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8 Perspectives on Strategy

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Strategy is about the methods used to attain goals. It's the "how" of achieving goals--desired future conditions and circumstances towards which effort and resources are spent until their achievement. If Strategy has any meaning at all, it is in relation to some aim or end in view.

This presentation breaks down the various perspectives and definitions on Strategy, as explained 8 of the most impactful and renown Strategists in modern times. These 8 Strategy subject matter experts include Michael Porter, Henry Mintzberg, Treacy & Wiersema, B. H. Liddell Hart, George Steiner, Kenneth Andrews, Benjamin Tregoe & Charles Kepner, and Michel Robert.

The scholarly writings of these experts laid the foundation to modern day Business and Corporate Strategy. By gaining familiarity on all 8 perspectives, you can develop a more holistic and thorough understanding of the topic, helping you improve your strategic thinking, decision making, and analytical skills.

The slide deck also includes some slide templates for you to use in your own business presentations.

Got a question about this presentation? Email us at support@flevy.com.

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8 Perspectives on Strategy

  1. 1. This is an exclusive document to the FlevyPro community - http://flevy.com/pro Framework Primer 8 Perspectives on Strategy Presentation created by 18 7 2 6 3 45 Henry MintzbergKepner-Tregoe Treacy and WiersemaKenneth Andrews Michel Robert Michael Porter B. H. Liddell HartGeorge Steiner
  2. 2. 2This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Contents  Overview  Strategy  Strategy Defined  Templates The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  3. 3. 3This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro This presentation highlights the 8 different ways in which leading strategists and management experts define Strategy Presentation Overview The scholarly writings of these experts laid the foundation to modern day Business and Corporate Strategy. The scholarly writings of these experts laid the foundation to modern day Business and Corporate Strategy. Strategy is about the methods used to attain goals. It’s the “how” of achieving goals—desired future conditions and circumstances towards which effort and resources are spent until their achievement. If Strategy has any meaning at all, it is in relation to some aim or end in view. This presentation breaks down the various perspectives and definitions on Strategy, as explained 8 of the most impactful and renown Strategists in modern times. These 8 Strategy subject matter experts are: By gaining familiarity on all 8 perspectives, you can develop a more holistic and thorough understanding of the topic, helping you improve your strategic thinking, decision making, and analytical skills. The slide deck also includes some slide templates for you to use in your own business presentations. 1 Michael Porter 2 Henry Mintzberg 3 Treacy and Wiersema 4 B. H. Liddell Hart 5 George Steiner 6 Kenneth Andrews 7 Kepner-Tregoe 8 Michel Robert The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  4. 4. 4This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Contents  Overview  Strategy  Strategy Defined  Templates The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  5. 5. 5This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Strategy is the means to an end and is 1 of the 4 dimensions of an enterprise structure Strategy – Overview Strategy is bringing the future into the present and doing something about it now.Strategy is bringing the future into the present and doing something about it now. Strategy is about the methods used to attain goals. It’s the “how” of achieving goals—desired future conditions and circumstances towards which effort and resources are spent until their achievement. The employed resources through use of Strategies and Tactics give us certain conditions and circumstances. Inspecting them in light of the “desired” conditions and circumstances enables us to determine future employment of the resources and thus emerges a pattern of actions and decisions which makes Strategy an adaptive and evolving view of what is required, to achieve goals.  Determining the goals of an enterprise is a matter of Policy.  Attaining goals is typically a matter of Management not Governance.  Strategy is the combined realm of the governors and managers.  Tactics belong to the managers.  Means or resources are controlled jointly. Strategy and tactics bridge the gap between goals and the methods used to achieve those goals. The 4 dimensions of enterprise structure relate to one or both of the following domains: If Strategy has any meaning at all, it is in relation to some aim or end in view. Strategy constitutes one dimension of a 4-dimension enterprise structure; the dimensions are: of the organization. at our disposal. for achieving above- mentioned goals –i.e., the methods used to deploy the resources. i.e., the ways in which the deployed resources are used. Goals Resources Strategies Tactics 1 2 3 4 The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  6. 6. 6This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Strategy has been the subject of many experts in modern times—offering interesting perspectives Strategy – 8 Definitions of Strategy Strategy has its origins in war but its influence extends to life.Strategy has its origins in war but its influence extends to life. Experts have tried to define Strategy in various perspectives. We take a look at 8 of the following leading experts of Strategy—mainly Business Strategy—and how they have described Strategy: All of the above-mentioned experts seem to agree on the fact that Strategy is a means to implement a policy or a view envisioned by those who matter. Source: Strategy, Nickols, 2016 18 7 2 6 3 45 Henry MintzbergKepner-Tregoe Treacy and WiersemaKenneth Andrews Michel Robert Michael Porter B. H. Liddell HartGeorge Steiner The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  7. 