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City planning theories post war

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City planning theories post war

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City planning theories post war

  1. 1. BY:- AMANDEEP GULATI & MUKESHWARAN BALU
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR Conception of planning 1. Town planning as physical planning 2. Design as central to town planning 3. Production of 'master' plans or 'blueprint' plans
  3. 3. • Physical planning as opposed to 'social' and 'economic‘ planning. • According to Keeble in his book in 1952: ₋ Town and Country Planning might be described as the art and science of ordering the use of land and the character and siting of buildings and communicative routes. ₋ Town planning “may greatly assist in the realization of the aims of these other kinds of planning”. Then implicit in this statement is an assumption that social and economic ends could be advanced by physical means. ₋ Town and country planning is not 'political' planning. Town planning as physical planning CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  4. 4. • The term 'civic' design was also much used. • Town planning was regarded as an 'extension' of architectural design (or to a lesser extent civil engineering • Being concerned with the design of whole groups of buildings and spaces - with 'townscape‘ rather than the design of individual buildings and their immediate sites, • Architecture too was seen to be an exercise in the physical design of built forms. Design as central to town planning CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR Europe Great Britain Netherlands People who worked as town planners Frederick Gibberd H.P. Berlage Le Corbusier Thomas Sharp Patrick Abercrombie
  5. 5. Design as central to town planning CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  6. 6. Design as central to town planning CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  7. 7. • Plans were seen as 'blueprints' for the future form of towns - as statements of 'end-states' that would one day be reached. • The first generation of development plans local authorities were required to produce under the town and country planning act 1947 also adopted this approach. • Detailed zoning plans specified how particular sites were to be used and developed. • 'Programming' plans that showed the stages at which the envisaged development of different parts of the plans would be carried out to 'complete' the plans. Town plans as detailed blueprints or master plans CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  8. 8. Town plans as detailed blueprints or master plans CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR Arturo Soria's project for the Ciudad Lineal of Madrid (19th Century Plans for Linear Cities)
  9. 9. Town plans as detailed blueprints or master plans CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR Le Corbusier’s Plan for Radiant Cities
  10. 10. Town plans as detailed blueprints or master plans CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR Frank Lloyd Wright’s Plan for Broadacre City
  11. 11. Conclusion • The plan was not just an approach to town planning as an exercise in physical planning and urban design but also a normative concept of the ideal urban environment. • In other words, the tracts and textbooks published at the time not only advanced an extended definition of planning but they also embodied certain values about the kinds of environment which, it was believed, should be realized through town planning. Town plans as detailed blueprints or master plans CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City
  12. 12. CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR BY CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR CLARENCE ARTHUR PERRY ALDO ROSSI LEWIS MUMFORD ROB KRIER KEVIN ANDREW ROBERT VENTURI FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT JANE JACOBS CLARENCE STEIN LYNCH
  13. 13. • American planner, sociologist, author, and educator. • He was born in Truxton, New York. • He began his education as a student of Stanford University for two years then finished his degree at Cornell University in 1899. • He later worked in the New York City planning department where he became a strong advocate of the Neighborhood unit. • He was an early promoter of neighborhood community and recreation centers. 1872-1944 CLARENCE ARTHUR PERRY CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  14. 14. • The concept of the neighborhood unit, crystallized from the prevailing social and intellectual attitudes of the early 1900s by clarence perry. • To act as a framework for urban planners attempting to design functional, self-contained and desirable neighborhoods in the early 20th century in industrializing cities. Clarence A. Perry’s Conception of the Neighborhood Unit CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  15. 15. • Populated area which would require and support an elementary school with an enrolment of between 1,000 and 1,200 pupils. • Total population between 5,000 and 6,000 people. • low density dwelling district • 10 families per acre, the neighborhood unit would occupy about 160 acres. • Child to walk a distance of more than one-quarter mile to school. Clarence A. Perry’s Conception of the Neighborhood Unit CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  16. 16. • 10 % of the area would be allocated to recreation • Through traffic arteries would be confined to the surrounding streets, internal streets being limited to service access for residents of the neighborhood. • The unit would be served by shopping facilities, churches, and a library, and a community center, the latter being located in conjunction with the school. • The neighborhood focal point should be the elementary school centrally located on a common or green, along with other institutions that have service areas coincident with the neighborhood boundaries. • Shopping districts should be sited at the edge of neighborhoods preferably at major street intersections. Clarence A. Perry’s Conception of the Neighborhood Unit CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  17. 