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Understanding the perception and its role in successful management of organization

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Understanding the perception and its role in successful management of organization

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This presentation describes the perception in detail and also explain the various factors affect it.

This presentation describes the perception in detail and also explain the various factors affect it.

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Understanding the perception and its role in successful management of organization

  1. 1. Understanding the Perception and Its Role in Management of Organization B P SINGH Principal Scientist Division of Extension Education ICAR- Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar-243 122 Email: bpsingh_ext@rediffmail.com
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  7. 7. Humans DO NOT usually use bottom- up processing during perception
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  12. 12. Perception “Perception refers to the interpretation of what we take in through our senses. In terms of optical illusions this means our eyes.” Simply put, our brains are tricked into seeing something which may or may not be real.
  13. 13. Perception • Perception (from the Latin perceptio, percipio) is the organization, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. • All perception involves signals in the nervous system, which in turn result from physical stimulation of the sense organs. • For example, vision involves light striking the retinas of the eyes, smell is mediated by odor molecules and hearing involves pressure waves.
  14. 14. WHAT IS PERCEPTION ? • Perception Is The Process By Which People Select, Organize, Interpret and Respond to Information From The World Around Them. • It may be described As a Person’s View Of Reality.
  15. 15. Perception is the interpretation of sensory data by the brain. Perception may, therefore, be defined as a process by which sensory input is so interpreted as to make it meaningful. It is the process of perception, which makes it possible for us to see, feel, hear, taste and smell things ( Ghorpade, 1977). Sanford (1966)- Perception is a process whereby the organism selects, organizes and interprets sensory data available to it. PERCEPTION
  16. 16. Kolassa (1977) defines perception as the selection and organization of material which stems from the outside environment at one time or the other to provide the meaningful entity we experience. There are two basic elements in this definition: 1. perception is a process of selection or screening which prevents us from processing irrelevant or disruptive information 2. there is organization implying that the information which is processed has to be ordered and classified in some logical manner which permits us to assign meaning to the stimulus situations.
  17. 17. Perception is a complex involves a complicated interaction of selection, organization and interpretation, feedback and reaction. 1. Perception initiates with the presence of stimulus situation. 2.Registration/Organization involves the psychological mechanism including both sensory and neural. Psychological ability to hear and see determines his perception. 3. Interpretation. An individual’s interpretation of a stimulus situation is determined by his motivation, personality and learning event data
  18. 18. 4. Feedback is important for interpreting the perceptual event data. In work settings, the psychological feedback which is likely to affect a subordinate’s perception, may be in the form of a variation in the tone of voce of a superior. 5. Perception ends in a reaction or response which may be in the overt or covert form. As a consequences of perception, an individual is likely to work rapidly or slowly or form an opinion in respect of some aspect in work settings.
  19. 19. Basic Elements in the Perceptual Process Environmental Stimuli Observation * Taste * Smell * Hearing * Sight * Touch Perceptual Selection * External factors * Internal factors Interpretation * Perceptual errors * Attributions Response * Covert * Overt Perceptual Organization * Perceptual grouping
  20. 20. Perception process
  21. 21. FEATURES OF PERCEPTION Sensory Experience: Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environment stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. Subjective: Perception is a subjective process because different people may look at the same event from different angles and interpret the same in multifarious ways. Filter: Perception serves like a filter through which information passes before it has an effect on people.
  22. 22. Unique Interpretation: Perception is a unique interpretation of the situation, not an exact recording of it. Seeing Things Differently: is an inevitable outcome of perception. Because of individual differences, perception vary among people and differ from objective reality. Basis of Human Behavior: There can be no behavior without perception and perception lies at the base of every individual behavior.
  23. 23. It is the most outstanding characteristics of the perception. Every moment we are affected by hundreds of stimuli from the environment yet we are able to perceive only few of these at a given moment. On whatever object we focus our attention, we perceive that object very clearly. At the same time we are vaguely aware of other objects which are fairly close to our focus. Attention always divides our perceptual field into focus and margin. Selective Phenomena of Perception:
  24. 24. Attention is always changing or shifting from one object to another. Psychology have tried to find out the factors that are responsible for these shifts in attention, based on their researches, these shifts may be caused by two types of factors.  Stimulus factor- such as the characteristics of the stimulus itself.  Subjective factors- which may be the characteristics of perceiver or the attending person.
