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Sagas and argonates n greek mythology

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Sagas and argonates n greek mythology

  1. 1. Sagas The Argonauts
  2. 2. • AFTER the death of King Cretheus the Aeolian, Pelias, son of Poseidon, already an old man, seized the Iolcan throne from his half-brother Aeson, the rightful heir. An oracle warned him that he would be killed by a descendant of Aeson. Pelias put to death every prominent Aeolian he dared lay hands upon, except Aeson, whom he spared for his mother Tyro’s sake, but kept a prisoner in the palace; forcing him to renounce his inheritance.
  3. 3. •Now, Aeson had married Polymele, who bore him one son, by name Diomedes. Pelias would have destroyed the child without mercy, had not Polymele summoned her kinswomen to weep over him, as though he were still- born, and then smuggled him out of the city to Mount Pelion; where Cheiron the Centaur reared him, as he did before, or afterwards, with Asclepius, Achilles, Aeneas, and other famous heroes.
  4. 4. •A second oracle warned Pelias to beware a one-sandalled man and when, one day on the seashore, a group of his princely allies joined him in a solemn sacrifice to Poseidon, his eye fell upon a tall, long-haired youth, dressed in a close-fitting leather tunic and a leopard-skin. He was armed with two broad-bladed spears, and wore only one sandal.
  5. 5. •On the way down from the hills, Jason had carried an old woman across the river Anaurus, losing one sandal as he tried to get a foothold in the mud. The old woman was the goddess Hera, who thereafter favored him, just as she remained hostile to Pelias, who had neglected to sacrifice to her.
  6. 6. • When, therefore, Pelias asked the stranger roughly: ‘Who are you, and what is your father’s name?’, he replied that Cheiron, his foster-father, called him Jason, though he had formerly been known as Diomedes, son of Aeson. Pelias glared at him balefully. ’What would you do,’ he enquired suddenly, ‘if an oracle announced that one of your fellow-citizens were destined to kill you?’ ‘I should send him to fetch the golden ram’s fleece from Colchis,’ Jason replied.
  7. 7. The Golden Fleece • The saga concerns the quest for the Golden Fleece by Jason and the crew of the Argo. The Boeotian king Athamas took as his first wife Nephele, whose name means "cloud." After bearing Athamas two children, Phrixus and Helle, she returned to the sky. Athamas then married Ino, one of the daughters of Cadmus, who attempted to destroy her stepchildren. She also persuaded the Boeotian women to parch the seed grain so that when it was sown nothing grew. In the ensuing famine, Athamas sent to Delphi for advice, but Ino sabotaged the envoys to report that the god advised Athamas to sacrifice Phrixus if he wanted the famine to end.
  8. 8. • As he was about to perform the sacrifice, Nephele snatched Phrixus and Helle up into the sky and set them on a golden-fleeced ram that Hermes had given her. The ram carried them eastward through the heavens. Above the straits between Europe and Asia (the Dardanelles), Helle fell off and drowned, and the straits were called the Hellespont after her. Phrixus continued his flight and came to Colchis, at the eastern end of the Black Sea, where King Aeëtes (son of Helius and brother of Circe and Pasiphaë) received him with kindness and gave him his elder daughter, Chalciope, as wife.
  9. 9. •Phrixus sacrificed the ram to Zeus Phyxius (i.e., Zeus as god of escape) and gave the Golden Fleece to Aeëtes, who hung it up on an oak tree in a grove sacred to Ares, where it was guarded by a never-sleeping serpent. An Oracle told Aeetes that he would lose his kingship if he lost the golden fleece. The fleece, a golden treasure guarded by a dragon, became a goal for a hero's quest.
  10. 10. • When Pelias revealed his identity, Jason was unafraid. He boldly claimed the throne usurped by Pelias. Pelias feared to deny him his birthright. ‘But first,’ he insisted, ‘I require you to free our beloved country from a curse!’ g. Jason then learned that Pelias was being haunted by the ghost of Phrixus, who had fled from Orchomenus a generation before, riding on the back of a divine ram, to avoid being sacrificed. He took refuge in Colchis where, on his death, he was denied proper burial; and, according to the Delphic Oracle, the land of Iolcus, where many of Jason’s Minyan relatives were settled, would never prosper unless his ghost were brought home in a ship, together with the golden ram’s fleece.
