&oq=friction+fit+closures&aq=f&aqi=&aql=undefined&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=770 8l10147l0l9l9l0l7l0l1l531l865l3-1.0.1l2  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=sna p+on+closures&oq=snap+on+closures&aq=f&aqi=&aql=undefined&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=29570l5 0689l0l36l21l0l7l7l0l460l2750l2-1.2.4l9  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closure_(container)  U.K. JAIN,D.C .GOUPALE,S.NAYAK-PHARMACEUTICAL PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY

Description

about types of closures used for packaging and labelling of dosage forms

Transcription

  1. 1. TYPES OF CLOSURES USED FOR PACKAGING OF DOSAGE FORMS
  2. 2.  closures are devices and techniques used to close or seal a bottle, jug, jar, tube, can, etc. Closures can be a cap, cover, lid, plug, etc.  closures tightly packs the container to exclude oxygen,carbondioxide,moisture , microorganisms ,prevents the loss of water and other volatile substances from the product
  3. 3.  Purpose of closures :  Many containers and packages require a means of closing. It can be a separate device or seal or sometimes a integral latch or lock. Depending on the contents and container, closures have several functions:  Keep the container closed and the contents contained for the specified shelf life until time of opening  Provide a barrier to dirt, oxygen, moisture, etc. Control of permeation is critical to many types of products: foods, chemicals, etc.  Keep the product secure from undesired premature opening  Provide a means of reclosing or reusing the container  Assist in dispensing and use of product  Allow reasonable ease to open the container by the intended user. Difficult to open containers may cause wrap rage. The force or torque required to open a closure is an important consideration for packaging engineers  Many types of packaging with their closures are regulated for strength, safety, security, communication, recycling, and environmental requirements.
  4. 4.  Types of closures (a)RUBBER CLOSURES (b)CAPS & OVERSEALS screw cap crown cap Snap on Friction fit (c)SPECIAL TYPES Tamper-evident Dispensing Child-resistant
  5. 5.  RUBBER CLOSURES
  6. 6.  Rubber consists of several ingredients,one of them is elastomer.rubber compounds used in pharmaceutical packaging contain only limited number of ingredients,which are difficult to extract.these closures do not pose a problem and can used in contact with large number of drug preparations.  Rubber closures for containers for aqueous parenteral preparations have been classified into 2 types,according toB.P.Type I are to be preferred:Type II closures are those,which have mechanical properties suitable for special use,cannot meet the requirements as severs as those for the 1st category because of the chemical composition.  Fragmentation test and self sealability of closures of parenteral preparation is given by…..
  7. 7. Place a volume of water corresponding to nominal volume minus 4ml in each of 12 clean vials Close vial with closure and secure caps for 16hours Pierce the closures with 21 SWG hypodermic needle and inject 1ml water and remove 1ml air Repeat the above operation 4times for each closure Count the number of fragments visible to the naked eye Total number of fragments should not be more than 10 except butyl rubber where the fragment should not exceed 15
  8. 8. SELF SEALABILITY (IP 1996) TEST FOR RUBBER CLOSURES APPLICABLE TO MULTIDOSE CONTAINERS ONLY Fill 10 vials with water to nominal volume and close the vials with closure,secure the cap Pierce the cap 10times at different sites with 21SWG hypodermic needle
  9. 9.  Immerse the vials in 0.1%w/v solution of methylene blue under reduced external pressure for 10min Restore the normal pressure and keep the container immersed for 30minutes Wash the vials.None of the vials should contain trace of coloured solution
  10. 10.  CAPS AND OVERSEALS : These are used to secure the rubber closure to the container in order to maintain the integrity of the seal under normal conditions of handling and storage.It includes:  Screw cap A screw cap or closure is a common type of closure for bottles, jars, and tubes Common screw closures: Plastic bottle with plastic screw cap, Dispensing closure for salad dressing (with inner seal), Break- away closure for syrup, Dispensing pump closure, Dispensing closure (with inner seal), Spray pump, Metal closure on glass jar, Child resistant closure, Cap on toothpaste, Measuring cap
  11. 11.  A "sports cap", which appears on many water bottles, seen in closed configuration at left an in open configuration at right, availing the water to pass around the central blue piece.  Usage  A screw closure is a mechanical device which is screwed on and off of a "finish" on a container. Either continuous threads or lugs are used. It must be engineered to be cost-effective, to provide an effective seal (and barrier), to be compatible with the contents, to be easily opened by the consumer, often to be reclosable, and to comply with product, package, and environmental laws and regulations. Some closures need to be tamper resistant and have child-resistant packaging features.
