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what is philosophy and a conversation with paulo

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What is Philosophy?
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what is philosophy and a conversation with paulo

  1. 1. WHAT IS PHILOSOP HY? Nikka Y. Abenion
  2. 2. MOTIVATION A murderer is sentenced into death. He has to choose between three rooms. The first room is full of furious flame. The second is full of murderers with loaded guns. And there are lions in the third room who had not been fed for years. Which room is the safest? Answer: The room of the lions because they’re dead if they haven’t been fed for years.
  3. 3. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? Alternative definitions: From Wikipedia  the discipline concerned with questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic) From the American Heritage Dictionary  investigation of the nature, causes, or principles of reality, knowledge, or values, based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods
  4. 4. ALTERNATIVE DEFINITIONS: From Penguin English Dictionary  the study of the ultimate nature of existence, reality, knowledge and goodness, as discoverable by human reasoning From Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary  the search for knowledge and truth, especially about the nature of man and his behavior and beliefs From Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy  the study of the most general and abstract features of the world and categories with which we think: mind, matter, reason, proof, truth, etc
  5. 5. OTHER DEFINITIONS OF PHILOSOPHY • The Historical Approach • Philosophy as Criticism • Philosophy as The Analysis Of Language • Philosophy as a Program Of Change • Philosophy as a Set Of Questions And Answers • Philosophy as a Word-view
  6. 6. AS USED ORIGINALLY BY THE ANCIENT GREEKS, THE TERM "PHILOSOPHY" MEANT THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE FOR ITS OWN SAKE, AND COMPRISED ALL AREAS OF SPECULATIVE THOUGHT, INCLUDING THE ARTS, SCIENCES AND RELIGION
  7. 7. PHILOSOPHY IN THE ANCIENT WORLD WAS THE PARENT OF MOST SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE THAT SOUGHT THE KNOWLEDGE OF ALL THINGS ON EARTH AND IN HEAVEN. • Knowledge of natural things and their causes lead to the creation of physics and metaphysics. • Knowledge of human affairs and their constitutive relations lead to the creation of ethics, politics, and the philosophy of history. • Knowledge of heavenly things leads to cosmology and speculative theology.
  8. 8. IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND PHILOSOPHY, YOU MUST NOT ONLY GRASP THE SUBJECT MATTER, SUCH AS METAPHYSICS AND ETHICS, BUT ALSO ITS METHOD.  In Western Philosophy – the method to obtain knowledge is rooted in the Philosopher’s ability to form and evaluate arguments  In Asia – the philosophy there has greater emphasis on knowledge of the Way (Dao) to live a life harmonizing the individual with her natural and social world.  In all cultures – philosophy requires that we think critically: to be clear, precise, well- organized, truthful, complete, and be able to handle objections
  9. 9. DIVISIONS OF PHILOSOPHY Epistemology - a Greek word translated as the theory of knowledge.  It is a foundational area for other areas of philosophy  It involves three main areas: (1) the source or ways to knowledge. (2) The nature of knowledge. (3) The validity of knowledge
  10. 10. METAPHYSICS  Metaphysics is another Greek word which refers to the attempt to describe the nature of reality.  it involves many questions such as the nature and makeup of the universe, whether the world is purposive or not, whether man is free, whether the world is eternal or created, and many other issues.
  11. 11. LOGIC - A TERM USED TO DESCRIBE THE VARIOUS TYPES OF REASONING STRUCTURES, THE RELATIONSHIP OF IDEAS, DEDUCTION AND INFERENCE, AND IN MODERN TIMES. SYMBOLIC LOGIC WHICH BECOMES QUITE MATHEMATICAL. Axiology - Axios, the Greek word of worth, is related to two different areas of worth. There is, first, moral worth, or ethics.  Ethics is a discipline concerning human moral behavior and raises the questions of right or wrong. It has generally been the science or discipline of what human behavior ought to be in contrast to a discipline like sociology which is the study of what human behavior is.  Aesthetics - the philosophical study of beauty and taste. It is closely related to the philosophy of art, which is concerned with the nature of art and the concepts in terms of which individual works of art are interpreted and evaluated
  12. 12. "PHILOSOPHIES OF" Another category of philosophy is called "philosophies of" because of the term being related to various other subjects or disciplines. For example: philosophy of art philosophy of biology philosophy of history philosophy of law philosophy of philosophy philosophy of physics philosophy of the natural sciences philosophy of religion philosophy of sociology philosophy of science  The "philosophy of" is basically the application of metaphysical and epistemological questions to a certain subject area. It is concerned with the basic structures of the discipline and the presuppositions needed for the study
  13. 13. WHY DO WE STUDY PHILOSOPHY? The study of philosophy enhances one’s ability to:  think, speak, and write clearly and critically  form original, creative solutions to problems  develop reasoned arguments for one’s views  appreciate views different from one’s own  analyze complex material, and  investigate difficult questions in systematic fashion
  14. 14. A CONVERSATION WITH PAULO FREIRE PAULO FREIRE, UBIRATAN D'AMBROSIO AND MARIA DO CARMO MENDONÇA
  15. 15. WHO IS PAULO FREIRE?
  16. 16. A CONVERSATION WITH PAULO FREIRE • The conversation was between the philosopher and educator Paulo Freire and two Mathematics educators from the University of São, Ubiratan D’Ambrosio and Maria Do Carmo Mendoça
  17. 17. SUMMA RY The conversation started by Maria and Ubiratan by recognizing Paulo Freire as the great philosopher who has been the inspiration for a number of new measures and proposal in education Ubiratan asked a question: “Do you see an equivalent to literacy, a form of 'mathemacy'? Is there a mathematical equivalent to 'alphabetization' in your work?”
