Regions that lies on the cold climate zone are situated at
State such as a Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh,
Uttarakhand, Arunachala Pradesh, Sikkim and northern part
of UP have a cold climate.
The temperature ranges between 20 – 30 C in summers,
while in winter ranges from -3 – 8 C, making it quite chilly.
The cold climate can be further divided two categories:
Cold and sunny Cold and cloudy
3. COLD AND SUNNY
The cold and sunny type of
climate is experienced in Leh
(Ladakh). The region is
mountainous, has little vegetation,
and is considered to be a cold
The solar radiation is generally
intense with a very low percentage
of diffuse radiation.
In summer, the temperature
reaches 17 – 24 C during the day
and 4 – 11 C at night.
Otacamund, Shimla, Shillong, Srinagar
and Mahabaleshwar are examples of
places belonging to this climatic zone.
These are generally highland regions
having abundant vegetation in
The intensity of solar radiation is low
in winter with a high percentage of
In summer, the maximum ambient
temperatures is in the range of 20 –
30 C during the day and 17 – 27 C at
night, making summers quite
COLD AND CLOUDY
4. In winter, the values range from -7
to 8 o C during the day and -14 to
0 o C at night. Winters thus, are
The relative humidity is
consistently low ranging from
about 10 – 50 % and precipitation
is generally less than 200 mm per
The sky is fairly clear throughout
the year with a cloud cover of less
In winter, the values range between 4
and 8 o C during the day and -3 to 4 o
C at night, making it quite chilly.
The relative humidity is generally high
and ranges from 70 – 80 %. Annual
total precipitation is about 1000 mm
and is disturbed evenly throughout
The sky is overcast for most part of
the year except during the brief
The main criteria for design in the both climate region aim at resisting heat
loss by insulation and infiltration, and promoting heat gain by directly
admitting and trapping solar radiation within the living space.
5. ESSENTIAL FEATURE IN DESIGNING OF A
Building will have sloping roof.
Windows will have wooden panels.
Timber paneled wall be used instead of brick and
Bedroom will be on south west of the house.
Kitchen will be on south east of the house.
Dining will be on the south.
Bathroom will be on the north west of the house.
Natural light is important in the house.
Flooring of the house must of the timber.
Living area should be in the north of the building.
Utility room shoulf be in the south.
Cross ventilation is very important forhealthy living.
Trees can be planted near windows for block of cold
Increase thermal resisitence
Increase thermal capacity
Increase buffer space
Decrease air exchange rate
Roof insulation and double
Utilize heat from appliances
Orientation and shape of
Use of trees as a wind barrier
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A
REGIONS WITH A COLD AND SUNNY OR
COLD AND CLOUDY CLIMATE ARE AS
LANDFORM - building should be located
on south slope of a hill or hill for better
access to solar radiation.
OPEN SPACES AND BUILT FORM –Buildings
should be clustered together to minimize
exposure to cold winds. open spaces such
that they allow maximum south sun, they
should be treated with a hard and reflective
surface so that they reflect solar radiation
on to each other
7. STREET WIDTH AND ORIENTATION:
In cold climates street orientation should be east to west to allow for
maximum south sun to enter the building.
the street should be wide enough to ensure that building on one side do
not shade those on the other side.
ORIENTATION AND PLANFORM:
Building must be compact with small surface to volume ratios to reduce
Windows should face south facilitate direct gain.
The north side of the building should be well insulated.
Living area can be located on southern side while utility area such as stores
can be on northern side.
Air lock lobbies at the entrance and exit points of the building reduce heat
Heat generated appliances in rooms such as kitchen may be used to heat
other parts of building.
8. BUILDING ENVELOPE
False ceiling with internal insulation such as a polyurethane foam, thermocol, wood wool
etc. are feasible for houses in cold climates.
Aluminum foil is generally used between the insulation layer and the roof to reduce heat
loss to the exterior.
A sufficiently sloping roof enables quick drainage of rain water and snow.
A solar air collector can be incorporated on the south facing slope of the roof and hot air
from it can be used for space heating purposes.
Skylights on the roofs admit heat as well as light in winters.
walls should be made of materials that lost heat slowly.
The south facing wall (exposed to solar radiation) could be of high thermal capacity (such
as a Trombe wall) to store day time heat for later used.
The wall should also be insulated.
9. TROMBE WALL
A Trombe wall is a system for indirect solar heat gain and, although not extremely common,
is a good example of thermal mass, solar gain, and glazing properties used together to
achieve human comfort goal passively.
It consists of a dark colored wall of a high thermal mass facing the sun, with glazing spaced
in front to leave a small air space. The glazing traps solar radiation like a small green house.
A successful Trombe wall optimizes heat gain and minimizes heat loss during cold times,
and avoid excess heat gain in hot times.
10. Hollow and light weight concrete blocks are also suitable.
Its advisable to have the maximum window area on the southern side of the building to
facilitate direct heat gain.
They should be sealed and preferably double glazed to avoid heat losses during winter
condensation in the air space between the panes should be prevented,
Movable shades should be provided to prevent overheating in summers.
COLOR AND TEXTURE
The external surface of the wall should be dark in color so that day absorb heat from the Sun.
Ladakh is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that
currently extends from the Siachen Glacier in the Karakoram range to
the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-
Aryan and Tibetan descent.