  12. 12.  Crown cap  Crown caps Main article: Bottle cap Beverage bottles are frequently closed with crown beverage caps. These are shallow metal caps that are crimped into locking position around the head of the bottle.  Bottle cap For the Nestlé candy, see Bottle Caps (candy). A generic 21-teeth crown cork bottle cap
  13. 13. Bottle caps are a type of closure used to seal the openings of bottles of many types. They can be small circular pieces of metal, usually steel with plastic backings, and for plastic bottles a plastic cap is used instead. A bottle cap is typically colorfully decorated with the logo of the brand of beverage. Caps can also be plastic, sometimes with a pour spout. Flip-Top caps like Flapper closures provide controlled dispensing of dry products  Other types plastic bottle screw Bottle closure pull-off bottle cap used to seal cap a plastic bottle
  14. 14. Snap on Some closures snap on . For opening , the top is designed to pry off, or break off, or have a built in dispenser Friction fit
  15. 15.  Some containers have a loose lid for a closure. Laboratory glassware often has ground glass joints that allow the pieces to be fitted together easily.  An Interference fit or friction fit requires some force to close and open, providing additional security. Paint cans often have a friction fit plug.
  16. 16. Special types of clousres Tamper evident Layers of tamper resistance: carton with adhesive, shrink band, cap, innerseal Main article: Tamper resistant Main article: Tamper-evident Resistance to tampering is required for some types of products. Container closures can be one of several layers of packaging to deter tampering and to provide evidence of attempts at tampering.Various types of tamper evident packagings are listed.They are-
  17. 17.  Film wrappers breakable cap ring systems  Blister packs sealed tubes  Bubble packs plastic blind end sealed tubes  Heat shrunk bands or wrappers sealed cartons  Paper foil for plastic packs aerosol containers,and  Bottle with inner mouth seals metal and composite cans  Tape seals Dispensing  A wide variety of convenience dispensing features can be built in to closures. Spray bottles and cans with aerosol spray have special closure requirements. Pour spouts, measuring attachments, sifting devices, etc. are common. Child-resistant Main article: Child-resistant packaging Child-resistant packaging or C-R packaging has special closures designed to reduce the risk of children ingesting dangerous items. This is often accomplished by the use of a special safety cap. It is required by regulation for prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, pesticides, and household chemicals.
  18. 18.  Examples .  spray bottle coffee tin – square can with friction fit closure rubber stoppers on flasks
  19. 19.  spray duster with long tube for dispensing  Closure and roll-on device for deoderant Inverted catsup bottle with innerseal and dispensing closure Bottle of Geritol with a child resistant cap
  20. 20.  References  REFERENCE :  http://www.google.co.in/search?tbm=isch&hl=en&source=hp&biw=1440&bih=809&q=dispe nsing+cap&gbv=2&oq=dispensing+&aq=7&aqi=g10&aql=undefined&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=4580l 14749l0l18l18l7l1l1l0l416l2612l2-3.4.1l8  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=RU BBER+CLOSURES&oq=RUBBER+CLOSURES&aq=f&aqi=g1&aql=undefined&gs_sm=s&gs_u pl=898013l906085l0l28l17l0l5l5l0l460l2693l2-1.2.4l7  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=VIA LS&oq=VIALS&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql=undefined&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=14585l17901l0l19l9l0l0l0l0l6 07l1864l3-1.2.1l5  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=dis pensing+cap&oq=dispensing&aq=8&aqi=g10&aql=undefined&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=19301l24985l 0l14l12l0l1l1l0l1050l3752l2-1.3.2.1.0.1l9  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=tam per+evident+cap&oq=tamper+evident+&aq=5&aqi=g8&aql=undefined&gs_sm=c&gs_upl=551 1l6246l0l5l5l0l0l0l0l957l957l6-1l1  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=chil d+resistant+closures&oq=child+resistant&aq=1&aqi=g3&aql=undefined&gs_sm=c&gs_upl=89 67l15095l0l32l18l0l3l3l0l425l2304l0.1.2.2.2l9  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=frict ion+fit+closures&oq=friction+fit+closures&aq=f&aqi=&aql=undefined&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=770 8l10147l0l9l9l0l7l0l1l531l865l3-1.0.1l2  http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&biw=1440&bih=809&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=sna p+on+closures&oq=snap+on+closures&aq=f&aqi=&aql=undefined&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=29570l5 0689l0l36l21l0l7l7l0l460l2750l2-1.2.4l9  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closure_(container)  U.K. JAIN,D.C .GOUPALE,S.NAYAK-PHARMACEUTICAL PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY

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