7. 7This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Contents  Overview  Strategy  Strategy Defined  Templates The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  8. 8. 8This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Competitive Strategy is about differentiating yourself in the eyes of the customer Strategy Defined – Michael Porter Strategy is about being different.Strategy is about being different. Source: What Is Strategy, Porter, Harvard Business Review, 1996 Michael Porter is considered the father of modern Business Strategy studies. Porter’s Five Forces is a very influential model for analysis in Business Strategy development today. BACKGROUNDSTRATEGIST Michael Porter Porter’s view of Competitive Strategy suggests “intentionally opting a collection of activities that are dissimilar to the competitors in order to provide a unique mix of value.” Porter states that Strategy is about:  A competitive position.  Differentiating yourself in the eyes of the customer.  Adding value through a collection of activities different from competitors. In an earlier book he writes that “Strategy is a combination of the ends (goals) for which the firm is striving and the means (policies) by which it is seeking to get there.” Porter seems to embrace Strategy as both a Plan and a Position. Though Porter writes about competitive Strategy, not about Strategy in general. OVERVIEW The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  9. 9. 9This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro According to Mintzberg, contrast of changing realities and intentions generates Strategy Strategy Defined – Henry Mintzberg Mintzberg describes Strategy as a combination of Perspective, Position, Plan, and Pattern. Mintzberg describes Strategy as a combination of Perspective, Position, Plan, and Pattern. Source: ‘The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning, Mintzberg, Basic Books, 1994 Mintzberg argues that the contrast of changing realities with intentions necessitates accommodation, generating Strategy. According to him Strategy is a combination of:  The Perspective – Vision and Direction.  The Position – Decisions to offer particular products or services in particular markets.  The Plan – a means of getting from here to there.  A Pattern in actions over time – for example, a company that regularly markets very expensive products is using a "high end" Strategy. Thus, we may start with a Perspective and conclude that it calls for a certain Position, which is to be achieved by way of a carefully crafted Plan, with the eventual out-come and Strategy reflected in a Pattern evident in decisions and actions over time. This pattern in decisions and actions defines what Mintzberg called "Realized" or Emergent Strategy. Mintzberg is credited with co-creating the Organigraph. He writes on the topics of management and business Strategy. His contribution to Organizational Theory in the form of “The Organizational Configurations Framework” is a model that describes 6 valid organizational configurations. OVERVIEW BACKGROUNDSTRATEGIST Henry Mintzberg The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  10. 10. 10This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Leadership positions are achieved by narrowing business focus Strategy Defined – Treacy and Wiersema These 3 Value Disciplines serve as the basis for an effective Strategy.These 3 Value Disciplines serve as the basis for an effective Strategy. Source: The Discipline of Market Leaders, Treacy, Wiersema, Addison-Wesley, 1994 Treacy and Wiersema assert that companies achieve leadership positions by narrowing, not broadening, their business focus on any one of the following:  Operational Excellence’s objective is to lead the industry in terms of price and convenience and is based on the Strategy of production and delivery of products or services. it implies world-class marketing, manufacturing, and distribution processes.  Customer Intimacy’s objective is long-term customer loyalty and long-term customer profitability. It is based on the Strategy of tailoring and shaping products to the increasingly fine definitions of customer.  Product Leadership’s objective is the quick commercialization of new ideas. It hinges on market-focused R&D as well as organizational nimbleness and agility. Toyota focused on Operational Excellence in an industry where it has lower unit volume yet achieved Competitive Advantage. Treacy and Wiersema’s “Value Discipline Model” is of 3 different value disciplines: Customer Intimacy, Product Leadership, Operational Excellence. Studies on successful market leaders that outdid their competitors reveals that they did it through mastering 1 of these 3 disciplines. OVERVIEW BACKGROUNDSTRATEGIST Treacy and Wiersema The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  11. 11. 11This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Strategy has its origin in war and is a means to political ends Strategy Defined – B. H. Liddell Hart Liddell Hart’s work applies lessons from military Strategy to the business world.Liddell Hart’s work applies lessons from military Strategy to the business world. Source: Strategy, Liddell Hart, Basic Books, 1967 Strategy originates from the Greek term Strategia, meaning "generalship.” Given the centuries-old military origins of the term Strategy, it seems sensible to examine the military view of it as well. Liddell Hart redefines the definition of Strategy by Moltke, i.e.:  "The practical adaptation of the means placed at a general’s disposal to the attainment of the object in view." Moltke's interpretation of military Strategy is evidently a means to political ends.  