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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1056
Design and Analysis of Ignition based on RFID by Arduino Nano
Compiler
Karibasavaraja D1, Chirag2, Deepak A3, Dhanush G M4, Praveen Kumar K5
1Assistant Professor, Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore
2Undergraduate, Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore
3Undergraduate, Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore
4Undergraduate, Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore
5Undergraduatex, Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Key Words: Micro Controller, RFID Reader, Relay Drive,
Regulated power source, Ignition system
1.INTRODUCTION
This paper is a fine combination of RFID technology and
“Engine Ignition technology”. It makes use of RFID reader
to detect RFID tags. RFID reader uses various types of
techniques like object detection and modulating and
demodulating radio frequency.
In this paper we have used RFID technology. Main blocks
of this paper are Microcontroller, RFID reader, Relay, LED
and RPS. User has to place authorised RFID tag on the RFID
reader. The main feature or specialty of RFID Tag is that it
is unique. It gives this paper the high-level security than
other security systems, such as Password based security
system. As RFID card are ergonomically designed in such a
way that it can be carried in a wallet. Authorized RFID tag is
read by a special type of sensor. RFID Reader can be
interfaced with a microcontroller. Through software we can
add activate new RFID tags and deactivate the existing user,
also identify the user by selecting corresponding option
through the software.
ABSTRACT - The ultimate goal of this paper is
incorporating of keyless security system for two-Wheeler
vehicle in order to have reliable, secured mechanism to
safeguard two-wheeler vehicles from thieves. The other
secondary objectives of this attempt are to develop keyless,
user friendly, conventional locking system. As per our
literature survey study, it’s clearly indicating that now a days
a lot of two wheelers vehicle has been stolen, average 10 to
15 vehicles per day have been stolen reported in Mysore
district alone. Therefore, there is scope to develop the highly
anti-theft security system to secure the best guarantee to
protect the two-wheeler vehicle from different kinds of theft
cases. In this paper, two-wheeler vehicles have been chosen,
due to readily available with us. The methodology of this
paper is the first stage will be the understanding the present
unsafe locking mechanism. The second stage will be
understanding complete keyless concepts and compatibility
with existing product without changing major systems. By
implementing this keyless highly secured system in two-
wheeler vehicle it will protect the vehicles from thieves, gives
100% confident to user for safe guarding of their vehicles,
easy handling, user friendly concept, saving natural
resources by making of keys through this cost saving can be
achieved. Easy handling and cost saving system. This system
has many advantages over the present.
The main aim of this paper is to develop an
authentication system on two-wheelers based on RFID
thatcan be used to secure the two-wheeler from theft. In
this paper we use a RFID reader to read once identity to
turn onignition system. For this, we use a microcontroller
to enable the ignition system. If the matching between
scanned data and the already existing data is correct,
Ignition turns ON. This paper will utilize RFID reader as
the input to acquire digital data and to ignite the engine.
2. Literature Survey (IGNITION BASED ON
PASSWORD)
Many times, we hear the cases of bikes getting stolen
from the parking area. Or sometimes we forgot to
remove the keys from the bike by mistake. In these cases,
it is really difficult to get the bike back. “Password based
Lock for Bike security with ignition key” paper is
designed to solve this purpose. The main concept behind
this paper is a bike security system using a password
entered through a keypad. This system turns on the
Buzzer when the wrong passwordis entered 3 times.
Whenever user inserts key in ignition lock, LCD
displayshows message as “Enter Password:”. User has to
enter password using Keypad provided with this
electronics paper. If the entered password is correct then
Relay and DCmotor is turned on.
User can change this password anytime he/she wishes
using a keypad. This changed password is stored in
external EEPROM memory IC. Thus, bike security system
paper can store the changed password even if there is
power cut.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1057
2.1 Description in detail:
Password lock for bike paper mainly consists
1.Microcontroller: This is the CPU of electronic lock for bike
paper. Here microcontroller of 8051 family is used.
The various functions of microcontroller are
I. Reading the digital input from Keypad
II. Sending this data to LCD, so that the person operating
this paper should read the password
III. Sensing the password using keypad and to check
whether it is a correct password or a wrong password
and rotate the motor if the password entered is a correct
password.
2. LCD: Here 16×2 alphanumeric Liquid Crystal
Display (LCD) is used, which means it can display
alphabets along with numbers on 2 lines each containing
16 characters.
3. Buzzer: Here buzzer is used to indicate the wrong
password to open the ignition.
4. Keypad: User will enter the password using the
keypad.
Various keys of keypad are as following,
I. 0 to 9
II. Enter.
II. Escape.
2.2 Pictures of “Electronic lock for bike:
2.3Applications and Advantages:
1. Password based Lock for Bike security with ignition key
paper can be used in various bikes.
2. The password detector paper can be used to automate
the ignition locking process, so the user need not to carry
the ignition lock keys along with them, they can just
remember the password and use it later to open the
ignition.
