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  1. 1. DONE BY, B.SHRUTHI (11109A067)
  2. 2.  The word ‘communication’ is derived from Latin word ‘communis’, which means common. It is a process of exchange of facts, ideas, opinions and a means that individuals or organizations share the meaning and understanding with one another.
  3. 3.  Communication is a process of sharing experience till it becomes a common possession. It modifies the disposition of both parties who partakes it- John Dewey.  Communication is sharing of ideas and feelings in a mood of mutuality- Edgar Dale.  Communication is a means of persuasion to influence other so that desired effect is achieved- Aristotle.
  4. 4.  Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and non verbal messages. It is a continuous process.
  5. 5.  The main components of communication process are as follows:  Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context.  Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response.
  6. 6.  Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear. (Communication symbol) – The process of conversion of subject matter into symbols is called encoding. The message or subject matter of any communication is always abstract and intangible. Transmission of message requires use of certain symbols.  Encoding
  7. 7.  Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message For instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.  Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder.
  8. 8. – It is the process of translation of an encoded message into ordinary understandable language. Receiver converts the symbols, words or signs received from the sender to get the meaning of the message.  Decoding  Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.
  10. 10.  VERBAL COMMUNICATION: Is an exchange of information using words including both the spoken and the written word. The most important aspects of verbal communication are the following.  Language  Pacing  Intonation  Clarity and Brevity  Timing and relevance
  11. 11. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: Information is exchanged through non-verbal communication in various ways. It is sometimes referred as body language. Duribleby and Brutan (1992) suggest that body language has several elements.  Gesture  Facial expression  Posture  Gait  Body space and proximity  Touch  Personal appearance  Eye contact  Sounds  Silence 
  12. 12.  SYMBOLIC COMMUNICATION: It involves the verbal and nonverbal symbolism to convey meaning. Art and music are forms of symbolic communication used by nurses to facilitate understanding and healing for patients.
  13. 13. It is ‘communication about communication’ so that the deeper ‘message within a message’ can be uncovered and understood. When a patient tells the nurse that he is cool to undergo surgery with his body rigid and sharp voice, a nurse can interpret that he is anxious as evidenced by the body language.  METACOMMUNICATION:
  14. 14.  WRITTEN COMMUNICATION: Another important form of communication is written communication. It is the best method when the communicator and the recipient are beyond oral communication media.
  16. 16.  These barriers arise when duties and line of authority are not clearly defined. Various types of organizational barriers are:  Policy  Rules and regulations  Facilities  Complex organization  Status and position
  17. 17.  Poor pronunciation.  Confused thinking.  Communication overload.  Attitude.  Fear and anxiety.  Suspicious, jealousy, anger.  Resentment, antagonism and prejudices.  Lack of interest and lack of listening.
  18. 18.  Physical  Poor health hearing  Distances: Four distinct zones may greatly vary in different cultures, 18”- intimate, 4”- personal, 12”- social, 20”- public.
  19. 19.  Non availability of proper machines.  Presence of defective machines.  Interruption.  Power failure.
  20. 20.  Lack of common experience.  Linguistic- different languages and vocabulary.  Lack of knowledge of any language.  Low IQ.  From receiver’s side: interrupting the speaker; asking too many questions for the sake of probing.  From sender’s side: unclear messages; incomplete sentences, no clarification.