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measurement assessment and evaluation

  1. 1. Introduction to educational assessment All regards to my teacher
  2. 2. Presented by: M Tahir Mehmood
  3. 3. Test • In scientific terms, test means an instrument to be used for accurate measurement for anything. • A test is a specific tool, or procedure used to draw out or elicit a response from the students in order to gain information. • A test is commonly defined as tool or instrument of measurement that is used to obtain data about a specific trait or characteristics.
  4. 4. • A test is a device or technique used to measure the performance, skill level, or knowledge of a learner on a specific subject matter. • A test is an instrument or a tool used to make a particular measurement. The tool may be written, oral, mechanical, or another variation. • Instrument use to measure the ability and skills of a student. • Is a formal and systematic instrument designed to assess the quality, ability skill and knowledge of students by giving a set of question in uniform manner to be answered by them to gather information about their performance.
  5. 5. Measurement • The collection of information on which a decision is made. • Every time, a test is used it must have its score called measurement. • To measure any thing, we need some standard scale, questionnaire or an instrument known as test.
  6. 6. Measurement Measurement is not a new concept to you. You measured your height and weight throughout your growing years.  You have read how fast athletes have run, how high some have jumped, and how far a baseball or a golf ball has been hit. All of these are examples of measurement.
  7. 7. • Measurement is process of collecting information. • A measurement takes place when a “test” is given and a “score” is obtained . • The measurement is a specific sore given by an expert every time when a test is applied. • It is the process of collection of data on the properties or attributes of interest during the administration of test or by some other reliable sources the measurement takes place.
  8. 8. Assessment • The process of gathering quantitative and qualitative data of what a student can do, and how much a student possesses. • It is the vital component of the teaching- learning process. I. Gathering of data II. Analyzing data III.Interpreting data
  9. 9. • In the context of language of teaching and learning: • Act of gathering information on a daily basis in order to understand individual student’s learning and needs. • It also refers to the act of collecting information and making judgments about a language learner’s knowledge of the language and ability to use it.
  10. 10. Evaluation • The use of measurement in making decisions. • Evaluation is the process of interpreting, analyzing, and assessing the data obtained from the test. • Evaluation is a process of delineating, obtaining and providing useful information for judging decision alternatives
  11. 11. Evaluation • The statistical treatment of analysis of data as per the purpose of the test is called evaluation. • Evaluation is a process of education that uses data gathered from the products and the process by means of measurement technique.
  12. 12. Evaluation • The evaluation assigns the worth of value to the measurement score. • Evaluation involves two steps. 1. comparison of collected data (measurement) with some standards/norms. 2. and decision making or announcement of evaluation on the basis of finding “how good”.
  13. 13. • From the meaning and definitions, it is obvious that a term test, measurement and evaluation are interrelated. The test are specific instrument for measurement. Administration of a test is a process of measurement, without test, measurement is not possible. • Measurement is a technique necessary for evaluation. It represent status of a certain attributes or properties and is a terminal process. Relationship between Test, Measurement and Evaluation
  14. 14. • Measurement describe a situation, evaluation judges its worth of value. • Measurement is a technique of evaluation and test are tool of measurement. • The term test, measurement and evaluation are clearly distinct but related. Teacher obtained measures from test in order to make fair evaluation about specific trait or characteristics of the students. • An evaluation often involves one or more tests and in term a test is involved one or more measurement. Test Measurement Assessment Evaluation
  15. 15. Assessment of Learning • The purpose of this kind of assessment is usually SUMMATIVE and is mostly done at the end of a task, unit of work etc. • “It is designed to provide evidence of achievement to parents, other educators, the students themselves and sometimes to outside groups (e.g., employers, other educational institutions).” “Assessment of Learning is the assessment that becomes public and results in statements or symbols about how well students are learning. It often contributes to pivotal decisions that will affect students’ futures. It is important, then, that the underlying logic and measurement of assessment of learning be credible and defensible.”
  16. 16. Teachers’ Roles in Assessment of Learning • “Teachers have the responsibility of reporting student learning accurately and fairly, based on evidence obtained from a variety of contexts and applications. Effective assessment of learning requires that teachers provide: • A rationale for undertaking a particular assessment of learning at a particular point in time. • Clear descriptions of the intended learning. • Processes that make it possible for students to demonstrate their competence and skill.