17. • American historian, sociologist, philosopher of technology, and literary critic. • Particularly noted for his ‘The City in History (1961)’. • He had a broad career as a writer. • Influenced by the work of Scottish theorist Sir Patrick Geddes and worked closely with his associate the British sociologist Victor Branford.October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990 LEWIS MUMFORD CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  18. 18. • The structure of modern cities is partially responsible for many social problems seen in western society. • He argues argues that urban planning should emphasize an organic relationship between people and their living spaces. • Medieval city as the basis for the "ideal city“. • Modern city is too close to the roman city. • City is "a product of earth, a fact of nature & man's method of expression”. The City in History CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  19. 19. • He spoke to the everchanging , Multidimensional personality of urban residents and how they have transcended “traditional” displays of societal norms. • Planners need to recognize the social nucleus of cities as the interrelationship of schools, theaters, community centers and the like, because those are what lay the outlines of an integrated city. • Mumford suggested limitations on population, density and urban growth to promote efficiency; he championed Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City ideal with his work on polynucleated cities. The City in History CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  20. 20. • He was an American urban planner and author. • Known for his work on the perceptual form of urban environments and was an early proponent of mental mapping. • His most influential books include ’The Image of the City (1960)’ and ‘What Time is This Place? (1972)’. January 7, 1918 – April 25, 1984 KEVIN ANDREW LYNCH CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  21. 21. • In his famous book “The Image of the city” using three disparate cities as examples (Boston, Jersey City, and Los Angeles), Lynch reported that users understood their surroundings in consistent and predictable ways, forming mental maps with five elements: ₋ Paths ₋ Edges ₋ Districts ₋ Nodes ₋ Landmarks The Image of the City CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  22. 22. • Paths: the streets, sidewalks, trails, and other channels in which people travel; • Edges: perceived boundaries such as walls, buildings, and shorelines; • Districts: relatively large sections of the city distinguished by some identity or character; • Nodes: focal points, intersections or loci; • Landmarks: readily identifiable objects which serve as external reference points The Image of the City CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  23. 23. • American-Canadian journalist, author, and activist best known for her influence on urban studies. • Her book The ‘Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961)’ argued that urban renewal did not respect the needs of most city- dwellers. • Well known for organizing grassroots efforts to protect existing neighborhoods from "slum clearance“. • Particularly for her opposition to Robert Moses in his plans to overhaul her neighborhood, Greenwich Village. May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006 JANE BUTZNER JACOBS CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  24. 24. • “Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody.” • Jacobs’s four principles for a city as a vibrant system and maintaining a “sidewalk ballet ” : ₋ A street or district must serve several primary functions. ₋ Blocks must be short. ₋ Buildings must vary in age, condition, use and rentals. ₋ Population must be dense. • Led the way in advocating for a place-based, community-centered approach to urban planning JANE BUTZNER JACOBS CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  25. 25. • Jacobs argued for : ₋ Cities as Ecosystems ₋ Mixed-Use Development ₋ Bottom-Up Community Planning ₋ The Case for Higher Density • Led the way in advocating for a place-based, community-centered approach to urban planning. JANE BUTZNER JACOBS CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  26. 26. • Clear demarcation between public and private spaces. • There must be eyes upon the street, eyes belonging to those we might call natural proprietors of the street. The buildings on a street equipped to handle strangers and to ensure the safety of both residents and strangers must be oriented to the street. • The sidewalk must have users on it fairly continuously JANE BUTZNER JACOBS CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  27. 27. The Death and Life of great American Cities CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  28. 28. • American urban planner, architect, and writer. • A major proponent of the Garden City movement in the United States. • He wrote Toward New Towns for America in 1951, and received the AIA Gold Medal in 1956. June 19, 1882 – February 7, 1975 CLARENCE STEIN CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  29. 29. • The elementary school at the center of the neighborhood unit and within ½ mile radius of all residents. A small shopping center for daily needs is located near the school. • Most residential streets are suggested as cul-de-sac or ‘dead-end’ roads to eliminate through traffic, and park space flows through the neighborhood in a manner reminiscent of the Radburn Plan. CLARENCE STEIN CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  30. 30. • He further expanded the definition of neighborhood center by connecting the neighborhoods together to create towns. The radius for walking distance to these facilities being one mile. • The neighborhood unit has been defined and redefined throughout the planning history. It represents a unit of the population with basic common needs for educational, recreational and other service facilities. CLARENCE STEIN CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  31. 31. • He was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 532. • Broadacre City was an urban or suburban development concept proposed by Frank Lloyd Wright throughout most of his lifetime. • He presented the idea in his book The Disappearing City in 1932. June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959 FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  32. 32. • Broadacre City was the antithesis of a city and the apotheosis of the newly born suburbia, shaped through Wright's particular vision. • It was both a planning statement and a socio- political scheme by which each U.S. family would be given a one acre (4,000 m²) plot of land from the federal lands reserves, and a Wright-conceived community would be built anew from this. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR BROADACRE CITY