  11. 11. •Jason could not deny Pelias this service, and therefore sent heralds to every court of Greece, calling for volunteers who would sail with him. He also prevailed upon Argus the Thespian to build him a fifty-oared ship; and this was done at Pagasae, with seasoned timber from Mount Pelion; after which Athene herself fitted an oracular beam into the Argo’s prow, cut from her father Zeus’s oak at Dodona.
  12. 12. The Argonauts • Acastus, son of King Pelias • Actor, son of Deion the Phocian • Admetus, prince of Pherae • Amphiaraus, the Argive seer • Great Ancaeus of Tegea, son of Poseidon • Little Ancaeus, the Lelegian of Samos • Argus the Thespian, builder of the Argo • Ascalaphus the Orchomenan, son of Ares • Asterius, son of Cometes, a Pelopian • Atalanta of Calydon, the virgin huntress • Augeias, son of King Phorbas of Elis • Butes of Athens, the bee-master • Caeneus the Lapith, who had once been a woman
  13. 13. • Calais, the winged son of Boreas • Canthus the Euboean • Castor, the Spartan wrestler, one of the Dioscuri • Cepheus, son of Aleus the Arcadian • Cotonus the Lapith, of Gyrton in Thessaly • Echion, son of Hermes, the herald • Erginus of Miletus • Euphemus of Taenarum, the swimmer • Euryalus, son of Mecisteus, one of the Epigoni • Eurydamas the Dolopian, from Lake Xynias • Heracles of Tiryns, the strongest man who ever lived, now a god • Hylas the Dryopian, squire to Heracles • Idas, son of Aphareus of Messene • Ismon the Argive, Apollo’s son • Iphicles, son of Thestius the Aetolian
  14. 14. • Iphitus, brother of King Eurystheus of Mycenae • Jason, the captain of the expedition • Laertes, son of Acrisius the Argive • Lynceus, the look-out man, brother to Idas • Melampus of Pylus, son of Poseidon • Meleager of Calydon • Mopsus the Lapith • Nauplius the Argive, son of Poseidon, a noted navigator • Oileus the Locrian, father of Ajax • Orpheus, the Thracian poet • Palaemon, son of Hephaestus, an Aetolian • Peleus the Myrmidon • Peneleos, son of Hippalcimus, the Boeotian • Peridymenus of Pylus, the shape-shifting son of Poseidon
  15. 15. • Phalerus, the Athenian archer • Phanus, the Cretan son of Dionysus • Poeas, son of Thaumacus the Magnesian • Polydeuces, the Spartan boxer, one of the Dioscuri • Polyphemus, son of Elatus, the Arcadian • Staphylus, brother of Phanus • Tiphys, the helmsman, of Boeotian Siphae • Zetes, brother of Calais
  16. 16. The Lemnian Women • the Lemnian men had quarrelled with their wives, complaining that they stank, and made concubines of Thracian girls captured on raids. In revenge, the Lemnian women murdered them all without pity, old and young alike, except Thoas, whose life his daughter Hypsipyle secretly spared, letting adrift in an oarless boat. Now, when the Argo hove in sight and the Lemnian women mistook her for an enemy ship from Thrace, they took their dead husbands’ armour and ran boldly shoreward, to repel the threatened attack.
  17. 17. • The eloquent Echion, however, landing staff hand as Jason’s herald, soon set their minds at rest; and Hypsipyle called a council at which she proposed to send a gift of food and wine to the Argonauts. • Many children were begotten on this occasion by the other Argonauts too and, had it not been for Heracles, who was guarding the Argo and at last strode angrily into Myrine, beating upon the house doors with his club and summoning his comrades back to duty.