  25. 25. Intensity and contrast: The intensity of the stimulus is an important factor determining what we shall attend to and hence perceive. Flushing of light, blaring noise from the loud speaker, intense change in temperature all caught our attention. Contrast affects are also attention getting eg., bright light in darkness, a tall women dancing with short man etc. (gosthi) STIMULUS FACTORS:
  26. 26. CONTRAST The External Stimuli Which Stands Out Against The Background Will Receive More Attention
  27. 27. Color/Brightness Constancy
  28. 28. The shades of red are identical The difference in the appearance is related to the influence of the backgrounds. http://psycharts.com/opt_illus.html Compare the shades of red…
  29. 29. Change and movement: Things in change or movement tend to attract attention. Stimulus change in any direction will immediately attract our attention. In a completely still field, even a slight movement will capture our attention. ( change in model, policy)
  30. 30. Any movement you see is an illusion!
  31. 31. A repetition of a stimulus is more likely to attract our attention. A Repeated Stimuli Is More Attention Drawing Than a Single One Eg. When an advertisement is repeated twice in the same magazine it is more likely to be noticed than when it appears only once or if we call name of a person repeatedly he is likely to hear us. However, if continued, untill it becomes monotonous, the repeated stimulus tends to be ignored. ( Advts of polio, AIDs) Ex: Same Advertisement or Different Advertisement But For The Same Product Shown Again & Again. Repetition:
  32. 32. An Animated Sign Attracts More Attention Than a Billboard Motion
  33. 33. Structure , pattern and size: There is considerable experimental evidence to show that natural groupings or patterns are immediately perceived as organized whole. We perceive objects in continuous arrangement. Other things being equal, the larger of two stimuli, will attract more attention.
  34. 34. Straight Lines?
  35. 35. New, Unfamiliar or Novel stimuli: Other things being equal, our attention is drawn to new, unfamiliar or novel things in our environment. But what is new or novel depends upon the perceivers past experiences. (Talk on special issue by a specific speaker) A New And Unique Stimulus Will Often Be perceived More Readily Than Those Observed On A Regular Basis. Ex: An Elephant Walking Along A City Street Is Noticed Instantly.
  36. 36. Hermann Grid he Hermann grid illusion is an optical illusion reported by Ludimar Hermann in 1870.[1] The illusion is characterized by "ghostlike" grey blobs perceived at the intersections of a white (or light-colored) grid on a black background. The grey blobs disappear when looking directly at an intersection A grid illusion is any kind of grid that deceives a person's vision. The two most common types of grid illusions are the Hermann grid illusion and the scintillating grid illusion. Grid Illusion
  37. 37. Scintillating Grid It is constructed by superimposing white discs on the intersections of orthogonal gray bars on a black background. Dark dots seem to appear and disappear rapidly at random intersections, hence the label "scintillating". When a person keeps his or her eyes directly on a single intersection, the dark dot does not appear. The dark dots disappear if one is too close to or too far from the image.
  38. 38. The difference between the Hermann grid illusion and the scintillating illusion : is that scintillating illusions have dots already in place at the intersection, whereas there are no dots already in place at the intersections of Hermann grid illusions. Since they are so similar, the two names are commonly used interchangeably. But the scintillating illusion does not occur with an isolated intersection, as in the case of the Hermann grid; observations suggest that a minimum of 3 × 3 evenly spaced intersections with superimposed discs are required to produce the effect. Difference between the Hermann grid illusion and the scintillating illusion
  39. 39. Motive : Our motive usually determine what things we should readily attend. Many advertisement make skillful use of beautiful women which is a strong motive and a person who is attracted by the picture will also read the advertisement. Similarly a hungry man looks for a restaurant. Interest: Almost any things in which we have developed an interest may serve to draw our attention. As for example a botanist and a geologist going down the same path in forest, will attend to entirely different things on the way because of their different interest, the botanist will look for specimen of plants, while the geologist for rocks and stones. The direction of our attention is often provided by our short term interests rather than long-term interest. If you are preoccupied with a personal problem, you may find it hard to be attentive in class. SUBJECTIVE FACTORS
  40. 40. PERSONALITY Personality Also Affects What Is To Be Perceived Ex: A Person With Positive Self Concept Is Likely To Notice Positive Attributes In Another Person. The person who believes they can do something is probably right.... And who believes they can’t do they can't.