  18. 18. • Paulo answered with honesty and say: “'Ha! Even back then, forty years ago, I was concerned with this ' No, indeed I did not think about this before. But today I understand this. I have no doubt about the importance of every effort, which should not be exclusive to mathematicians, to the professor of mathematics, but that in my understanding of every man and woman, mathematician, physicist or carpenter, that is exactly the effort to recognize ourselves as conscious bodies mathematised.” • as a transition of the support from the world, culture was installed, as well as the invention of language, and a way of thinking that attends not only to the object that is being thought, but which enriches itself with the possibility of communicating and communicating itself. I believe that in this moment we also became mathematicians
  19. 19. PAULO FREIRE:  Life, which became existence, was mathematised.  to propose to youth, students, pupils, farmers, at the same time as they discover that four· times four is sixteen, they also discover that there is a mathematical way of being in the world.
  20. 20. “I believe at this congress one of the things I would do is to make, not really an appeal, more a suggestion to mathematics teachers that, at the same time as they teach that four times four is sixteen or square roots, or this and that, they try to awaken their students to seeing themselves as mathematicians.”
  21. 21. Ubiratan: We recognize the political importance you give to the acquisition of language. You say that in order to be free, human beings have to be capable of expressing themselves, must be able to read, must be able to discourse. Do you see something equivalent in mathematics? Paulo: I believe that, unquestionably, this possible mathematical 'alphabetization', this 'math-alphabetization' [mate-alfabetizaçao] or math-literacy, would help the very creation of citizenship.
  22. 22. PAULO: I believe that at the moment in which you translate the naturalness of mathematics into a condition for being in the world, you are working against a certain elitism that the studies of mathematics have, even contrary to the desire of some mathematicians “it became accepted that understanding mathematics is something profoundly refined, when indeed it is not, and should not be.” “to the extent to which you do not do it simplistically, but you render the understanding of the mathematical existence of human existence simpler, then without any doubt you help in the recognition of the importance of mathematical understanding, which is as important as language”
  23. 23. Maria: This is natural mathematics, the mathematics that says something about natural quantification. example how a boy understands multiplication, and the teacher does not see this other vision of mathematics as valid Paulo: This does not happen only with mathematics; this has to do with the presence of men and women in the world. This has much to do with an elitist posture prevailing in schools, which downplays every contribution that the student can give to the school this involves an over-valuation of knowledge called academic and the devaluation of common-sense knowledge. This is the epistemological position according to which there is a definitive rupture between one form of knowledge and the other.
  24. 24. PAULO:  I feel that the beginning of an educational practice must be the understanding of the world that the learner has or has had, and not the world-view and the knowledge system of the educator  We start from what the learner knows in order that he or she can know better, know more and know what he or she does not know yet.  I believe that what we do, to start from the world-view of the teacher, shows disrespect, which is an elitist disrespect The strengthening of a democratic posture resides in overcoming this disrespect
  25. 25. Ubiratan: I know that one of your current projects is to write a book about the preparation of teachers. Is it possible for you to say something about this project, in a way more directly related to our concerns, as mathematics educators? How do you think the preparation of teachers can be revitalized? Paulo: The provisional title of the book will mention teacher preparation and fundamental knowledge which is necessary for a critical teaching practice. My concern in writing this book is to show that, sometimes even more than knowledge, some awareness's are absolutely necessary for a teacher and should be present in the education of an educator.
  26. 26. PAULO: (AWARENESS) • Education is founded on these two feet, one the inconclusiveness, the other the conscious awareness of this inconclusiveness Human educability has no explanation other than the assumption of aware inconclusiveness example: the Jaboticabeira (a common Brazilian fruit tree) which I have in the garden of my house is also inconclusive, since the phenomenon of inconclusiveness is a vital phenomenon, it is not exclusive to human beings.
  27. 27. PAULO: (AWARENESS) • to realize that change is very difficult, but it is possible. I move as a teacher because even knowing that it is so difficult to change, I know it is possible to change. It may even be possible that the agent of a radical change does not belong to my generation, yet without my generation the other generation will not be able to change
  28. 28. PAULO: (AWARENESS) • to teach is not to transfer knowledge, to transfer contents.  To teach is to struggle, together with the students; it is to create conditions for the construction of knowledge, for the reconstruction of knowledge  It is necessary for the teacher to have a historical perception that men and women learned first, then they taught. Learning has always preceded teaching.
  29. 29. BUT WHAT IS HAPPENING IN SCHOOLS? (PAULO) Paulo said:  Teaching became more important, and learning was bureaucratized with the bureaucratization of teaching  the teacher must know that both learning and teaching, are in a contradictory dialectical process, in which the better one learns, the better one can teach, and the more one teaches, the more it is possible to learn
  30. 30. UBIRATAN TO PAULO: Ubiratan: “Schools must provide an environment, must indeed be an environment, for sharing the process of search and must not be the place where knowledge is transferred” Paulo: Unquestionably, the role of the teacher, the role of the one who teaches, is a major role. The teacher has a great responsibility. And the teacher who does not teach does not justify him- or herself.
  31. 31. Feijoada – a Brazilian dish
  32. 32. • The conversation ends with the words of gratitude from Maria. • Paulo Freire also said to Ubiratan that “you go beyond the adjective 'mathematics' and can say 'in education' too. Indeed, I see D'Ambrosio as more than an educator, he is a philosopher of education” • Thereafter, he (Paulo Freire) excused himself and rush to his doctor.
  33. 33. THANK YOU

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