  18. 18. Hylas, Amycus, And Phineus • AT Heracles’s challenge the Argonauts now engaged in a contest to see who could row the longest. After many laborious hours, relieved only by Orpheus’s lyre, Jason and Heracles alone held out; other comrades having each in turn confessed themselves beaten. • Jason and Heracles, however, continued to urge the Argo forward, seated on opposite sides of the ship and suddenly Heracles’s oar snapped. He glared about him, in anger and disgust; and his weary companions, thrusting their oars through the oar-holes again, beached the Argo by the riverside.
  19. 19. • While they prepared the evening meal, Heracles went in search of a tree which would serve to make him a new oar. He uprooted an enormous fir, but when he dragged it back for trimming beside the canal fire, found that his squire Hylas had set out, an hour or two previously to fetch water from the near-by pool, and not yet returned. Polyphemus was away, searching for him. • Heracles and Polyphemus continued their search all night, and forced every Mysian whom they met to join in it, but to no avail; the fact being that Dryope and her sister-nymphs of Pegae had fallen in love with Hylas, and enticed him to come and live with them in an underwater house.
  20. 20. •At dawn, a favourable breeze sprang up and, since neither Heracles nor Polyphemus appeared, though everyone shouted their names until the hillsides echoed, Jason gave orders for the voyage to be resumed. This decision was loudly contested and, as the Argo drew farther away from the shore, several of the Argonauts accused him of having marooned Heracles to avenge his defeat at rowing.
  21. 21. • Next, the Argo touched at the island of Bebrycos, also in the Sea of Marmara, ruled by the arrogant King Amycus, a son of Poseidon. This Amycus fancied himself as a boxer, and used to challenge strangers to a match, which invariably proved their undoing; but if they declined, he flung them without ceremony over a cliff into the sea. He now approached the Argonauts, and refused them food or water unless one of their champions would meet him in the ring. Polydeuces, who had won the boxing contest at the Olympic Games, stepped forward willingly, and killed Amycus after a long battle.
  22. 22. • The Argonauts put to sea again on the next day, and came to Salmydessus in Eastern Thrace, where Phineus, the son of Agenor, reigned. He had been blinded by the gods for prophesying the future too accurately, and was also plagued by a pair of Harpies: loathsome, winged, female creatures who, at every meal, flew into the palace and snatched victuals from his table, befouling the rest, so that it stank and was inedible. • When Jason asked Phineus for advice on how to win the golden fleece, he was told: ‘First rid me of the Harpies!’ Phineus’s servants spread the Argonauts a banquet, upon which the Harpies immediately descended, playing their usual tricks. Calais and Zetes, however, the winged sons of Boreas, arose sword in hand, and chased them into the air and far across the sea.
  23. 23. From The Symplegades To Colchis • Phineus instructed Jason how to navigate the Bosphorus, and gave him a detailed account of what weather, hospitality, and fortune to expect on his way to Colchis. • PHINEUS had warned the Argonauts of the terrifying rocks, called Symplegades, or Planctae, or Cyaneae which, perpetually shrouded in sea mist, guarded the entrance to the Bosphorus. When a ship attempted to pass between them, they drove together and crushed her; but, at Phineus’s advice, Euphemus let loose a dove or, some say, a heron, to fly ahead of the Argo. As soon as the rocks had nipped off her tail feathers, and recoiled again, the Argonauts rowed through with all speed, aided by Athene and by Orpheus’s lyre, and lost only their stern ornament.
  24. 24. The Seizure Of The Fleece • IN Olympus, Hera and Athene were anxiously debating how their favourite, Jason, might win the golden fleece. At last they decided to approach Aphrodite, who undertook that her naughty little son Eros would make Medea, King Aeëtes’s daughter, conceive a sudden passion for Jason. Aphrodite found Eros rolling dice with Ganymedes, but cheating at every throw, and begged him to let fly one of his arrows at Medea’s heart. The payment she offered was a golden ball enamelled with blue rings, formerly the infant Zeus’s plaything; when tossed into the air, it left a track like a falling star. Eros eagerly accepted this bribe.