Ignition with
key
Keypad
Micro-
Controller
LCD
Stepper
Motor
Motor Driver
Buzzer
Fig: Block diagram of “Electronic lock for bike”
3. PRESENT WORK
From the block diagram with the help of RFID reader and
the input is provided to the microcontroller and on the basis
of the input received from the RFID reader, microcontroller
drives the output devices i.e., ignition system of the bike and
the LED. Scanning and checking of the RFID tag is done with
the help of the RFID reader and on the basis of the output of
the module microcontroller drive the ignition system of
bike. Only authorized RFID tag is stored in the module. If
match condition occur ignition system of the bike is turned
on.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1058
•Vehicle Battery Source: - The power is supplied to the
Arduino through a micro-USB cable.
•RPS: - Used for constant voltage and regulation. The
minimum input voltage is between 6.8V – 24V.
•Microcontroller: - It is used for serial communication and
execution of the program.
•RFID Reader: - Used to gather information from RFID tag.
•Relay Drive: - Switching the Relay for Current
Amplification.
•Relay: - Used for High voltage and Low voltage Isolation.
•LED: - LED is used, the red-light glows when the input is
matched with the stored data and allows ignition to turn on.
3.1 METHODOLOGY
Fig: Block diagram prototype
Relay Drive
RPS
LED
Micro controller
Ignition Coil
Relay
RFID
Reader
Power source
Vehicle Battery Source:- The power is supplied to the
Arduino through a micro USB cable.
RPS: - Used for constant voltage and regulation. The
minimum input voltage is between 6.8V – 24V.
Microcontroller: - It is used for serial communication and
execution of the program.
RFID Reader: - Used to gather information from RFID tag.
Relay Drive: - Switching the Relay for Current
Amplification.
Relay: - Used for High voltage and Low voltage Isolation.
LED: - LED is used, the red-light glows when the input is
matched with the stored data and allows ignition to turn on.
3.2 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
From the block diagram with the help of RFID reader
and the input is provided to the microcontroller and on
the basis of the input received from the RFID reader,
microcontroller drives the output devices i.e., ignition
system of the bike and the LED. Scanning and checking of
the RFID tag is done with the help of the RFID reader
and on the basis of the output of the module
microcontroller drive the ignition system of bike. Only
authorized RFID tag is stored in the module. If match
condition occur ignition system of the bike is turned on.
Programming language (Embedded System)
An embedded system is an application that contains at
least one programmable computer (typically in the form of
a microcontroller, a microprocessor or digital signal
processor chip) and which is used by individuals who are,
in the main, unaware that the system is computer-based.
This type of embedded system is all around us. Use of
embedded processors in passenger cars, mobile phones,
medical equipment, aerospace systems and defence
systems are widespread, and even everyday domestic
appliances such as dishwashers, televisions, washing
machines and video recorders now include at least one such
device.
Arduino Software
The Arduino programming language is a simplified
version of C/C++. If you know C, programming the Arduino
will be familiar. If you do not know C, no need to worry as
only a few commands are needed to perform useful
functions. An important feature of the Arduino is that you
can create a control program on the host PC, download it to
the Arduino and it will run automatically. Remove the USB
cable connection to the PC, and the program will still run
from the top each time you push the reset button. Remove
the battery and put the Arduino board in a closet for six
months. When you reconnect the battery, the last program
Software Components
1. Programming language (Embedded-C).
2. Arduino nano Compiler.
you stored will run. This means that you connect the
board to the host PC to develop and debug your program,
but once that is done, you no longer need the PC to run the
program.
Hardware Components
1. Regulated Power Supply
2. Relay
3. Relay Drive
4. RFID reader
5. Arduino
6. LED
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
1. Regulated Power Supply
A Regulated Power Supply is an embedded circuit; it
coverts unregulated AC into constant DC.
Fig: RPS
With the help of a rectifier, it converts AC Supply into DC.
Its function is to supply a stable voltage (or less often
current), to a circuit or a device that must be operated
within certain power supply limits. The output from the
regulated power supply may be alternating or
unidirectional, but is nearly always DC. The type of
stabilization used may be restricted to ensuring that the
output remains within certain limits under various load
conditions, or it may also include compensation for
variations in its own supply source. The latter is much
morecommon today.
2. Relay
A Relay is an electrically operated switch. Current
flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic
field which attracts a lever and changes the switch
contacts.
Fig: Relay
which can be completely separate from the first. For
example, a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to
switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical
connection inside the relay between the two circuits; the
link is magnetic and mechanical. The coil of a relay passes
a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay,
but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to
operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot
provide this current and a transistor is usually used to
amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for
the relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular
555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay
coils directly without amplification.
The coil current can be on or off, so relays have two
switch positions and they are double throw
(changeover) switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch
a second circuit
The relay’s switch connections are usually labelled COM,
NC and NO: COM = Common, always connect to this; it is
the moving part of the switch. NC = Normally Closed, COM
is connected to this when the relay coil is off. NO = Normally
Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.