Liddell Hart reaches at this brief definition of Military Strategy, "the art of distributing and applying military means to fulfil the ends of policy." Removing the word "military" from Liddell Hart’s definition facilitates projection of the concept of Strategy to the business world. Captain B. H. Liddell Hart was a military historian and military theorist. In the 1920s and later he wrote a series of military histories that proved extremely valuable among strategists. Liddell Hart published his most influential work, “Strategy, 2nd Revised Edition” in 1967. OVERVIEW BACKGROUNDSTRATEGIST B. H. Liddell Hart The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  12. 12. 12This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro George Steiner is believed to be the father of Strategic Planning in the business world—this is how he defines the various dimensions of Strategy Strategy Defined – George Steiner Strategy is all about counteracting the competitors’ efforts – real or expected.Strategy is all about counteracting the competitors’ efforts – real or expected. Source: Strategic Planning, Steiner, Free Press, 1979 Steiner points out that there was very little agreement as to the meaning of Strategy in the business world of the time. He refers to some of the definitions in use at that time:  Strategy is that which top management does that is of great importance to the organization.  Strategy refers to basic directional decisions, that is, to Purposes and Missions.  Strategy consists of the important actions necessary to realize these directions.  Strategy answers the question: What should the organization be doing?  Strategy answers the question: What are the ends we seek and how should we achieve them? Steiner defines Strategy as, “a way of referring to what one does to counter a competitor’s actual or predicted moves.” George Steiner, a professor of management and one of the founders of The California Management Review, is generally considered a key figure in the origins and development of Strategic Planning. His 1979 book, “Strategic Planning,” is close to being a bible on the subject. OVERVIEW BACKGROUNDSTRATEGIST George Steiner The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  13. 13. 13This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Kenneth Andrews is considered to be one of the pioneers behind the notion of “Business Strategy” Strategy Defined – Kenneth Andrews According to Kenneth Andrews, “Strategy incorporates Pattern, Plan, Perspective, and Position.” According to Kenneth Andrews, “Strategy incorporates Pattern, Plan, Perspective, and Position.” Source: The Concept of Corporate Strategy, Andrews, Dow-Jones Irwin, 1980 Andrews defines Strategy as:  "Corporate Strategy is the Pattern of decisions in a company that determines and reveals its objectives, purposes, or goals; produces the principal policies and plans for achieving those goals; defines the range of business the company is to pursue; the kind of economic and human organization it is or intends to be; and the nature of the economic and non- economic contribution it intends to make to its shareholders, employees, customers, and communities."  Andrews’s definition of Strategy also alludes to: – A Pattern – A Plan – A Perspective By making a distinction between "Corporate Strategy"—which determines the businesses in which a company will compete—and "Business Strategy," which defines the basis of competition for a given business, Kenneth Andrews also anticipated "position" as a form of Strategy. Kenneth Andrews, an academic, is co-credited with the foundational role in introducing and popularizing the concept of “Business Strategy.” OVERVIEW BACKGROUNDSTRATEGIST Kenneth Andrews The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  14. 14. 14This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Kepner-Tregoe believed that “Driving Forces in business determine choices which take organization in a particular direction” Strategy Defined – Kepner-Tregoe Kepner-Tregoe considered Strategy as a matter of perspective.Kepner-Tregoe considered Strategy as a matter of perspective. Source: Top Management Strategy, Tregoe, Zimmerman, Simon and Schuster, 1980 Kepner and Tregoe define Strategy as "the framework which guides those choices that determine the nature and direction of an organization." They insist that strategic decisions should be based on a single driving force of the business out of the 9 possible forces:  Products offered  Production capability  Natural resources  Market needs  Method of sale  Size/growth  Technology Benjamin Tregoe and Charles Kepner’s “KT-method” is a popular Problem Analysis model. In addition to lecturing, Tregoe also wrote books on management methodology and decision making. Tregoe’s book “Top Management Strategy” was distilled from the work of Kepner-Tregoe Strategy Group. OVERVIEW BACKGROUNDSTRATEGIST Benjamin Tregoe and Charles Kepner  Method of distribution  Return/profit The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  15. 15. 15This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Michel Robert is a strategy consultant and author of numerous strategy books, including “Product Innovation” and “Strategy Pure & Simple” Strategy Defined – Michel Robert Michel Robert argues that the real issues are Strategic Management and "thinking strategically." Michel Robert argues that the real issues are Strategic Management and "thinking strategically." Source: Strategy: Pure and Simple, Robert, McGraw-Hill, 1993 Robert offers the same view as Kepner, Tregoe, and Zimmerman. According to him, strategic decisions depend on 4 factors:  Products and Services  Market Segments  Customers  Geographic Areas Robert is also a proponent of the “Single Driving Force” theory, listing forces that drive Strategy. Drawing on extensive experience in Strategy formulation, implementation, and deployment, Robert’s scholarly work is filled with examples drawn from the experiences of commercial leaders and interviews with CEOs of companies in a variety of industries. OVERVIEW BACKGROUNDSTRATEGIST Michel Robert The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  16. 