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  2. • Pioneer Master Of Modern Architecture. • Born In Berlin On 18 May 1883. • He was A German Architect And An Educator. • Influential Proponent Of Modern Design And Furthered His Ideas Through Bauhaus School Design. • He Was Taught By His Father Who Also Was An Architect And Learned The Study Of Proportions With Actual Architectural Expressions By His Uncle. • Gropius Could Not Draw, And Was Dependent On Collaborators And Partner-interpreters Throughout His Career. • In School He Hired An Assistant To Complete His Homework For Him. • Gropius’s Career Was Interrupted By The Outbreak Of World War-1 In 1914 And Served As A Sergeant And Then As A Lieutenant. INTRODUCTION GEORGE WALTER ADOLF GROPIUS
  3. • 1903 He Left School And Went To The Technical University In Munich To Study Architecture. • Although He Studied Architecture In Munich And Berlin (1903-1907), He Received No Degree. • In 1908,gropius Worked Under The Renowned Architect And Industrial Designer Peter Behrens Till 1910. • In 1919, Gropius Transformed The Grand-ducal Saxon School Of Arts And Craft Into The World Famous Bauhaus. • In 1934, He Moved And Began To Work In Britain. • In 1937, He Moved To New York And Taught At The Harvard University. • In 1946, Gropius Founded The Young Architects Association, The Architects Collaborative. EDUCATION AND EARLY WORKS FAMOUS BUILDINGS • Fagus Factory (1911-1913) • Bauhaus • Gropius House (1937-38 ) • Josephine M.Hagerty House 1938 • J.f. Kennedy Federal Building : 1963-1966 • Pan Am Building (now Metlife Building) 1960-1963 • Waldenmark 1939
  4. • Simple Geometry Often Rectangular. • Use Of Modern Materials Like Steel, RCC And Glass. • Smooth Surface • Primary Colors • Linear And Horizontal Elements • Grid System • His Design Has Full Command Of The Elements Of Architecture, Which Were To Constitute The International Modern Style. • He Believed That All Initial Training For Artist And Craftsman Should Be Same I.e. Introduction To Form, Color, Nature Of Material. • In Those Times The Use Of Machine Was Encouraged Because Of The Phase Of Industrialization. • He Realized The Interdependence Of Machine And Architecture, Thus Encouraged The Use Of prefabricated units. PRINCIPLES PLANE SURFACE WITHOUT ANY ORNAMENTATION PLANE SURFACE WITHOUT ANY ORNAMENTATION
  5. COLOURS OF HIS BUILDINGS - USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGY "The ultimate aim of all artistic activity is building! The artist is a heightened manifestation of the craftsman... Let us together create the new building of the future which will be all in one: architecture and sculpture and painting." -Walter Gropius CONCRETE GLASS STEEL white, gray, beige or black
  6. PROJECT- • The Fagus Factory Is A Shoe Last Factory In Alfeld On The Leine In Germany And Is An Important Example Of Early Modern Architecture. • Constructed Between 1911-1913, It Was Walter Gropius' First Independent Commission • It Was Called An Artistic And Practical Design By Gropius • It Was In Collaboration With Adolf Meyer. • Most Striking Thing: Simplicity And Confidence Of The Architecture. FAGUS FACTORY (1911-1913) • Fagus Structure Was Actually A Hybrid Construction Of Brick Columns, Steel Beams And Concrete Floor Slabs And Stairways. • It Was A Steel Frame Supporting The Floors, Glass Screen External Walls. • Pillars Are Set Behind The Façade So That Its Curtain Character Is Fully Realized. • Glass Screen Was Used All Over The Walls To Have Proper View From Inside. • Walls Are No Longer Supporters Of The Building But Simple Curtain Projecting Against Increment Weather. • It Was Domination Of Voids Over Solids. • Plane Surfaces Predominate In This Factory. • The Glass And Walls Are Joined Cleanly At The Corners Without The Intervention Of Piers.
