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Presented by
Basma Elsayed Abd Fattah
Submitted by
Prof. Badran Hassan
 How do knowledge, cognitive strategies, and
knowledge about the use of cognitive strategies get
into our heads in the fi...
 Basic Teachings
 Definition of information processing
 Atkinson and Shiffrin Model of Memory.
 Educational Implicatio...
 “The mind as computer” (How?)
 Based on a model of memory and storage
 The brain contains certain structures that
proc...
 Human information processing is an approach to the study
of human thought and behavior developed, beginning in the
1950s...
Information processing model:
 A model of learning that examines how we learn
using the “mind as computer” metaphor.
The...
1. Both use electrical signals to send messages.
2. Both transmit information.
3. Both have a memory that can grow.
4. Bot...
The Brain The Computer
The brain uses chemicals to transmit
information
The computer uses electricity
 Brains search me...
The Brain
The Computer
There are no new or used parts for the brain. It is easier to fix a computer - just get new
parts...
Atkinson- Shiffrin Model of Memory
Multi Store Model of Human Memory
• In 1968, Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed a model
of human memory which posited two dist...
 R. Atkinson and R. Shiffrin (1968) proposed that our memories are not just
stored in one place but actually memory consi...
Information enters the human information
processing system via a variety of
channels associated with the different
senses.
There is a sensory memory for vision, called iconic memory
There is a
sensory
memory
for vision,
called
iconic
memory
One for
audition
(hearing),
called
echoic
memory.
• And one for touch-
haptic memory
Short Term Memory
Information that is attended to arrive in
another temporary store called short-term or
working memory.
Some properties of STM:
• Capacity: 7 +/- 2 "chunks" of information
• Duration: About 18-20 seconds (average).
• Processin...
• The low capacity of STM was first noted by
George Miller in a famous paper entitled The
Magical Number Seven, Plus or Mi...
• Information in STM can be held in STM via a
method called maintenance rehearsal- that is,
repeating the information sile...
:Three Major Concepts For Getting
Information Into STM
First, pay attention to a stimulus if it has an
interesting featur...
Two Major Concepts For Retaining
Information In STM
Organization And Repetition.
(How?)
Repetition must be done after for...
Specific examples of organization
Long Term Memory
Some properties of LTM:
• Capacity: Virtually unlimited
• Duration: Up to a lifetime
• Processing: Information is organize...
How we get information into LTM
Cont…
LTM and the Retrieval Process
How quickly and reliably we recall information
depends on:
1.Activation: How long since we ...
Why we Forget?
1. Making multiple connections with existing
knowledge –
The more connections there are, the easier it will be
to remember...
3. Using information frequently -- the more we use
or do something, the better we get at it. Practice is
always beneficial...
What are the implications for your study
habits?
Strategies to Improve Reading
Comprehension
• . The goal : Train learners not how to say words
but how to get meaning out ...
PQ4R Method
SQ3R
These comprehension strategies have in
common the following skills:
1. Setting goals for reading: Learners learn to ask
th...
CONT…
3. Self-reinforcement: Learners learn to say to
themselves “Great, I understand this. Keep up
the good work,” or “Th...
 when you’re studying for an exam, you might refer
to previous exam papers to find out what sort of
questions have been a...
Using the information processing
approach in the classroom
Principle Examples
1. Gain the students'
attention.
 Use cues to signal when you are ready
to begin.
 Move around the ro...
Principle Examples
5.Show students how to use
coding when memorizing
lists.
Use mental imagery techniques such as
the key...
 Atkinson, R., & Shiffrin, R. (1968). Human memory: A
proposed system and its control processes. In K Spence & J
Spence (...
Information Processing Model and its implications in learning and teaching
Information Processing Model and its implications in learning and teaching
Information Processing Model and its implications in learning and teaching
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Information Processing Model and its implications in learning and teaching

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Information Processing Model and its implications in learning and teaching

  1. 1. Presented by Basma Elsayed Abd Fattah Submitted by Prof. Badran Hassan
  2. 2.  How do knowledge, cognitive strategies, and knowledge about the use of cognitive strategies get into our heads in the first place?  And once this content gets there, what happens to it?  How does it get organized and sorted?  Where exactly is the information stored?  How is it retrieved? All these questions have to do with how the mind works—the processes involved in good thinking.