  17. 17. Assessment for Learning • The emphasis shifts from summative to FORMATIVE assessment in Assessment for Learning. • Assessment for Learning happens during the learning, often more than once, rather than at the end. • Students understand exactly what they are to learn, what is expected of them and are given feedback and advice on how to improve their work.
  18. 18. Teachers’ Roles in Assessment for Learning Assessment for learning occurs throughout the learning process. It is interactive, with teachers: • Aligning instruction • Identifying particular learning needs of students or groups • Selecting and adapting materials and resources • Creating differentiated teaching strategies and learning opportunities for helping individual students move forward in their learning • Providing immediate feedback and direction to students
  19. 19. PRINCIPLES OF ASSESSMENT 1. Assessment should be well aligned with students • objective • Competences • Educational standards 2. The formative assessment needs to scaffold students in the summative assessment 3. Assessment should become more like instruction
  20. 20. 4. Assessment results need to be used by teachers to help students learn better 5. Assessment is not use to threaten and intimidate students 6. The teacher should encourage the learning community to engaged in assessment 7. Assessment is a technical competency by using assessment to make decisions about the instruction
  21. 21. Standardized Vs Teacher Made Test • It is less valid than teacher made test. • These are not simple in construction, where the content, scoring and interpretation all get fixed or standardized for a particular age group, students of the same grade, at different times and at different places. • This is valuable to the teacher. • Universal applicability is there and are prepared by experts and cater to all people’s requirements. Standardized Tests
  22. 22. • It is less relevant for a particular situation. • It can be carelessly planned and executed as T.M test. • Reliability is ensured . • All the questions in it are expertly written, properly pre- tested, rigorously analyzed and scientifically refined.
  23. 23. • They are made by the teacher himself to measure the achievement of his pupil from time to time. • Limited area of applications; prepared by almost all the teachers according to their requirements. • Teacher is directly involved in test construction where he can measure directly classroom m objectives and particular class situation. • This is valuable to the teacher. • It caters to classroom or local situation. • It can be carelessly planned and executed • Reliability is unknown. • Done by the teacher himself. Teacher Made Test
  24. 24. Methods of Test interpretation • Describes student performance according to a specified domain or clearly defined learning tasks. • Concerned with national examination and other assessment bodies • Used in the assessment of vocational and academic qualifications • Results are given on a pass/fail, competent/not competent basis • Results are conclusive and usually open to review Criterion Referenced Interpretation
  25. 25. Describe the student performance according to relative position in some known group: • A standardized aptitude and achievement tests • Teacher made survey test Norm Referenced Interpretation
  26. 26. Purpose of Assessment • Identify what children know (knowledge) • Identity what the children can do and how well can they do it (skill; performance) • Find appropriate process for students to involve them in learning process • Identify children’s specific needs • Select appropriate curriculum to meet children’s individual needs
  27. 27. • Inspect the progress of children toward achieving educational goal • Make policy regarding what is and what is not appropriate for children • Communicate with parents to provide information about their children’s progress and learning • Determine how well and to what extent programs and service children receive are beneficial and appropriate
  28. 28. There are two types of assessment on the basis of nature • Maximum performance • Typical Performance Nature of assessment
  29. 29. Maximum performance Determines what individuals can do when performing at their best • Aptitude test • Achievement test Typical Performance Determines what individual will do under natural condition • Personality, interest • Observational techniques
  30. 30. There are two forms of assessment 1. Fixed choice test 2. Complex performance assessment Form of Assessment
  31. 31. Fixed choice test Efficient measurement of knowledge and skills, indirect indicator • Standardized multiple choice test Complex performance test Measurement of performance in context and on problem values in their own right • Projects essay oral presentation
  32. 32. Instructional process Assessment play an important role in the instruction process • Preparing instructional goals and objectives • Preassessing learner need • Providing relevant instruction • Assessing the intended learning outcomes • Using assessment result to improves leering and instruction
  33. 33. Thanks for listening

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