16. 16This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Contents  Overview  Strategy  Strategy Defined  Templates The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  17. 17. 17This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Insert headline 8 Definitions of Strategy – TEMPLATE Insert bumper.Insert bumper. Source: Strategy, Nickols, 2016 18 7 2 6 3 45 Henry Mintzberg Kepner- Tregoe Treacy and Wiersema Kenneth Andrews Michel Robert Michael Porter B. H. Liddell Hart George Steiner The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  18. 18. 18This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Insert headline 8 Definitions of Strategy – TEMPLATE ALTERNATE Insert bumper.Insert bumper. Source: Strategy, Nickols, 2016 1188 77 22 66 33 4455 Henry Mintzberg Kepner- Tregoe Treacy and Wiersema Kenneth Andrews Michel Robert Michael Porter B. H. Liddell Hart George Steiner The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  19. 19. 19This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Insert headline 8 Definitions of Strategy – TEMPLATE ALTERNATE Insert bumper.Insert bumper. Source: Strategy, Nickols, 2016 1188 77 22 66 33 4455 Henry Mintzberg Kepner- Tregoe Treacy and Wiersema Kenneth Andrews Michel Robert Michael Porter B. H. Liddell Hart George Steiner The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  20. 20. 20This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Insert headline 8 Definitions of Strategy – TEMPLATE ALTERNATE Insert bumper.Insert bumper. Source: Strategy, Nickols, 2016 Henry Mintzberg Kepner- Tregoe Treacy and Wiersema Kenneth Andrews Michel Robert Michael Porter B. H. Liddell Hart George Steiner 18 45 6 3 7 2 The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  21. 21. 21This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Insert headline 8 Definitions of Strategy – TEMPLATE ALTERNATE Insert bumper.Insert bumper. Source: Strategy, Nickols, 2016 1Michael Porter 5 George Steiner 2Henry Mintzberg 6 Kenneth Andrews 3Treacy and Wiersema 7 Kepner-Tregoe 4B. H. Liddell Hart 8 Michel Robert  Insert filler text, filler text, filler text. Insert filler text, filler text, filler text, filler text.  Insert filler text, filler text, filler text, filler text.  Insert filler text, filler text, filler text. The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  22. 22. 22This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Download 100s of similar frameworks from the FlevyPro Library: https://flevy.com/pro/library/frameworks The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  23. 23. 23This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Want to achieve Excellence in Strategy? Become your organization’s resident expert on Strategy Development and Execution by leveraging our best practice frameworks. Our frameworks are based on the thought leadership of leading consulting firms, academics, and recognized subject matter experts. Learn implementation approaches to directly link core concepts to execution. "Strategy without Tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without Strategy is the noise before defeat." - Sun Tzu For effective Strategic Planning, we must master both Strategy and Tactics. Our frameworks cover all phases of Strategy, from Strategy Design and Formulation to Strategy Deployment and Execution; as well as all levels of Strategy, from Corporate Strategy to Business Strategy to "Tactical" Strategy. Strategy Development Stream https://flevy.com/browse/stream/strategy-development Click Here The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  24. 24. 24This document is an exclusive document available to FlevyPro members - http://flevy.com/pro Flevy (www.flevy.com) is the marketplace for business best practices. Our best practice business frameworks, templates, and tools are same as those produced by top-tier management consulting firms and used by Fortune 100 organizations. Flevy was founded under the principle that organizations waste a lot of time, money, and effort recreating the same foundational business documents. Our vision is for Flevy to become a comprehensive knowledge base of business best practices. All organizations, from startups to large enterprises, can use Flevy— whether it's to jumpstart projects, to find reference or comparison materials, or just to learn. Contact Us Please contact us with any questions you may have about our company. • General Inquiries support@flevy.com • Media/PR press@flevy.com • Billing billing@flevy.com The content on this page has been partially hidden. FlevyPro members can download the full document here: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339
  25. 25. 1 Flevy (www.flevy.com) is the marketplace for premium documents. These documents can range from Business Frameworks to Financial Models to PowerPoint Templates. Flevy was founded under the principle that companies waste a lot of time and money recreating the same foundational business documents. Our vision is for Flevy to become a comprehensive knowledge base of business documents. All organizations, from startups to large enterprises, can use Flevy— whether it's to jumpstart projects, to find reference or comparison materials, or just to learn. Contact Us Please contact us with any questions you may have about our company. • General Inquiries support@flevy.com • Media/PR press@flevy.com • Billing billing@flevy.com