  25. 25. • Meanwhile, at the council of war held in the backwater, Jason proposed going to the near-by city of Colchis, where Aeëtes ruled, and demanding the fleece as a favour; only if this were denied would they resort to guile or force. All welcomed his suggestion. • At Colchis, Aeëtes was prepared to let Jason take the fleece only if he first performed a series of impossible tasks. These were to yoke a pair of brazen-footed, fire-breathing bulls, the gift of Hephaestus to Aeëtes, and with them plow a large field and sow it with dragon's teeth, from which would spring up armed men, whom he would then have to kill.
  26. 26. Medea’s Role • Medea, Aeëtes' younger daughter, now enters the saga and brings to it elements of magic and folktale. Through the agency of Hera and Aphrodite, she fell in love with Jason and agreed to help him at the request of Chalciope, mother of Argus (who had returned to Colchis with the Argonauts). She was herself priestess of Hecate, as skilled in magic as her aunt Circe. She gave Jason a magic ointment that would protect him from harm by fire or iron for the space of a day. her sole condition was to sail back in the Argo as his wife. Jason was summoned, and swore by all the gods of Olympus to keep faith with Medea for ever.
  27. 27. • All day he ploughed, and at nightfall sowed the teeth, which armed men immediately sprouted. He provoked these to fight one against another, as Cadmus had done on a similar occasion, throwing a stone quoits into their midst; then killed the survivors. • King Aeëtes, however, had no intention of parting with his fleece, and shamelessly repudiated his bargain. He threatened to burn the Argo, which was now moored off Aea, and massacre her crew; Medea, in whom he had unwisely confided, led Jason and a part of Argonauts to the precinct of Ares, some six miles away. There fleece hung, guarded by a loathsome and immortal dragon of a million coils, larger than the Argo herself, and born from the blood of the monster Typhon, destroyed by Zeus.
  28. 28. • She soothed the hissing dragon with incantations and then, using freshly- cut sprigs of juniper, sprinkled soporific drops on his eyelids. Jason stealthily unfastened the fleece from the oak-tree, and together they hurried down to the beach where the Argo lay. • An alarm had already been raised by the priests of Ares and, in a running fight, the Colchians wounded Iphitus, Meleager, Argus, Atalanta, and Jason. Yet all of them contrived to scramble aboard the waiting Argo, which was rowed off in great haste, pursued by Aeëtes’s galleys. Iphitus alone succumbed to his wounds; Medea soon healed the others with ruineraries of her own invention.
  29. 29. • MANY different accounts survive of the Argo’s return to Thessaly, though it is generally agreed that, following Phineus’s advice, the Argonauts sailed counter sunwise around the Black Sea. Some say that when Aeëtes overtook them, near the mouth of the Danube, Medea killed her young half-brother Apsyrtus, whom she had brought aboard, and cut him into pieces, which she consigned one by one to the swift current. This cruel stratagem delayed the pursuit, because obliging Aeëtes to retrieve each piece in turn for subsequent burial at Tomi.
  30. 30. The Trojan Saga
  31. 31. The Children of Leda • Leda, wife of Tyndareus, king of Sparta, bore four children to Zeus, who visited her in the shape of a swan; the four were born from two eggs—from the one sprang Polydeuces and Helen, from the other Castor and Clytemnestra.
  32. 32. • WHEN Helen, Leda’s beautiful daughter, grew to womanhood at Sparta in the palace of her foster-father Tyndareus, all the princes of Greece came with rich gifts as her suitors, or sent their kinsmen to represent them. Diomedes, Ajax, Teucer, Philoctetes, Idomeneus, Patroclus, Menestheus, and many others. Odysseus (he was one of the most prominent leader of Trojan war) came too, but empty-handed, because he had not the least chance of success. she would, Odysseus knew, be given to Prince Menelaus, the richest of the Achaeans, represented by Tyndareus’s powerful son-in-law Agamemnon.