Ladakh is the region at the higher altitude (3505 meters from sea level)
During the extreme winters, from November to March, there can be a
minimum temperature of about -40 degrees.
The rainfall in this region is as low as 10 cm annually. This is because it
lies in the rain shadow of the Himalayas
However, summers are quite warm with temperature around 30
degrees, and clear skies.
There are scanty patches of grasses and shrubs for animals to graze.
During the summers, trees of fruits such as apples, apricots, and walnuts
Fauna like Yaks, ibex, Tibetan hare, Blue sheep, wild ass, Bharal, Marmot,
the Tibetan antelope, also called the Chiru and the Snow Leopard etc.
Climate cold and sunny
Regions- kargil, leh, nubra, Zanskar.
12. SETTLEMENT PATTERN
Leah is the biggest town of Ladakh.
The settlement of various sizes are located along the meandering
river Indus flowing from east to west. This creates northern
settlements facing south to allow maximum sunlight.
The houses located on the slopes of the mountain rather than
plains or valley I order to increase the duration of sun.
Also they are close to water bodies and fertile land.
Urban planning Leh is typically located on the northern banks of
the Indus river.
The old town is on southern slopes of mountains where as newer
parts are extended plains south west direction.
The highest point of leh is occupies by houses of nobles and lower
side by commoners and main bazaar area.
The vertical staging of building ensures the sunlight to all
The houses are placed in such a manner so that its 2-3 sides are
shared with other house to reduce heat loss.
The street pattern of old town such that its allow maximum solar
The important streets are laid in north south axis.
13. ARCHITECTURE SPATIAL LAYOUT
Most of the houses two storey building
Larger are based on courtyard while smaller houses don’t have the courtyard
The ground floor is low in height, used in keeping livestock, storage purposes, and also
to collect toilet waste.
14. Upper floor is usually used for living purposes usually consist of prayer room, toilets,
kitchen and drawing rooms.
Sometimes kitchen and sleeping area same to add warmth inside the house.
Main hall is furnished with carpets and smoke chimney.
The main living room is fitted with large windows facing the sun it traps solar radiation
as and indigenous green house mechanism without pening the window in some cases
these windows provided with double glazing to insulating properties.
15. MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION
Primary building material is earth and timber
Both are natural materials offering climatic
comfort in condition of Ladakh.
They are used due to their high thermal
Mud plaster is applied on walls.
Quartzite stone is used in making lower storey
places or forts where protection from water is
Stones are used in lower parts of wall to
provide protection and strength.
Sun dried earth blocks 300 x 150 x 150mm
used for walls of thickness 300 or 450mm.
Soil available is alluvial soil found in bank of
16. Floors of lower storey made up of mud and upper storey by timber.
Its observed that traditional construction of earth block and timber was able to offer
temperature difference of 40 C in extreme winters. When outside is -20C inside its 20C
The sills and jambs articulated by the plaster band often colored in black or red these timbers
lintels and plaster bands are the distinct feature of ladakhi architecture.
17. ROOF – FLAT ROOF
Beams are placed 50-60cm apart having 15cm diameter and 3-4m long.
These beams are covered by popular willows spread in the other direction its thickness is
15-20cm of dry grass, Hay etc. over the willows, finally plastered of clay mud
18. Capital and post
supporting the roof
This type of wooden
design is specialty of
The lintels of doors and
windows are corbelled
Doors and windows are
made of timber brought
19. KOTI BANAL ARCHITECTURE STYLE
In the rajgarhi area of Uttarkashi
district of Uttarakhand, India a large
number of intact buildings of a
distinct earthquake resistant type
known as koti banal can be found,
this construction type has been
practice for more than 200 years
and its reported that koti banal
architecture withstood and
performed well during many past
damaging earth quakes in the
20. SITTING AND ORIENTATION
Situated in a firm ridge on a plane ground having rock
outcrop without any buildings in the immediate vicinity.
High thermal mass of the budding envelope retains heat.
Small window opening prevent heat loss and are south facing.
Low floor height (2.2-2.5m) reduces the internal volume of air
to be heated.
The attic space act as a thermal buffer.
Regular plain and elevation shapes, integration of wood beam
over the total height of building. Small opening size and
arrangement of shear walls.
Walls are strengthened against out of plane failure by shear
key in the form of a wooden member which runs vertically
through the storey and is structurally connected to the timber
framing of the building.
21. For lateral load resistance (horizontal), pair of wooden logs connected to each other wooden
shear pins/tenons from a wooden frame which is braced by well dressed flat stone masonry.
The dry stone masonry between the logs enables a certain levels of flexibility and allows lateral
deflections of the building without damage effects.
22. BUILDING FEATURES
Typically, roofing span is half of the building width. The roof
constructed consist of a wooden frame which is expected to act as a
flexible diaphragm and is clad with slate tiles.
50-60cm thick timber reinforced stone masonry. The thickness of wall
is a determined by the thickness of the two parallel arranged wooden
Wooden beams door and planks resting on wooden joists supported
by beams or walls.
DOOR AND WINDOWS
A single small door access on the ground floor and relatively small
south facing windows floor above with wooden frames and shutters.
SEMI OUTDOOR SPACES
The upper two floor is have balconies running around the whole
building cantilevering from the wooden logs of the flooring system
with a wooden railing.
23. ATTIC SPACE
SERVED AS ABODE OF
STORAGE OF GRAIN
HELPS TO DRY THE
PROTECT FROM THE