  3. 3.  Basic Teachings  Definition of information processing  Atkinson and Shiffrin Model of Memory.  Educational Implications of Information Processing Theory.
  4. 4.  “The mind as computer” (How?)  Based on a model of memory and storage  The brain contains certain structures that process information much like a computer  The human mind has three kinds of memories or “stores”
  5. 5.  Human information processing is an approach to the study of human thought and behavior developed, beginning in the 1950s as an alternative to the behavioral approaches that were popular at that time. o The central tenet of the information-processing approach is that the human can be characterized as an information- processing system, which encodes input, operates on that information, stores and retrieves it from memory, and produces output in terms of actions
  6. 6. Information processing model:  A model of learning that examines how we learn using the “mind as computer” metaphor. The “Information-processing Model” represents what happens when information flows through various internal structures which are supposed to exist inside the learner.
  7. 7. 1. Both use electrical signals to send messages. 2. Both transmit information. 3. Both have a memory that can grow. 4. Both can adapt and learn. 5. Both have evolved over time. 6. Both need energy. 7. Both can be damaged. 8. Both can change and be modified. 9. Both can do math and other logical tasks. 10. Both brains and computers are studied by scientists.
  8. 8. The Brain The Computer The brain uses chemicals to transmit information The computer uses electricity  Brains search memories using cues. Computers access information in memory by polling a memory address  Memories in the brain grow by stronger synaptic connections. Computer memory grows by adding computer chips The brain does some multitasking using the autonomic nervous system.  For example, the brain controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure at the same time it performs a mental task. The computer can do many complex tasks at the same time ("multitasking") that are difficult for the brain. For example, try counting backwards and multiplying 2 numbers at the same time The brain needs nutrients like oxygen and sugar for power. The computer needs electricity to keep working The brain is a self-organizing system Computers are designed, built and are of fixed architecture,
  9. 9. The Brain The Computer There are no new or used parts for the brain. It is easier to fix a computer - just get new parts  There are many diseases that affect the brain.  The brain has "built-in back up systems" in some cases. A computer can get a "virus" The brain is always changing and being modified. There is no "off" for the brain - even when an animal is sleeping, its brain is still active and working. The computer only changes when new hardware and software are added or something is saved in memory. There is an "off" for a computer. When the power to a computer is turned off, signals are not transmitted  The brain is better at interpreting the outside world and coming up with new ideas. The brain is capable of imagination The computer is faster at doing logical things and computations.
  10. 10. Atkinson- Shiffrin Model of Memory
  11. 11. Multi Store Model of Human Memory • In 1968, Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed a model of human memory which posited two distinct memory stores: short-term memory, and long-term memory. • Later a third memory store (actually the first in sequence) was added: sensory memory.
  12. 12.  R. Atkinson and R. Shiffrin (1968) proposed that our memories are not just stored in one place but actually memory consists of several ‘stores’.  Memory is made up of a series of parts, working together as a process. Sensory Memory Long-term Memory Short-term Memory Information loss through decay Information loss through decay/displacement Information loss through decay/interference Rehearsal Incoming Information Attention Retrieval Transfer
  13. 13. Information enters the human information processing system via a variety of channels associated with the different senses.
  14. 14. There is a sensory memory for vision, called iconic memory There is a sensory memory for vision, called iconic memory
  15. 15. One for audition (hearing), called echoic memory.
  16. 16. • And one for touch- haptic memory
  17. 17. Short Term Memory Information that is attended to arrive in another temporary store called short-term or working memory.
  18. 18. Some properties of STM: • Capacity: 7 +/- 2 "chunks" of information • Duration: About 18-20 seconds (average). • Processing: Auditory encoding (visuals are transferred into sounds)
  19. 19. • The low capacity of STM was first noted by George Miller in a famous paper entitled The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two. • Miller concluded that about seven (plus or minus two) "chunks" of information could reside in STM simultaneously.
  20. 20. • Information in STM can be held in STM via a method called maintenance rehearsal- that is, repeating the information silently or aloud so that it is recalled immediately when needed.