  33. 33. • Tyndareus sent no suitor away, but would, on the other hand, accept none of the proffered gifts; fearing that his partiality for any one prince might set the others quarrelling. Odysseus asked him one day: • ‘If I tell you how to avoid a quarrel will you, in return, help me to marry Icarius’s daughter Penelope?’ • ‘It is a bargain,’ cried Tyndareus. • ‘Then,’ continued Odysseus, ‘my advice to you is: insist that all Helen’s suitors swear to defend her chosen husband against whoever resents his good fortune.’ • Tyndareus agreed that this was a prudent course. After sacrificing a horse, he made the suitors stand on its bloody pieces, and repeat the oath which Odysseus had formulated.
  34. 34. • It is not known whether Tyndareus himself chose Helen’s husband, or whether she declared her own preference by crowning him with a wreath. At all events, she married Menelaus, who became King of Sparta after the death of Tyndareus. • Yet their marriage was doomed to failure: years before, while sacrificing to the gods, Tyndareus had stupidly overlooked Aphrodite, who took her revenge by swearing to make all three of his daughters — Clytaemnestra, Timandra, and Helen — notorious for their adulteries.
  35. 35. •The Olympian gods were guests at the wedding feast of Peleus and Thetis. During the feast, Eris, goddess of Discord (who was not a guest), threw onto the table an apple inscribed with the words ‘for the fairest." Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite each claimed it, and Zeus refused to decide the ensuing dispute between Hera, Athene, and Aphrodite, and let Hermes lead the goddesses to Mount Ida, where Priam’s lost son Paris would act as arbiter(judge).
  36. 36. •Now, just before the birth of Paris, Hecabe had dreamed that she gave birth to a boy from whom wriggled countless fiery serpents. She awoke screaming that the city of Troy and the forests of Mount Ida were ablaze. Priam at once consulted his son Aesacus, the seer, who announced: ‘The child about to be born will be the ruin of our country! I beg you to do away with him.’
  37. 37. • Hecabe could not bring herself to do so; and in the end Priam was prevailed upon to send for his chief herdsman, one Agelaus, and entrust him with the task. Agelaus, being too soft-hearted to use a rope or a sword, exposed the infant on Mount Ida, where he was suckled by a she- bear. Returning after five days, Agelaus was amazed at the sight of a healthy baby, and brought him home to rear with his own new-born son; and took a dog’s tongue to Priam as evidence that his command had been obeyed. But some say that Hecabe bribed Agelaus to spare Paris and keep the secret from Priam.
  38. 38. Paris’ chief amusement was setting Agelaus’s bulls to fight one another; he would crown the victor with flowers, and the loser with straw. When one bull began to win consistently, Paris pitted it against the champions of his neighbours’ herds, all of which were defeated. At last he offered to set a golden crown upon the horns of any bull that could overcome his own; so, for a jest, Ares turned himself into a bull, and won the prize. Paris’s unhesitating award of this crown to Ares surprised and pleased the gods as they watched from Olympus; which is why Zeus chose him to arbitrate between the three goddesses.
  39. 39. • Paris was herding his cattle on Mount Gargarus, the highest peak of Ida, when Hermes, accompanied by Hera, Athene, and Aphrodite, delivered the golden apple and Zeus’s message: • ‘Paris, since you are as handsome as you are wise in affairs of the heart, Zeus commands you to judge which of these goddesses is the fairest.’ • ‘So be it,’ sighed Paris. ‘But first I beg the losers not to be vexed with me. I am only a human being, liable to make the stupidest mistakes.’ The goddesses all agreed to abide by his decision.
  40. 40. • ‘Examine me,’ said Hera, ‘and remember that if you judge me the fairest, I will make you lord of all Asia, and the richest man alive.’ • ‘Listen, Paris, if you have enough common sense to award me the prize, I will make you victorious in all your battles, as well as the handsomest and wisest man in the world.’ said Athene.
  41. 41. • Aphrodite sidled up to him, and Paris blushed because she came so close that they were almost touching. ‘Look carefully, please, pass nothing over .... By the way, as soon as I saw you, I said to myself: “Upon my word, there goes the handsomest young man in Phrygia! Why does he waste himself here in the wilderness herding stupid cattle?” Well, why do you, Paris? Why not move into a city and lead a civilized life? What have you to lose by marrying someone like Helen of Sparta, who is as beautiful as I am, and no less passionate? I am convinced that, once you two have met, she would abandon her home, her family, everything, to become your mistress. Surely you have heard of Helen?’