  7. PROJECT- FAGUS FACTORY (1911-1913) • Use Of Floor-To-Ceiling Glass Windows On Steel Frames That Go Around the Corners Of The Buildings Without A Visible (most of the time without any) Structural Support. • The Other Unifying Element Is The Use Of Brick. • All Buildings Have A Base Of About 40cm Of Black Brick And The Rest Is Built Of Yellow Bricks. • In Order To Enhance This Feeling Of Lightness, Gropius and Meyer Used A Series Of optical Refinements Like Greater Horizontal Than Vertical Elements On The Windows, Longer Windows On The Corners And Taller Windows On The Last Floor.
  8. INTRODUCTION • Name - Peter Geoffrey Hall • Born - 19 March 1932 Hampstead, London, England. • Died - 30 July 2014 (aged 82) London, England • Occupation - Urban geographer, Town Planner • Known for – World Cities ranking, Urban Planning history, city regions enterprise zones. • His Famous Publications- PETER GEOFFREY HALL
  9. • In a 1977 address to the Royal Town Planning Institute, Hall put forth the idea of a "Freeport" within a city, a concept that would come to be known as an Enterprise Zone. • Enterprise Zones were to be open to immigration of capital and people, without taxes or bureaucracy, modeled after Hong Kong in the 1950s. • In practice, Enterprise Zones became areas where taxes were waived and development highly subsidized. • In his final years, Hall strongly perceived that British planners had fallen behind their European counterparts. • His last book Good Cities: Better Lives and last book chapter "The Strange Death of British Planning: And How to Bring About a Miraculous Revival", • Both published in 2014, stress this point and seek to direct attention to planning examples from mainland Europe. • His vision of clusters of existing towns and new garden cities to form new dynamic city regions in the north-west, the Midlands and the south-east of England won his team a commendation in the Wolfson Economics Prize competition in May 2014. AWARDS – • the Royal Town Planning Institute Gold Medal and the Founder's Medal of the Royal Geographical Society for distinction in research in 2003 • and the Balzan Prize for the Social and Cultural History of Cities since the Beginning of the 16th Century in 2005. His academic work
  10. PROJECT- MILTON KEYNES • Planning fell into a long downward spiral, and even at the time was criticised for being too prescriptive and too restrictive. • A study in 1973 concluded that the historic 1947 Town and Country Planning Act was too radical, based on the assumption that the planners would take the initiative, and that private developers – remarkably seen as totally residual in a world that would be dominated by public housing – would simply respond to what the planners had told them. • That rather amazing assumption collapsed soon after the return of a Conservative government in 1951, elected on the promise to build 300,000 new homes a year, half of them by private developers. The contradiction remained over the succeeding 60 years.
  11. • In the 1970s and the 1980s, as deindustrialization decimated the economies of the cities, attention shifted into urban regeneration, but the overall job of planning town and country development remained. • The Blair era saw a brief return to strategic planning: John Prescott’s Sustainable Communities Strategy of 2003, with its proposal for three major development corridors radiating from London, had strange shades of the almost-forgotten 1967 Strategy. • But in 2004 voters in the north-east rejected the proposal for a democratically elected regional assembly; a tragic failure, comparable to the abandonment of city regional government in 1974. • Lacking democratic legitimacy for the regional planning process, it was all too easy for the coalition to abandon the entire regional structure, bringing us back to the 1980s – or maybe full circle, to the early 1920s. PROJECT- MILTON KEYNES
  12. • The ‘neighborhood unit’ as a planning concept evolved in response to the degenerated environmental and social conditions fostered as a consequence of industrial revolution in the early 1900s. • One of the earliest authors to attempt a definition of the ‘neighborhood unit’ in fairly specific terms was Clarence Arthur Perry (1872-1944) a New York planner. • Perry’s neighborhood unit concept began as a means of insulating the community from the ill- effects of burgeoning sea of vehicular traffic. • However, it evolved to serve a much broader purpose of providing a discernible identity for the concept of the neighborhood, and of offering to designers a framework for disseminating the city into smaller subareas. • The neighbourhood concept is arguably one of the major planning landmarks that shaped the urban form of the twentieth century city in many countries. • Neighbourhood Unit idea of Clarence Perry were published in 1929. • For Perry the physical arrangement of the elementary school, small parks and playgrounds, and local shops was the basis of his neighbourhood idea. • Each neighbourhood was to be a unit of the city. NEIGHBOURHOOD UNIT THEORY INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND - EVOLUTION AND CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT
