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GEO's Presentation on In Situ Thermal Remediation to EPA Region 9

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Please join EPA Region 9 and GEO Inc. for a technical presentation on In Situ Gas Thermal Remediation (GTR™) and thermal conductive heating (TCH) that will provide regulators, consultants, and field applicators with an understanding of the primary thermally enhanced contaminant removal mechanisms and will help distinguish three types of In Situ Thermal Remediation available commercially in the U.S. and internationally. Additionally, benefits from heat generation, such as increased rates of naturally occurring processes (including hydrolysis, increased bio-availability, and different forms of bio-degradation at various temperature regimes) will be highlighted. In order to identify when In Situ Thermal is appropriate, important design factors will be discussed for their applicability and operation including developing a comprehensive and high resolution conceptual site model through the use of passive soil gas sampling, MIP, LIF, and other high resolution techniques.

Publié dans : Technologie
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GEO's Presentation on In Situ Thermal Remediation to EPA Region 9

  1. 1. Speaker  Lowell Kessel, P.G.  GEO Incorporated - Gas Thermal Remediation Services
  2. 2. Challenging Sites  Limited access- no excavation  Source zone mass removal  Complex mix of COCs  DNAPL below the water table  LNAPL smear zones  Clay lithology- diffusion limited condition  Fractured bedrock  Other options failed Challenging Goals  Rapid schedule (<90 days)  Low clean-up standards in soil, GW or VI  High probability of success
  3. 3.  Vapor pressure of organic materials increase  Viscosity of separate phase liquids decrease  Increases desorption  Diffusion rates increase  Solubility increases  Increases biodegradation  Rates of Hydrolysis increase  Thermal Oxidation
  4. 4.  Thermal conductivity = measure of the ability of a material to conduct heat. How quickly heat migrates through it.  Thermal Diffusivity = measure of the ability of a material to conduct heat relative to its ability to store heat. How quickly the temperature of the material increases. ◦ Thermal diffusivity (m2/s) = thermal conductivity (W/mK) volumetric heat capacity 4
  5. 5. Heat Transport Equation: Soil Thermal conductivity (l) [W/mK] Permeability [m2] Clay (dry) 0.15-1.8 10-16-10-20 Water saturated clay 0.6-2.5 Sand 0.15-0.77 10-10-10-12 Water saturated sand 2-4 Gravel (dry) 0.7 10-7-10-9 Water saturated gravel 1.7-4 Fractured Bedrock (Granite) 1.4-4.0 ACE EE 2009 http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-d_429.html
  6. 6.  Diffusion limited remediation progress ◦ Enemy #1 for In Situ Remedies  ISCO  ISCR  MPE / SVE  P&T 1 mm [Udell et al. 1999; Alameda Point SEE demonstration] Heat transfer occurs about 10,000 times faster than aqueous diffusion in porous media and rocks
  7. 7. NAPL SOIL MINERALS ORGANIC MATERIAL H2O Micropores
  8. 8. The influence from enthalpy of water vaporization Time (Days) Temperature (°C)
  9. 9.  Propane/Natural gas/Diesel  Closed-loop heating system >> No pollution emissions  Soil and groundwater heated by thermal conduction  Treatment temperatures from 50°C to >400°C  Treat sand, silt, CLAY, Bedrock, and Groundwater  Vapor extraction wells remove VOCs  VOCs treated by vapor treatment system
  10. 10. Natural gas, propane, diesel, gasoline, ethanol, etc National Avg: April 2014 Natural Gas per kWh is ~$0.05 Propane per kWh is ~$0.07 AC per kWh is ~$0.10 http://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/epm_table_grapher.cfm?t=e pmt_5_6_a http://www.consumersenergy.com/apps/gasvalues/index.aspx?ekfr m=1654 Flexibility has been key for many projects internationally!
  11. 11. Outer tube Inner tube
  12. 12. Level of Heating & Contaminant Target Treatment Temperature (°C) Heating Well Spacing (m) Desiccation of Zone? Range of Costs (all inclusive) ($/m3) 1. VOCs: Gentle Heating (BTEX, CVOCs) <100 4 – 6 No 40-200 2. VOCs (CVOCs, BTEX) >100 2 – 4 Depends 60-300 3. SVOCs (PCBs, PAHs, BaP, dioxins) 200-300 1.5 – 3 Yes 150-600
  13. 13.  Faster (Rapid mobilization, smaller footprint, & usually no electrical installation required)  Scalable (Can be applied to very small and very large projects)  Pilot Tests for less than $200,000  Full Scale for less than $500,000
  14. 14. N  Vapor Treatment system permitted with BAAQMD  Onsite Liquid Treatment  Utilities?  Existing Natural Gas Connection  Existing Electrical Connection