  41. 41. VALUES AND BELEIFS  Information is Remembered which is consistent with our Values and Attitudes and rest is ignored which is inconsistent with them.  Ex: “In spite of all their mistakes, our employees are doing the best they can”.
  42. 42. Perceptual Set A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another. What you see in the center picture is influenced by flanking pictures. Our attention is attracted by those things which we are “ set” to receive. The term “ set” refers to specific factors or process within the individual that develops as to what he should attend.
  43. 43. The expectancy refers to our readiness to attend to same things much more easily than to other things. Mental set or expectancy given as edge to our attention. A set may be perceptual or mental or may be introduced by verbal instructions to attend to certain things and not to others. Expectation can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. If you expect police officer to be authoritative, young people to be ambitious, personnel directors to “like people” you may perceive them this way regardless of their actual traits. Expectation
  44. 44. LEARNING  Learning refers to any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.  Learning plays a big role in developing one’s perception. Turn Off The The Engine
  45. 45. What one perceives is often determined by suggestions. Suggestion may be defined as the uncritical acceptance of some motion, ideas or meaning. Leading question may be answered in the way the questioner wishes. Suggestion
  46. 46. • Just as interests narrow one’s focus, so do one’s past experiences. • You perceive those things to which you can relate. • However, in many instances, your past experiences will act to nullify an object’s interest. • Eg. You are more likely to notice a machine that you have never observed before than a standards typewriter that exactly like a thousand other you have previously seen. Past Experiences
  47. 47. Perceptual Organization Is The Process By Which People Categorize According To Their Frame Of Reference, based On Their Past Learning And Experiences. Following Principles Are Kept in Mind While Organising the Information into a Meaningful One. These are: ❖ Figure Ground ❖ Perceptual Grouping ON THE BASIS OF TARGET or Perceptual Organizing:
  48. 48. Figure-Ground Perception: What we see is dependent on how we separate a figure from its general background .  What you see as you read this sentence is black letter on white page. You do not see funny- shaped patched of black and white because you recognize thee shapes and organize the blue shapes against the white background . Figure dramatizes this effect.  When you look at the figure you will see either a vase or two faces. If you continue to look, the figure will appear to shift to the alternative organization
  49. 49. Man/Woman
  50. 50. Old or Young Girl?
  51. 51. Old or Young Girl?
  52. 52. Old Woman or Young Girl?
  53. 53. Shimmer
  54. 54. It is the Tendency to group several individual stimuli into a meaningful and recognizable pattern. Some factors Underlying Grouping are -Continuity -Closure -Proximity -Similarity PERCEPTUAL GROUPING
  55. 55. Proximity Objects that are close to each other will tend to be perceived together as a result of physical proximity or time proximity, we often put together objects or events that are unrelated. ❖ Employees in a particular department are seen as a group. If, in a department of four members, two suddenly resign, we tend to assume that their departure were related when, in fact they may be totally unrelated. ❖ Timing may also imply dependence when, for example, a new sales manager is assigned to a territory and, soon after, sales in that territory skyrocket. The assignment of a new sales manager and the increase in sales may not be related- the increase may be due to an introduction of a new products line or to one of many other reasons- but there is a tendency to perceive the two occurrences as related.
