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Methods of educational psychology

  1. BHAGAT PHOOL SINGH MAHILAVISHYAVIDHYALYA BPS ITTR SONIPAT, HARYANA SESSION 2014-2015
  2. SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED BY MS. SUSHILA SHARMA JYOTI TEACHER ASSISTANT 14060284 B.ED
  3. INTROSPECTION METHOD WHEN A PERSON OR ‘SUBJECT’ HIMSELF OBSERVES HIS OWN MENTAL STATES AND BEHAVIOUR,IT IS INTROSPECTION OR SUBJECTIVE OBSERVATION. IT IS ONE OF THE OLDEST METHOD OF PSYCHOLOGY, WHICH IS DERIVED FROM TWO WORDS(1) INTRO, AND (2)SPECTION. INTRO MEANS ‘WITHIN’ AND SPECTION MEANS ‘LOOKING’ OR’ ‘OBSERVING’.HENCE, INTROSPECTION MEANS LOOKING OR OBSERVING WITHIN. WOODWORTH HAS CALLED IT ‘SELF OBSERVATION’
  4. VALUE OF INTROSPECTION METHOD IT IS SIMPELEST AND MOST ECONOMICAL METHOD AS IT REQUIRES NO LABORATORY OR FINANCE etc. THE SUBJECT GETS DIRECT, IMMEDIATE AND INTUTIVE KNOWELEDGE ABOUT HIS MIND. TEACHERS CAN IMPROVE THEIR TEACHING BY SELF EVALUATION AND SELF SUGGESTION
  5. LIMITATIONS OF INTROSPECTION METHOD IT IS MOST SUBJETIVE ,PERSONAL, AND UNSCIENTIFIC METHOD. THIS METHOD IS NOT OF UNIVERSAL APPLICATION. ITS RESULT DEPENDS ON SUBJECT OR THE OBSERVER AND NOT VERIFIABLE BY OTHER SUBJECT OR OBSERVER. IT IS NOT USEFUL FOR THE STUDY OF CHILD AND ANIMAL
  6. OBSERVATION METHOD IN THE WORDS OF SAMUEL SMITH , ‘OBSERVATION IS A VISUAL METHOD OF EXAMINING, DESCRIBING, AND INTERPRETING THE REACTIONS OF INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS IN LABORATORY, CLASS ROOM, OR OUT OF SCHOOL SITUATION’. HERE, WE OBSERVE THE MENTAL PROCESSES AND BEHAVIOUR OF OTHERS.
  7. TYPES OF OBSERVATION • DIRECT • INDIRECT • INDIVIDUAL • GROUP • PARTICIPANT • NON-PARTICIPANT
  8. HOW TO OBSERVE? MAKE A PLAN AND WRITE POINTS OF OBSERVATIONS. OBSERVE THE BEHAVIOUR WITH A PURPOSE ACCURATELY. RECORD THE OBSERVATION VERY CAREFULLY IMMEDIATEDLY AFTER THE OBSERVATION. AFTER RECORDING, ANALYSE THE OBSERVED FACTS SCIENTIFICALLY. INTERPRET AND GENERALIZE THE OBSERVATION.
  9. ADVANTAGES OF OBSERVATION IT IS ALWAYS SPECIFIC , SYSTEMATIC, PLANNED AND RELIABLE. IT IS MORE SUBJECTIVE AND VALID THAN THE INTROSPECTION. IT IS FLEXIBLE AND ECONOMICAL. WE CAN STUDY THE CHILDREN AND ANIMALS EASILY WE CAN SUPERVISE THE TEACHING AND MAY SUGGEST CERTAIN IMPROVEMENTS.