  33. 33. • In a sense it was the exact opposite of transit-oriented development. There is a train station and a few office and apartment buildings in Broadacre City, but the apartment dwellers are expected to be a small minority. • All important transport is done by automobile and the pedestrian can exist safely only within the confines of the one acre (4,000 m²) plots where most of the population dwells. • In his book Urban Planning Theory since 1945, Nigel Taylor Considers the planning methodology of this type of cities to be Blueprint planning, Which came under heavy critisicm in the late 1950 by many critics such as Jane Jacobs in her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  34. 34. • He was an Italian architect and designer who accomplished the unusual feat of achieving international recognition in four distinct areas: theory, drawing, architecture and product design. 3 May 1931 – September 4, 1997 ALDO ROSSI CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  35. 35. • The city and its architecture are inseparable • Permanence of form • Type and elemental forms ALDO ROSSI CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  36. 36. • Type and memory : The city composed of recognizable types Types allow people to connect through collective memory Autonomous forms as archetypes Form follows memory • Time : The presence of clocks indicates an event is over • Memory structure of the city : Monuments and memory are fundamental to the city structure ALDO ROSSI CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  37. 37. • Robert Charles Venturi, Jr. is an American architect, founding principal of the firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, and one of the major architectural figures in the twentieth century. June 25, 1925 ROBERT VENTURI CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  38. 38. • Objectively analyze the commercial strips of Las Vegas as a phenomenon of architectural communication (without discussion of values) - Revolutionary for architects - To question how we look at things • Architects always look judgmentally at the environment, dissatisfied with existing conditions and want to change rather than try to enhance what is there • We look back at history to go forward, and look down [at ordinary environment] to go up 1972 - Learning From Las Vegas ROBERT VENTURI CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  39. 39. • Analysis of signs, symbols and buildings in relation to their size, distance and speed of movement • Use example of icon (painting, sculpture, or inscription) in historic building to support the use of sign and symbol on commercial building View Inside a Car ROBERT VENTURI CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  40. 40. June 25, 1925 ROBERT VENTURI CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR Analysis
  41. 41. Analysis ROBERT VENTURI CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  42. 42. • Rob Krier bornis a Luxembourgian sculptor, architect, urban designer and theorist. • He is former professor of architecture at Vienna University of Technology, Austria. • From 1993 to mid-2010 he has worked in partnership with architect Christoph Kohl in a joint office based in Berlin, Germany. Born in 1938 ROB KRIER CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  43. 43. • He published Stadtraum in Theorie und Praxis in 1975. This book is a contribution to the establishment of an integrative typology of urban spaces, and let him to earn an influential position in urban rationalist polemics. • His rationalism is based on the visual hierarchies proposed by Camillo Sitte and related to buildings of human scale. He considered that people have lost the sight of traditional understanding of urban space in the modern city. ROB KRIER CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR
  44. 44. • "The basic approach of our urban design concept in the 'block' formation. This enables the creation of many different spatial configurations of squares and street sequences that give the individual 'places' their indelible character and offer inhabitants the kind of familiar quality found in a typical Berlin neighborhood, or Kiez." ROB KRIER CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR Roof View of New Town of Kirchsteigfeld, Potsdam by Rob Krier and Christoph Kohl
  45. 45. • More than just a garden-suburb, Kirchsteigfeld integrates the open flow of space and light which is the 20th century's great contribution to housing, while celebrating the historic qualities of place and identity which we have learned once more to value in making urban forms for community." ROB KRIER CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR Working Model of Hufeisenplatz, Kirchsteigfeld, Potsdam
  46. 46. • "Urban Space is created by the built massing and their elevations. Buildings are therefore space-forming. The designer of a building is consequently responsible for the image that is created and imposed upon the user. Buildings mark their surroundings and must accordingly capture the 'genius loci' and reflect this 'spirit of the place' in which they are located. In this sense buildings 'serve' their context and the people which inhabit them" • Rob Krier and Christoph Kohl ROB KRIER CITY PLANNING THEORIES OF POST WAR New Town of Kirchsteigfeld, Potsdam Existing Buildings and Proposed Completion
  47. 47. THANK YOU

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