  21. 21. :Three Major Concepts For Getting Information Into STM First, pay attention to a stimulus if it has an interesting feature. Second, pay attention if the stimulus activates a known pattern.  (Call to mind relevant prior learning) Third, Point out important information
  22. 22. Two Major Concepts For Retaining Information In STM Organization And Repetition. (How?) Repetition must be done after forgetting begins. Researchers advise that the learner should not repeat immediately the content (or skill), but wait a few minutes and then repeat.
  23. 23. Specific examples of organization
  24. 24. Long Term Memory
  25. 25. Some properties of LTM: • Capacity: Virtually unlimited • Duration: Up to a lifetime • Processing: Information is organized according to meaning and is associatively linked. • Encoding: semantic, visual and auditory
  26. 26. How we get information into LTM
  27. 27. Cont…
  28. 28. LTM and the Retrieval Process How quickly and reliably we recall information depends on: 1.Activation: How long since we last used the information? ( summaries, taking lecture notes & outlines) 2. Strength: How well we have practiced it? 3. organization, elaboration and rehearsal.
  29. 29. Why we Forget?
  30. 30. 1. Making multiple connections with existing knowledge – The more connections there are, the easier it will be to remember and retrieve the information at well. 2. Learning information to mastery -- The more we are able to master a piece of information, the easier it is to recall it at well and the faster it becomes automatized. Factors Affecting Retrieval
  31. 31. 3. Using information frequently -- the more we use or do something, the better we get at it. Practice is always beneficial to learning and mastery of skills & knowledge. Frequent use eventually leads to automaticity. (Practice makes Perfect) 4. Having a relevant retrieval cue -- whatever we use to help us retrieve information must be relevant or we will have difficulty in retrieving. Cont…
  32. 32. What are the implications for your study habits?
  33. 33. Strategies to Improve Reading Comprehension • . The goal : Train learners not how to say words but how to get meaning out of them. • Comprehension monitoring is a term applied to a host of strategies learners can use to derive meaning from what they read. Specific examples of comprehension strategies include: • SQ3R(Robinson, 1946); • PQ4R (Thomas & Robinson, 1972 )
  34. 34. PQ4R Method
  35. 35. SQ3R
  36. 36. These comprehension strategies have in common the following skills: 1. Setting goals for reading: Learners learn to ask themselves “What do I have to do?” and “Why am I reading this story?” 2. Focusing attention: Learners learn to prompt themselves with questions such as “What am I supposed to do as I read?”
  37. 37. CONT… 3. Self-reinforcement: Learners learn to say to themselves “Great, I understand this. Keep up the good work,” or “This strategy really works.” 4. Coping with problems: When they encounter difficulties, learners learn to say to themselves “I don’t understand this. I should go back and read it again,” or “That’s a simple mistake. I can correct that.”
  38. 38.  when you’re studying for an exam, you might refer to previous exam papers to find out what sort of questions have been asked in the past. • This helps you to identify what information you will need to know. • It also indicates what you will be asked to do with the memorised information.
  39. 39. Using the information processing approach in the classroom
  40. 40. Principle Examples 1. Gain the students' attention.  Use cues to signal when you are ready to begin.  Move around the room and use voice inflections 2.Bring to mind relevant prior learning.  Review previous day's lesson.  Have a discussion about previously covered content. 3. Point out important information  Provide handouts. ·  Write on the board or use transparencies 4. Present information in an organized manner Show a logical sequence to concepts and skills.  Go from simple to complex when
  41. 41. Principle Examples 5.Show students how to use coding when memorizing lists. Use mental imagery techniques such as the keyword method · Make up silly sentence with first letter of each word in the list. · 6.Provide for repetition of learning. · State important principles several times in different ways during presentation of information (STM).  Have items on each day's lesson from previous lesson (LTM).  Schedule periodic reviews of previously learned concepts and skills (LTM). 7.Show students how to categorize (chunk) related information. Present information in categories.  Teach inductive reasoning
  42. 42.  Atkinson, R., & Shiffrin, R. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K Spence & J Spence (Eds.). The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press.  http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6  http://www.google.com.eg/url?q=http://study.com/academy/less

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