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More Information: https://flevy.com/browse/flevypro/8-perspectives-on-strategy-5339 Strategy is about the methods used to attain goals. It's the "how" of achieving goals--desired future conditions and circumstances towards which effort and resources are spent until their achievement. If Strategy has any meaning at all, it is in relation to some aim or end in view. This presentation breaks down the various perspectives and definitions on Strategy, as explained 8 of the most impactful and renown Strategists in modern times. These 8 Strategy subject matter experts include Michael Porter, Henry Mintzberg, Treacy & Wiersema, B. H. Liddell Hart, George Steiner, Kenneth Andrews, Benjamin Tregoe & Charles Kepner, and Michel Robert. The scholarly writings of these experts laid the foundation to modern day Business and Corporate Strategy. By gaining familiarity on all 8 perspectives, you can develop a more holistic and thorough understanding of the topic, helping you improve your strategic thinking, decision making, and analytical skills. The slide deck also includes some slide templates for you to use in your own business presentations. Got a question about this presentation? Email us at support@flevy.com. ABOUT FLEVYPRO FlevyPro is a subscription service for on-demand business frameworks and analysis tools. FlevyPro subscribers receive access to an exclusive library of curated business documents—business framework primers, presentation templates, Lean Six Sigma tools, and more—among other exclusive benefits. Click here to learn more about FlevyPro and its benefits.

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