  15. 15. Bathroom TCU-1-2 (Before July 8, 2012) TCU-1 (After July 8, 2013) TCU-2 T9 Wall SVE-1 TCU-3 SVE-2 SVE-3 SVE-4 SVE-5 SVE-6 SVE-12 SVE-7 SVE-8 SVE-10 SVE-9 TCU-1 SVE-11 (Before July 8, 2013) TCU 1-2 (After July 8, 2013) T10 Wall T1 T2 T3 T5 T4 T6 T7 T8 TCU-1-1 TCU-3-1 TCU-3-2 TCU-2-1 TCU-2-2 0 40 Scale In Inches  100°C target treatment temperature  9 GTR Heater Wells  12 Vapor Extraction Points (dual nested)  10 TPMPs
  16. 16. 0" 20" 40" 60" 80" 100" 120" 14(May" 21(May" 28(May" 4(Jun" 11(Jun" 18(Jun" 25(Jun" 2(Jul" 9(Jul" 16(Jul" 23(Jul" 30(Jul" 6(Aug" 13(Aug" 20(Aug" 27(Aug" 3(Sep" 10(Sep" 17(Sep" 24(Sep" 1(Oct" 8(Oct" 15(Oct" 22(Oct" 29(Oct" 5(Nov" 12(Nov" 19(Nov" 26(Nov" 3(Dec" 10(Dec" 17(Dec" 24(Dec" 31(Dec" 7(Jan" PPMV$ Influent$Vapor$Sampling$Results$ PCE" 0" 50" 100" 150" 200" 250" 300" 350" 400" 12(May" 1(Jul" 20(Aug" 9(Oct" 28(Nov" Well$Head$VOC$Data$in$Parts$Per$Million$by$Volume$(PPMV)$ SVE$Well$Head$VOC$Data$ Head$VOC$Data$in$Parts$Per$Million$by$Volume$(PPMV)$ 300" sve"1" sve"2" sve"3" 250" sve"4" sve"5" sve"6" sve"7" sve"8" 150" sve"9" sve"10" sve"11" Well$100" sve"12" 50" 0" 12(May" 1(Jul" 20(Aug" 9(Oct" 200" 350" 400" Individual SVE Wells SVE$Well$Head$VOC$Data$
  17. 17.  100°C Treatment Temperature in Vadose Soils Maintained for 185 days.  2,938 Pounds of PCE, cis-1,2-DCE, and Vinyl Chloride Recovered as DNAPL from vapor treatment (condensation) system  1 month post-remediation vapor results 180 ug/m3.  3 month post-remediation vapor results 70 ug/m3.  825 pore volume steam exchanges (calculated) in treatment zone.  5,944 gallons aqueous phase liquid (water) recovered and treated onsite.
  18. 18.  Specialized Equipment Needed to Access Interior Through Standard 3ft wide Door.  High resolution site characterization is key to design and cost management  Site remediation goals driven by Vapor Intrusion Risk and achieved!
  19. 19.  Benzo(a)pyrene and related MGP COCs, Naphthalene, TPH-g, TPH-d impacts above residential limits, TPH-mo impacts also present.  Impacts from surface to 15 ft bgs.  Sandy, gravely soils; GW at >90 ft bgs.  Residential Goals: ◦ Combined B(a)P, Naphthalene, and MGP SVOCs: >0.9 mg/kg ◦ TPH-d: >1,000 mg/kg ◦ TPH-mo: >10,000 mg/kg
  20. 20.  14 GTR Heater Wells  15 Vapor Extraction Points  4 TPMPs  Onsite Liquid Treatment  C2 Technology Vapor Condensation Unit (100 scfm) with VGAC  Adjacent, Existing Natural Gas Connection  Adjacent, Existing Electrical Connection
  21. 21. TC-1 TCU 11 TC-2 TC-3 TCU 5 TC-4 CHINA ALLEY BT01 BT02 Holding Tank Chiller Skid SVE Skid 1 VGAC2 Heater Fan VGAC1 TCU TCU 1 2 TCU TCU 12 TCU 14 3 TCU 10 TCU 8 TCU 7 TCU 4 TCU 6 TCU 13 SVE SVE Skid 2 TCU 9 LGAC TITLE: TCH Equipment As Built SVE Skid 1: After Cooler Knock Out Tank Chiller Skid: Chiller Knock Out Tank SVE Skid 2: Blower After Cooler LGAC: 200 lbs VGAC 1: 400 lbs VGAC 2: 200 lbs Holding Tank: 650 gal Tank BT01: 2500 gal Tank BT02: 1000 gal Tank Legend TCH / Co-Located Vapor Extraction Well (Total: 14) Vapor Extraction Well 1 10 Scale in Feet Pilot Test Treatment Zone Conveyance Line Equipment * Well and Equipment Locations are Approximate
  22. 22. 0 5 10 15 20 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 T1 60day T2 60day T3 60day T4 60day T1 120day T2 120day T3 120day T4 120day °C T4 T2 T1 T3 Depth (ft bgs.)
  23. 23. 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 BaP BaP Eq. 10000 1000 100 Max. Conc. (mg/kg) Pre- Treatment Max. Conc. (mg/kg) Post- Treatment 10 1 TPH-d TPH-mo Target Treatment goal lines Max. Conc. (mg/kg) Pre- Treatment Max. Conc. (mg/kg) Post- Treatment
  24. 24. 60 40 20 0 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 Post = 0.01 lbs before = 51.43 lbs BaP Equivalent TPH Post = ND before = 1.47 lbs BaP Equivalent mass (lbs) TPH mass (lbs) Remedial Objectives Exceeded by Order of Magnitude in 130 Days of ISTD Operation.
  25. 25. 1. Greater than expected water content of soil (20% versus anticipated 10%) and higher water production impacted heating schedule for superheated phase. 2. Electrical interruption caused down time, and thereby impacted system heating capabilities (downed power line offsite) – recommend providing backup generators 3. Longer heating duration increased heat lost to surface – installed thermal blankets. Recommend higher R value ‘air entrained’ material to improve overall thermal efficiencies
  26. 26. GTR© ISTCH Individual Burner System: 1. Applicability: soil temperatures < 70°C to > 325°C 2. Speed: Mobilize and commence GTR operations in Weeks not months 3. Scalability: small pilots to acre size projects 4. Economics: No waiting/paying for electrical utilities, transformers, switchgear, third party inspections. 5. Performance Guarantees available

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