  13. • Perry described the neighborhood unit as that populated area which would require and support an elementary school with an enrolment of between 1,000 and 1,200 pupils. • This would mean a population of between 5,000 and 6,000 people. • Developed as a low density dwelling district with a population of 10 families per acre, the neighborhood unit would occupy about 160 acres and have a shape which would render it unnecessary for any child to walk a distance of more than one- quarter mile to school. • About 10 percent of the area would be allocated to recreation, and through traffic arteries would be confined to the surrounding streets, internal streets being limited to service access for residents of the neighborhood. • The unit would be served by shopping facilities, churches, and a library, and a community center, the latter being located in conjunction with the school
  14. Perry outlined six basic principles of good neighborhood design. As may be understood, these core principles were organized around several institutional, social and physical design ideals. • Major arterials and through traffic routes should not pass through residential neighborhoods. Instead these streets should provide boundaries of the neighborhood • Interior street patterns should be designed and constructed through use of cul-de-sacs, curved layout and light duty surfacing so as to encourage a quiet, safe and low volume traffic movement and preservation of the residential atmosphere • The population of the neighborhood should be that which is required to support its elementary school • The neighborhood focal point should be the elementary school centrally located on a common or green, along with other institutions that have service areas coincident with the neighborhood boundaries • The radius of the neighborhood should be a maximum of one quarter mile thus precluding a walk of more than that distance for any elementary school child • Shopping districts should be sited at the edge of neighborhoods preferably at major street intersections. SIX BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GOOD NEIGHBORHOOD DESIGN
  15. Neighbourhood CONCEPTIONS BY OTHERS • N.L. Engelhardt, Jr. presented relation to the various levels of school facilities. • He proposed a radius of ½ mile as maximum walking distance to the elementary school. Playgrounds and nursery schools are proposed with a radius of ¼ mile walking distance for the families in the neighborhood. • The diagram shows the grouping of three neighborhood units served by a high school and one or two major commercial centers, the radius for walking distance to these facilities being one mile.
  16. • The concept of a neighborhood has been subjected to numerous criticisms. Some have opposed the neighborhood with the claim that it leads to a grouping of people that inevitably results in compulsory class distinctions. • Some categorize the neighborhood concept as too romanticized and idealistic a delineation to be practical for modern life. • The school as focal point has been criticized for being impractical and too child centered whereas community facilities for being inadequate and often far for some residents. • The proliferation of small parks and other public spaces necessitates expensive maintenance service. • Critics question the utility of Perry’s concept of a common meeting area, given the diversity of individuals usually found in an urban area. • Also, neighborhood schools would be too small to undertake specialized activities that are economically feasible in large schools. IMPACT OF NEIGHBORHOOD CONCEPT ACROSS THE GLOBE • Neighbourhoods form the urban tissue of the city both physically and socially. • The concept of the neighborhood is well established as a basic unit of planning the cities. • Further, it is a popular and accepted element of social and physical organization in the minds of most people. • Hence the neighborhood has become the symbol and the means to preserve the socio-cultural values of an earlier less harried way of life in our increasingly complex and fast moving urban centers. CONCLUSION OF NEIGHBORHOOD CONCEPT
  17. • One example of such a place is the Port City of Ashdod, established 1956, which consist of a large port and industrial area to its North and 17 neighborhood units to the South. • The city has about 250,000 people in it, but instead of utilizing this congregation of people it is actually made up of 17 villages of 10,000- 20,000 people, each with its own slowly decaying low-level commerce. • Ashdod is now trying to take one of its arterial roads and turn it into a real urban street, connecting its disjointed neighborhoods with an ambitious plan that tackles street network changes, land use changes, commercial development and public transit. Whether such a change is feasible is open to debate. Example of Neighbourhood concept