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Module 1 body mechanics and lifting

Module 1 body mechanics and lifting

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Module 1 body mechanics and lifting

  1. 1. BODY MECHANICS AND LIFTING Safety Safety Safety
  2. 2. Anatomy of the spine  Tower of interlocking building blocks held together by thin muscles and ligaments  Vertebral bodies with cartilage ‘blocks’ between  Four-five curves balance each other while maintaining flexibility and upright balance  Excessive or repetitive force in any direction can cause vertebral bodies to shift, forcing cartilage to ‘bulge’  Changes in vertebral or cartilage position causes pressure on ligaments and/or nerves = PAIN
  3. 3. Spinal Anatomy
  4. 4. Spinal Alignment and curves
  5. 5. Changes in Spinal Curves If any spinal curve increases or decreases, it forces the same amount of change in the other curves, position of the head, and position of the hips.  Scoliosis – sideways curvature of the spine  Lordosis – anterior curvature of the spine  Kyphosis – posterior curvature of the spine Maintaining correct spinal alignment during function typically prevents injury.
  6. 6. Risk Factors for Back Injury  Lifting with your back bowed out.  Bending and reaching with your back bowed out.  Slouched sitting.  Twisting or jerking movements.  Lack of proper rest.  Obesity and poor nutrition.  Stressful work and living habits.
  7. 7. Principles of Good Body Mechanics  Position yourself close to object – center of gravity  Increase your base of support – widen your stance  Maintain vertical line of gravity – imaginary straight line bisecting body through head, spine, and pelvis to ground  Use big muscles rather than small muscles – leg not back  Avoid simultaneously bending and turning - rotation and flexion  Know your limits and seek assistance
  8. 8. Good Body mechanics
  9. 9. Lifting Don’ts  Lift objects too heavy for height/weight/gender (see NIOSH lifting standards)  Perform repetitive, jerky, or sustained lifts  Lift objects from floor, trunk, or high shelf without bending knees/hips Do’s  Bend hips and knees – use large leg muscles  Move/hold objects as close to center of gravity as possible  Rock, push, pull, or slide heavy objects
  10. 10. Back Safety when lifting
  11. 11. Deep Squat/Traditional Lift – heavy or large objects  Position feet on either side of the object  Squat so hips at or below level of knees  Anterior pelvic tilt  Lumbar spine in slight lordosis  UEs parallel to each other  Grip opposite sides of object or under both sides  Bring object close to body  To lift object, slowly straighten legs while maintaining back, pelvis, and arm position
  12. 12. Power Lift – heavy or large objects  Feet parallel to each other behind the object  Half squat position – hips above level of knees  Trunk at 45-50 degrees  Anterior pelvic tilt  Lumbar spine in slight lordosis  UEs positioned parallel to each other  Grasp opposite handles/sides or underneath object  Bring object close to body  Lift object by slowly straightening legs while maintaining arm, trunk, and pelvis position
  13. 13. Straight Leg Lift – small or light objects  Face the object with one leg forward  Shift body weight onto forward leg  Lean forward to 80-90 degrees hip flexion  Trunk is parallel to floor  Leg in back is extended as counterbalance  Reach for object with arm on side of forward leg or both arms if moderate in size/weight  Pick up and return to upright position
  14. 14. Half-Kneeling Lift Used by persons with small stature or weaker UEs  Kneel on one knee behind and slightly to one side of an object  Other leg positioned on the other side of the object with foot flat and hip at 90 degrees flexion  Trunk remains in normal lordosis throughout lift  Reach for object with both arms  Grasp on both sides or bottom of object and move to thigh of kneeling leg  Move object close to trunk  Rise to stand, holding object close to trunk, maintaining back position NOT appropriate for those with knee joint problem/condition
  15. 15. Stoop Lift – briefcase, bag, pail  Stand to one side of object  Feet positioned at shoulder width with one slightly forward  Stoop by partially flexing hips/knees  Maintain lumbar spine in normal lordosis  Grasp handle or object arm on side of object  Straighten legs to lift object  Other arm can be used as counterbalance or support  Requires less energy than other lifts
  16. 16. Good Body Mechanics
  17. 17. Pushing / Pulling  Clear path first  Face object and crouch slightly – for heavier objects, increase crouch  Pushing takes slightly less energy with most objects  Push/pull with arms partly flexed  Push/pull in a straight line, force parallel to floor  Trunk in slight forward flexion with normal lumbar lordosis  Use leg strength, not arms/back
  18. 18. Reaching Overhead  Stand on sturdy footstool or ladder  Face object and use both hands  Move object close to edge before lifting All positions  Check to be sure weight is within your capability  Move object close to body as soon as possible  Do not reach and twist body simultaneously  Get help if too heavy, large, or high
  19. 19. Carrying  Carry larger or heavy objects close to center of body – level of waist to midchest  Some objects may be carried on one shoulder (pet food bag, lumber, etc.), especially if carrying for longer distance  Balance load whenever possible  Carrying child or backpack –use infant/child carrier and both straps of backpack, rather than one arm/hip carry
  20. 20. WHY DOES IT MATTER?  Healthcare personnel (particularly nursing staff) frequently experience back injuries as a result of improper lifting, carrying, pushing/pulling  PT/PTS’s/OT/OTA’s with reoccurring back problems may be unsafe to transfer and treat patients - limited employment options  Back injuries tend to be chronic, painful, and debilitating – who wants ‘em?  With proper body mechanics, therapy staff can avoid injury to themselves and their patients throughout their career

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