  42. 42. • Never until now, my Lady. I should be most grateful if you describe her.’ ‘Helen is of fair and delicate complexion, having been born from a swan’s egg. She can claim Zeus for a father, loves hunting and wrestling and, when she came of age, all the princes of Greece were her suitors. At present she is married to Menelaus, brother of the High King Agamemnon; but that makes no odds—you can have her if you like.’ • ‘Would you swear to that?’ Paris asked excitedly. • Aphrodite uttered a solemn oath, and Paris, without a second thought, awarded her the golden apple. • By this judgement he incurred the smothered hatred of both Hera and Athene, who went off arm-in-arm to plot the destruction of Troy.
  43. 43. • Soon afterwards, Priam sent his servants to fetch a bull from Agelaus’s herd. It was to be a prize at the funeral games now annually celebrated in honour of his dead son. When the servants chose the champion bull, Paris was seized by a sudden desire to attend the games, and ran after them. Agelaus tried to restrain him: ‘You have your own private bull fights, what more do you want?’ But Paris persisted and, in the end, Agelaus accompanied him to Troy.
  44. 44. • Paris participated in the games and won every sport he took part in. He even defeat Priam’s sons Hector and Deiphobus. Out of jealousy they decided to kill Paris, and attacked him. Just then Aeglaus ran towards Priam crying “this youth is your long-lost son.” • Pariam summoned Hecabe, who confirmed it, and Paris was welcomed joyously and feasts were held in Tory despite the protests of priests of Apollo.
  45. 45. The Abduction of Hesione • When Apollo and Poseidon built the walls of Troy for King Laomedon, they were not given their due wages by Laomedon. Apollo sent a plague upon the city, and Poseidon sent a sea monster. Oracles told Laomedon to sacrifice his daughter Hesione, the sister of Priam, to the sea monster, the city would be delivered from the plague. Laomedon did as he was told, but Heracles, who was returning from the labor of Amazons, asked for the immortal horses of Laomedon, which were a gift from Zeus, as reward for killing the monster. • Heracles killed the monster but was denied the promised gifts. Heracles returned after some months with an army and sacked the city, killed Laomedon, his sons etc, except Priam. He gave Hesione to his companion Telamon.
  46. 46. • When another Council was called to discuss the rescue of Hesione, peaceful overtures having failed, Paris volunteered to lead the expedition, if Priam would provide him with a large, well-manned fleet. He cunningly added that, should he fail to bring Hesione back, he might perhaps carry off a Greek princess of equal rank to hold in ransom for her. His heart was, of course, secretly set on going to Sparta to fetch back Helen.
  47. 47. • That very day, Menelaus arrived unexpectedly at Troy. Paris entertained Menelaus and begged, as a favour, to be purified by him at Sparta, since he had accidentally killed Antenor’s young son Antheus with a toy sword. When Menelaus agreed, Paris, on Aphrodite’s advice, commissioned Phereclus, the son of Tecton, to build the fleet which Priam had promised him; the figurehead of his flag-ship was to be an Aphrodite holding a miniature Eros. Paris’s cousin Aeneas, Anchises’s son, agreed to accompany him. Cassandra, her hair streaming loose, foretold the conflagration that the voyage would cause, and Helenus concurred; but Priam took no notice of either of his prophetic children.
  48. 48. • The fleet put out to sea, Aphrodite sent a favouring breeze, and Paris soon reached Sparta, where Menelaus feasted him for nine days. At the banquet, Paris presented Helen with the gifts that he had brought from Troy, and made bold advances. Helen eloped with Paris that very night. • On reaching Troy he celebrated his wedding with Helen. The Trojans welcomed her, entranced by such divine beauty. What was more, all Troy, not Paris only, fell in love with her; and Priam took an oath never to let her go.