  10. LIMITATIONS OF OBSERVATION METHOD IT NEEDS TRAINED OBSERVERS SOMETIMES OBSERVERS MAY TRY TO PROJECT THEIR OWN FEELINGS, THOUGHTS, IN THE MINDS OF OTHER PERSONAL PROBLEMS AND EXPERIENCES CANNOT BE OBSERVED INTERNAL BEHAVIOUR OF THE PERSON CAN NOT BE STUDIED
  11. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD EXPERIMENTAL METHOD IS HIGHLY DEVELOPED,FORMALIZED AND ACCURATE OF ALL SCIENTIFIC METHODS. THE WORD EXPERIMENT DERIVE FROM THE LATTIN WORD ‘EXPERIMENTUM’. FIRST EXPERIMENTAL LAB ESTABLISHED BY WILHULM WUNDT (LIP ZING) GERMANY.
  12. EVERY EXPERIMENT SHOULD HAVE :- • PSYCHOLOGICAL LABORATORY • EXPERIMENTER • SUBJECT • STIMULUS • RESPONSE • VARIABLES
  13. VALUE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD IT IS MOST RELIABLE, VALID AND SCIENTIFIC IT HAS WIDE APPLICATIONS IN ALL THE FIELDS OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REPLICATION IS POSSIBLE WE GET THE SOLUTION OF MANY PROBLEMS OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REVERSIBLE VERIFIABLE
  14. TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL METHOD CONTROL - TEST METHOD CONTROL GROUP METHOD ROTATIONAL METHOD
  15. LIMITATIONS OF EXPERIMENTAL METHOD EXPERIMENTS ARE CONDUCTED IN ARTIFICIAL SITUATIONS AND HENCE MAY NOT LEAD TO TRUE CONCLUSION IT IS LENGTHY AND TIME CONSUMING IT IS COSTLY SOMETIMES WE MAY NOT BE ABLE TO DO EXPERIMENTS IF THE SUBJECTS ARE UNCOOPERATIVE NEED EXPERTS
  16. CASE STUDY METHOD THE CASE STUDY METHOD IS THAT METHOD OF BEHAVIOUR INVESTIGATION IN WHICH WE TRY TO STUDY THE BEHAVIOUR OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN ALL THE ESSENTIAL ASPECTS BY ANALYSING THE PAST RECORD, PRESENT POSITION AND FUTURE POSSIBLITIES REGARDING HIS FELT PROBLEM OR OTHERWISE GUIDANCE FUNCTIONS.
  17. PURPOSE OR OBJECTIVES OF THE CASE STUDY DIGANOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THE BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS TO PROVIDE BETTER GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING TO FIND THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM
  18. MERITS OF CASE STUDY IT PROVIDES QUITE A DEEP, INTENSIVE AND OVERALL INVESTIGATION OF THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE INDIVIDUAL IN RELATION TO HIS PAST AND THE PRESENT. CASE SUDY CAN PLAY AN EFFECTIVE ROLE IN THE PROPER IDENTIFICATION, ADJUSTMENT AND REHABILITATION OF THE PROBLEM CHILDREN. IN CASE STUDY THE SCOPE AND RANGE OF STUDY IS QUITE WIDE AND COMPREHENSIVE CASE STUDY PROVIDE AN OPPORTUNITY FOR COLLECTING DATA ON PERSONAL BASIS, BY SEEKING PERSONAL INTERVIEW, GOING CLOSE TO THE ORIGINAL SOURCE OF INFORMATION etc.
  19. DEMERITS OF THE CASE STUDY THE CASE STUDY WORK IS QUITE A TECHNICAL AND PROFESSIONAL WORK. THERE IS NEED OF SPECIALLY TRAINED TEACHER OR PROFESSIONAL FOR CARRYING OUT CASE STUDY THE FIELD OF APPLICATION OF CASE STUDY IS QUITE NARROW AND LIMITED THERE IS NO GUARANTEE FOR THE OBJECTIVITY, RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE INFORMATION OR DATA COLLECTED FROM THE VARIETY OF SOURCES FOR THE ANALYSIS AND INVESTIGATION OF THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE SUBJECT
  20. THANKYOU
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