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WEBINAR | EDUCATION & YOUTH | Children and Energy - Jiska de Groot

Smart Villages/LCEDN webinar series

For more information, please go to e4sv.org


One of the most powerful benefits of energy access in rural communities in the developing world is the potential impact on education. Whether a simple solar lantern permits an extra hour of homework and study after dark, or whether a more sophisticated community energy and ICT project permits remote education and training to take place. And one of the most important, but often under-represented, groups of community stakeholders are young people.

This LCEDN/Smart Villages webinar aims to create a wide-ranging discussion on these issues, with experts presenting their experiences and work on diverse aspects of the energy/youth/education equation.

Our presenters this month include Dr Jiska de Groot and the team at the Energy Research Centre at the University of Cape Town, Craig Gibbs from JET Education Services in South Africa, Prof Jo Tacchi and Dr Amalia Sabiescu from Loughborough University, and Rachita Misra and Huda Jaffer from the SELCO Foundation.

In addition to presentations on their experiences, the webinar included an opportunity for Q&A with all webinar participants.

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WEBINAR | EDUCATION & YOUTH | Children and Energy - Jiska de Groot

  1. 1. Children and Energy 26 MARCH 2018 Jiska de Groot, Shanon Lusinga, Debbie Sparks and Mascha Moorlach Energy Research Centre University of Cape Town
  2. 2. THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION IS DRAWN FROM THE THESIS “ An exploratory study into energy consumption activities, energy-saving activities, and the factors that influence energy saving among grade 7 children in Khayelitsha, Cape Town” BY MS SHANON LUSINGA AS PART OF HER MPHIL IN ENERGY STUDIES (2017) ERC
  4. 4. BACKGROUND: THE ROLE OF ENERGY IN SOCIETY  Energy drives most daily activities and economies  Energy access plays a role in the development of children  Mitigation has focused on reducing carbon based fuel use and increasing renewables & energy efficient technologies  Behavioural change also encouraged ERC
  5. 5. BACKGROUND: ABSENCE OF CHILDREN IN CURRENT ENERGY RESEARCH  Energy use and saving studies have focused on adults  Children are an important group of energy users  Recent research has focused on developed countries.  Little is known about children’s energy behaviour in developing countries ERC
  6. 6. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY SET OUT TO DO?  To explore energy behaviour in children using a case study and mixed-methods methods in a low- income community in SA ERC
  7. 7. METHOD Research participants Methods Children Parents Educator Survey √ (n=90) √ (n= 57) Focus group discussion √ (n=12) Interview √ (n=1) Dairies √ (n=43) ERC
  8. 8. ERC
  9. 9. South Africa’s Energy Landscape  Fourth most unequal society in the world - Gini coefficient: 0.63  Electrification rate increased from 36% in 1996 to 85.5% in 2015  Energy poverty remains prevalent: a quarter of SA households indicated energy available to them inadequate  Multiple fuel use: biomass, coal, paraffin and kerosene are common  +/- 43% of SA households use multiple fuel sources for lighting, cooking, space-heating and heating bath water. ERC
  10. 10. CASE STUDY SITE: KHAYELITSHA  Established 1983, hosts approx. 400 000 people  55% made up of shacks in informal areas or the backyards of formal dwellings  Most formal houses in Khayelitsha are small: 2 to 4 rooms.  Largely black South Africans and African migrants.  28.1% of the population is aged 0–14 years. ERC
  11. 11. ENERGY USE IN KHAYELITSHA Electricity Gas Paraffin Wood Candles Coal Dung Solar None Other Cooking 75.2% 12% 12.1% 0.1% - 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.1% Lighting 80.8% 0.4% 14.6% - 3.8% - - 0.2% 0.2% - Heating 20.6% 3.4% 55.6% 0.3% - 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 19.4% - ERC  Electricity used mainly for cooking and lighting and paraffin for heating  Other essential services poor
  13. 13. Behavioural Settings Energy use inside the home environment  Cooking  Lighting  Heating  Appliance Use Energy use outside the home  School (computers, switching on/off lights)  Church (switching on/off lights) ERC
  14. 14. Cooking behaviour  43 diaries submitted  88% of children cooked/preparing a meal  Consistent with studies in developed countries.  BUT children in this study prepared meals for families independently, using electric stoves. ERC
  15. 15. Lighting behaviour  All 42 children used energy for lighting  Almost all children used electricity  Switching on lights the most common behaviour among the children studied.  In the home environment and outside ERC
  16. 16. Heating behaviour  Space-heating 35.7% of the 42 children wrote in their diaries about the use of heaters. Most used electric, gas or paraffin stand- alone units  Water-heating Children use geysers or kettles to get hot water. 33.3% reported using a geyser. 52.4% mention boiling water with a kettle to wash themselves, their dishes and clothes. ERC
  17. 17. Appliance Use  50% reported ironing clothes and some used hairdryers.  Studies in the literature did not report ironing as part of children’s energy use.  Switching on TVs, video games and radios were recorded as part of energy, consistent with studies abroad. ERC
  18. 18. Computer Use  Computers did not feature in energy behaviours of reporting period, despite computer lesson at school.  Possibly computers already started up when children used them?  Children do not necessarily personalise their energy activities outside the home environment (other studies support this). ERC
  19. 19. FURTHER RESEARCH  Socio-cultural differences in energy use between the different geographical areas (e.g. ironing) which could be further explored.  Gaining insight on differences between children who take responsibility for energy used outside the home environment and those who do not. ERC
  20. 20. We are looking to build further on this research theme and would welcome collaboration with interested researchers. JISKA DE GROOT Email: Jiska.degroot@uct.ac.za University of Cape Town Energy Research Centre Private Bag X3 Rondebosch, 7701 ERC Going forward