  56. 56. Similarity  Persons, objects or events that are similar to each other also tend to be grouped together.  The greater the similarity, the greater the probability that we will tend to perceive them as a common group.  Women, black or any other group that has clearly distinguishable characteristics in terms of feature or color will tend to be perceived as alike in other, unrelated character as well. ( all Sardar look alike) “The greater the similarity of the stimuli, the more they are likely to be perceived as a common group”
  57. 57. • The tendency to perceive a broken figure as being complete or whole 2. Closure
  58. 58. Situation  The context in which we see objects or events is important elements in the surrounding environment influence our perception.  For example, I may not notice a twenty-five –year old - female in an evening gown and heavy makeup at a nightclub on Saturday night.  Yet the same women, so attired for my Monday morning management class, would certainly catch my attention ( and that of the rest of the class).  Neither the perceiver nor the target changed between Saturday night and Monday morning, but the situation was different.  Similarity, you are more likely to notice your employees goofing off if your boss from head office happens to be in town.  Again, the situation effects your perception.
  59. 59. Perceptual Constancy • The perception of elements like size, shape, color, brightness and location of an object remains constant & does not change from people to people. • For instance, even though the picture of an apple is printed in black and white, we still perceive the color of the fruit as red.
  60. 60. Perceptual Context Context provides meaning and value to objects, events, situation and other people. Different contexts convey different meanings to people.
  61. 61. PERCEPTUAL INTERPRETATION • After Selecting and Organizing the Stimuli has to be Interpreted in order to make a sensible meaning. • Perceiver cant draw any meaning without interpretation. • Perceiver uses his Assumption of People, Things, Object and Situation
  62. 62. COMMON PERCETUAL ERROR / DISTORTIONS Errors in Perceptual Judgement are called Perceptual Judgement. Following are Barriers To Perceptual Accuracy: Barriers to Perceptual Accuracy • Stereotyping Halo effect • Projection Expectancy Effect • Primacy Effect:First impressions Recency Effect • Perceptual Defense Attribution
  63. 63. Stereotyping 1. “Generalizing characteristics on the Basis of Category or Class to which Person Belongs”. 2. The tendency to assign attributes to someone solely on the basis of the category of people, of which that person is a member Halo Effect “Drawing a General Impression About an Individual on the Basis of a Single Characteristic”
  64. 64. Projection 1.“ Attribute One’s Own Characteristics to Other People” 2. It is the tendency for people to see their own traits in others Expectancy Effect  Expectancy Effects are the extent to which prior expectations bias perceptions of events, objects and people. Extent to which expectations bias how events, objects, and people are actually perceived  Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities.  Or expecting certain things to happen will shape the behavior of the perceiver in such a way that the expected is more likely to happen
  65. 65. Primacy Effects: First Impressions • The common adage that first impressions count is technically known as the primacy effect. • Generally, the first impression lasts longer unless greatly contradicted by information received later. Recency Effect A generally Accepted fact that if there is a time lag between the first piece of information and the last, then the last piece of information carries more weight. This is called Recency Effect.
