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• Introduction to enzymes
• Introduction to Biotechnology
• Enzymes and Pharmaceuticals Industries
• Enzymes and Bio-fuels
• Enzymes and Paper and Pulp Industries
• Enzymes and Brewing Industries.
Enzymes are biological catalysts or assistants. Enzymes consist of various types
of proteins that work to drive the chemical reaction required for a specific action
or nutrient. Enzymes can either launch a reaction speed it up. Enzymes function
in a mild environment similar to the body environment of a living organism, and
they support life by synthesizing and degrading materials that constitute the
building blocks of the organism and by creating energy. Enzymes function as
highly selective catalysis in such a way that they selectivity catalyze specific
reactions (reaction specificity) and specific materials (substrate
specificity).Technology for utilizing enzymes for the improvement of our life is a
key feature of biotechnology.
Classification of enzymes: According to the Enzyme Commission,
International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology enzymes
are classified into following.
Biotechnology: Biotechnology is defined as the exploitation of biological
processes for industrial and other purposes, Biotechnology can be broadly
defined as "using organisms or their products for commercial purposes."
especially the genetic manipulation of micro organisms for the production
of antibiotics, hormones, etc
Biotechnology encompasses wide range of industries such as
• Pharmaceuticals Industries
• Bio-fuels Industries
•Paper and Pulp Industries
•Food and Brewing Industries
• Agricultural Industries etc …
Enzymes & Pharmaceuticals Industries
The hormone insulin is essential for the control of blood sugar levels.
Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which some people cannot make insulin
themselves. This disease kills many people in the world every year.
Insulin has been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus since 1922 when
Leonard Thompson became the first human to receive an injection of manmade insulin.
Production of Genetic Engineered
1. Human insulin is extracted from pancreas
cells and an insulin-producing gene is
2. A plasmid DNA is extracted from a
bacterium and cut with restriction enzyme,
forming plasmid vector.
3. Insert human insulin-producing gene into
the bacterial plasmid vector to form the
recombinant DNA of human insulinproducing gene.
4. Introduce this recombinant DNA into a
bacterial cell to form the recombinant
5. The recombinant bacteria multiply in a fermentation tank and
produce human insulin.
6. Insulin is extracted, purified and bottled. It is then ready to be
injected into diabetic patients.
Fuel made from organic material such as food wastes and micro-organisms
Any solid ,liquid or gas fuels that’s can be derived from Bio-mass.
Bio-fuel is basically an Eco-friendly fuel that is generated from recently deceased biological
matter. A fuel can be considered as a bio-fuel only when it comprises of more than 75% of
renewable materials. Many people confuse fossil fuels and recently deceased biological
matter. You should keep in mind that fossil fuels like oil are composed of biological
matter that has been dead for a very long time. Hence, fossil fuels are usually linked to
In the bio-fuel industry, cellu-lases used to break down cellulose into sugars that can be fermented
Types OF Bio-Fuels
Ethanol (derived from sugar , starch , lignin, cellulose , vegetative and animal waste)
Butanol (made from organic matter in renewable biomass
Effects of Bio-fuel on the Environment:
The major bio-fuel characteristic is that it is renewable because it is formed
from organic matter that can be easily replenished. Additionally, bio-fuel is
also biodegradable since when it is burned it does not cause global warming.
Instead of staying in the atmosphere for a long time like other fossil fuels, biofuel eventually dissipates without harming nature or disturbing the Eco
balance. Bio-fuel is greener and cleaner in contrast with fossil fuels since it
produces minute quantities of harmful greenhouse gases. Interestingly, biofuel is capable of producing 90% higher energy in contrast with the amount of
energy used to generate it.
Enzymes & Paper and Pulp Industry
In the paper industry, the enzymes named as amylases, xylanases,
cellulases, and ligninases are used to degrade starch to lower viscosity,
aiding sizing and coating paper.
Enzymes & Brewing Industry
In the brewing industry, enzymes from barley are released during the
mashing stage of beer production. They degrade starch and proteins to
produce simple sugar, amino acids, and peptides that are used by yeast for
fermentation. Industrially-produced barley enzymes are widely used in the
brewing process to substitute for the natural enzymes found in barley.
Amylase, glucanases, and proteases are used to split polysaccharides and
proteins in the malt. Betaglucanases and arabinoxylanases are used to
improve the wort and beer filtration characteristics. Amyloglucosidase and
pullulanases are used for low-calorie beer and adjustment of fermentability.
Proteases are used to remove cloudiness produced during storage of beers.
From all of the above description about
Pharmaceuticals industries, Bio-fuels
industries, paper and pulp industries and
brewing industries it has been concluded
that enzymes are very important in biotechnology . These both are very important
for the welfare of man-kind .