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Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change Model)

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The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) speaks on suggested strategies for public health interventions to address people at various stages of the decision-making process. Acknowledgements of this and other behavioural change models will resulting in social marketing campaigns being implemented as they're tailored to suit the target audience.

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Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change Model)

  1. 1. Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change Model) Group Members: T. Jackson S. M-Douse V.Ffrench R.Clarke K. Brown
  2. 2. Introduction  Developed by Prochaska and DiClemente in the late 1970s.  Research was being conducted on the experiences of smokers, some who quit smoking on their own and some who had to seek treatment. They wanted to understand why people quit on their own.  Research concluded that people quit smoking when they were ready, thus giving birth to the Transtheoretical Model (TTM).  There are five stages on the TTM:
  3. 3. Stages
  4. 4. Pre-Contemplation  People do not intend to take action in the near future.  Completely unaware that their lifestyle is problematic and may produce negative consequences.  Places more emphasis on the cons than the pros of changing behaviour.
  5. 5. Contemplation  The intention is there to start living a healthy behaviour in the foreseeable future (in the next 6 months).  People are now made aware that their behaviour is unhealthy and can lead to serious consequences.  A more thoughtful and equal approach is taken to the pros and cons however, the person may be a bit reluctant to change their behaviour.
  6. 6. Preparation  People are ready to take action within the next 30 days.  Small efforts are being made as they believe that it will lead to a healthier life.
  7. 7. Action  People have changed their behaviour over the past six months and intends to continue to maintain those changes.  Changes can be seen when people modify their problematic behaviour or adapt to healthier behaviours.
  8. 8. Maintenance  People have changed and stuck to their new or modified behavioural practices for the past six months and intend to continue.  They make every effort not to relapse into earlier stages.
  9. 9. Termination  People have no desire to return to their previous behaviour and are sure they will not relapse.
  10. 10. Process of Change To progress through the stages of change, people apply cognitive, affective, and evaluative processes. These processes result in strategies that help people make and maintain change.
  11. 11. 1. Consciousness Raising - Increasing awareness about the healthy behavior. 2. Dramatic Relief - Emotional arousal about the health behavior, whether positive or negative arousal. 3. Self-Reevaluation - Self reappraisal to realize the healthy behavior is part of who they want to be. 4. Environmental Reevaluation - Social reappraisal to realize how their unhealthy behavior affects others. 5. Social Liberation - Environmental opportunities that exist to show society is supportive of the healthy behavior. 6. Self-Liberation - Commitment to change behavior based on the belief that achievement of the healthy behavior is possible. 7. Helping Relationships - Finding supportive relationships that encourage the desired change. 8. Counter-Conditioning - Substituting healthy behaviors and thoughts for unhealthy behaviors and thoughts. 9. Reinforcement Management - Rewarding the positive behavior and reducing the rewards that come from negative behavior. 10. Stimulus Control - Re-engineering the environment to have reminders and cues that support and encourage the healthy behavior and remove those that encourage the unhealthy behavior.
  12. 12. Limitations The limitations of the TTM should be considered especially when using the theory in public health:  Ignores the social context in which change occurs such as the socioeconomic status (SES) and income.  The lines between the stages can be arbitrary with no set criteria of how to determine a person's stage of change. The questionnaires that have been developed to assign a person to a stage of change are not always standardized or validated.
  13. 13.  There is no clear sense for how much time is needed for each stage, or how long a person can remain in a stage.  The model assumes that individuals make coherent and logical plans in their decision-making process when this is not always true.
  14. 14. Conclusion  The Transtheoretical Model provides suggested strategies for public health interventions to address people at various stages of the decision-making process. This can result in interventions that are tailored (i.e., a message or program component has been specifically created for a target population's level of knowledge and motivation) and effective. The TTM encourages an assessment of an individual's current stage of change and accounts for relapse in people's decision-making process.
  15. 15. References  http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/SB/SB721-Models/SB721- Models6.html  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oO80XyBDrl0