  66. 66. Perceptual Defense • Perceptual defense: the tendency for people to protect themselves against ideas, objects, or situations that are threatening. • “Against those stimuli which clash with their beliefs, values or culture.” • “People attempt to avoid registering those stimulus that conflict, threaten or are unacceptable to them”
  67. 67. ATTRIBUTION THEORY Attribution is a concept in social psychology addressing the processes by which individuals explain the causes of behavior and events. Fritz Heider, often described as the "father of attribution theory”
  68. 68. How do we attach meaning to other's behavior, or our own? This is called attribution theory. For example, someone is angry because they are bad-tempered or because something bad happened? “Attribution theory deals with how the social perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events. It examines what information is gathered and how it is combined to form a causal judgment” (Fiske & Taylor, 1991)
  69. 69. Example: Reason of low performance of employees and the Perception of Manager of Unit: about this low performance 1.THROUGH SELECTIVE PERCEPTION - The tendency to single out those aspects of a situation, person, or object that are consistent with one’s needs, values, or attitudes. Strongest impact is at the attention stage. 2. THE HALO EFFECT: 3.THROUGH THE CONTRAST EFFECTS: Occur when an individual is compared to other people on the same characteristics on which the others rank higher or lower. People must be aware of the impact of contrast effects in many work settings 4. STEREOTYPING JUDGMENT 5. HOW AN EFFICIENT MANAGERS MAKE HIS JUDGMENT 8. Through Conceptual perspectives.- 9. Through Behavioral Decision Making Style– 10. HOWEVER MANAGERS TEND TO BE BIAS WHEN PERFORMING JUDGMENT. 11. Confirmation bias- Example: ATTRIBUTION THEORY
  70. 70. Attribution theory has been proposed to develop explanations of how we judge people differently depending on what meaning we attribute to a given behaviour. Basically the theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behaviour, we attempt to determine whether it was internally (under the person control) or externally ( caused , that may be the situation. Behaviour Internally Caused Externally Caused OR
  71. 71. Theory of Causal Attributions Consistency Does person usually behave this way in this situation? Distinctiveness Does person behave differently in different situations? Consensus Do others behave similarly in this situation? No Internal Attribution (to person’s disposition)Yes External Attribution (to person’s situation)
  72. 72. Factors for Determining Attribution 1.Distinctiveness: Shows different behaviors in different situations It Refers to how different the behavior that is observed is from other behaviours the individual demonstrates. Is the employee who arrives late today also the source of complaints by co-workers for being a “ goofing”? What we want to know is if this behaviour is unusual or not. If it is, the observer is likely to give the behaviour an external attribution. If this action is not unique, it will probably be judged as internal.
  73. 73. Consensus: Response is the same as others to same situation If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behaviour shows consensus. Our late employee’s behaviour would meet this criterion if all employees who took the same route to work were also late. From an attribution perspective, if consensus is high you would be expected to give an external attribution to the employee tardiness; whereas if other employees who took the same route made it to work on time, your conclusion as to causation would be internal.
  74. 74. Consistency: Responds in the same way across time Finally, an observer looks for consistency in a person’s actions. Does the person respond the same way over time? Coming in ten minutes late for work is not perceived in the same way if for one employee it represent an unusual case (she has not been late for several months), while for another it is part of a routine pattern ( she is regularly late two or three times a week). The more consistent the behaviour, the more the observer is inclined to attribute to it internal causes.
  75. 75. All similar behaviour are not perceived similarly in an organization. We look at actions of communicator and judge them within their situational context. Eg. If you have a reputation as a good student yet blow on test in a course, the instructor is more likely to disregard the poor exam. Why? He or she will attribute the cause of this unusual performances to external conditions. It may not be your fault. But for the students who has a consistent record of being a poor performer, it is unlikely the teacher will ignore the low test score. Similarly, if everyone in class blew the test, the instructor may attribute the outcome to external causes (may be the question were poorly written, the room was too warm, students did not have the prerequisites). Attribution theory becomes extremely relevant when we consider how people judge others. This theory is important because an individual’s interpretation of action will contribute to his or her behavioural responses to those actions and form a basis for the prediction of future events. We look for meaning in the behaviour of others.
  76. 76. Frequent Attribution Errors • Fundamental Attribution Error = overestimating the personal causes for other’s behavior while underestimating the situational causes • Self-Serving Bias = attributing personal success to internal factors and personal failure to external factors
  77. 77. 85 ➢ Techniques for effectively managing perceptions and attributions. – Be self-aware. – Seek a wide range of differing information. – Try to see a situation as others would. – Be aware of different kinds of schemes. – Be aware of perceptual distortions. – Be aware of self and impression management. – Be aware of attribution theory implications.
  78. 78. Role of Perception in Decision Making Process  The perception of a situation is central to the decision making process.  To make effective decisions a manager must not only perceive but understand other people.  The individual decision makers perceptual process will have a large bearing on the final outcome.
  79. 79. Perception in Decision-making is based on a person’s internal understanding of reality rather than reality itself. CONCLUSION
  80. 80. “ If everyone perceived everything the same way,things would be a lot simpler
  81. 81. THANK YOU 89 Wrong Perception

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