3. Relay Drive
Relay driver circuit, is a circuit which can drive, or
operate, a relay so that it can function appropriately in a
circuit. The driven relay can then operate as a switch in the
circuit which can open or close, according to the needs of
the circuit and its operation.
Fig: Relay Drive
4. RFID
Fig: RFID reader and tag
6. LED
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1059
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the
tracked object. RFID is one method of automatic
identification and data capture (AIDC).
5. Arduino
The Arduino microcontroller is an easy to use yet
Fig: Arduino
Radio-frequency identification (RFID)uses electromagnetic
fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to
objects. An RFID system consists of a tiny radio
transponder, a radio receiver and transmitter. When
triggered by an electromagnetic interrogation pulse from a
nearby RFID reader device, the tag transmits digital data,
usually an identifying inventory number, back to the
reader. This number can be used to track inventory goods.
Passive tags are powered by energy from the RFID
reader's interrogating radio waves. Active tags are
powered by a battery and thus can be read at a greater
range from the RFID reader, up to hundreds of meters.
Unlike a barcode, the tag does not need to be within the
powerful single board computer that has gained
considerable traction in the hobby and professional
market. The Arduino is open-source, which means
hardware is reasonably priced and development software
is free.
This is what Arduino Board looks like.
The Arduin o board feature s an Atmel ATmeg a328
microcontroller operating at 5 V with 2 Kb of RAM, 32 K
of flash memory for storing programs and 1 Kb of EEPROM
for storing parame ters. The clock speed is 16 MHz, which
transla tes to about executi ng about 300,00 0 lines of C
source code per second. The board has 14 digital I/O pins
and 6 analog input pins. There is a USB connector for
talking to the host computer and a DC power jack for
connecting an external 6-20 V power source, for example
a 9 V battery, when running a program while not
connected to the host computer. Headers are provided for
interfacing to the I/O pins using 22 g solid wire or header
connectors.
A Light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semi conductor
light source.
6. LED
Fig: LED
The switching ON of the device is indicated when
LED (Red) glows.
Needs for Working System
1. Arduino Duemilanove board.
2. USB programming cable (A to B.)
3. 9V battery or external power supply (for stand-alone
operation.)
4. Solder less breadboard for external circuits, and 22 g
solid wire for connections.
5. Host PC running the Arduino development environment.
Versions exist for Windows, Mac and Linux 1.3
Installing the Software Follow the instructions on the
Getting Started section of the Arduino web site, Go all the
way through the steps to where you see the pin 13 LED
blinking. This is the indication that you have all
software and drivers successfully installed and can start
exploring with your own programs. 1.4 Connecting a
Battery For stand-alone operation, the board is powered
by a battery rather than through the USB connection to
the computer.
While the external power can be anywhere in the range
of 6 to 24 V (for example, you could use a car battery), a
standard 9 V battery is convenient. While you could jam the
leads of a battery snap into the Vin and Gnd connections on
the board, it is better to solder the battery snap leads to a
DC power plug and connect to the power jack on the board.
Disconnect your Arduino from the computer. Connect a 9 V
battery to the Arduino power jack using the battery snap
adapter. Confirm that the blinking program runs. This
shows that you can power the Arduino from a battery and
that the program you download runs without needing a
connection to the host PC.
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1060
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
Fig: Working system of Arduino
Connect your Arduino to the computer with the USB
cable. You do not need the battery for now. The green
PWR LED will light. If there was already a program
burned into the Arduino, it will run. Start the Arduino
development environment. In Arduino-speak, programs
are called “sketches”, but here we will just call them
programs.
In the editing window that comes up, enter the
following program, paying attention to where semi-
colons appear at the end of command lines.
Click the Upload button or Ctrl-U to compile the program
and load on the Arduino board. Click the Serial
Monitor button. If all has gone well, the monitor window
will show your message and look something like this.
Click the Upload button or Ctrl-U to compile the program
and load on the Arduino board. Click the Serial Monitor
button. If all has gone well, the monitor window will show
your message and look something like this.
theArduino program again
If you continue to have problems, try these ideas Run
Push the Arduino reset button a few times and see what
happens.
If there is a syntax error in the program caused by a mistake
in typing, an error message will appear in the bottom of
theprogram window. Generally, staring at the error will
reveal the problem.
• Check that the USB cable is secure at both ends.
• Reboot your PC because sometimes the serial port can
lock up
• If a “Serial port…already in use” error appears when
uploading
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
•RFID technology automates data collection and vastly
reduces human effort and error.
•There is no need to remember the password or any Pin
number.
•One of the main advantages is that this system remembers
the stored data, even if the power supply is turned off.
•It is a compact circuit which makes it very easy to install in
the two-wheeler.
•It can be used in moped as well as in gear bikes.
•User friendly.
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1061
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
•Spacing to be done, in required part of the vehicle.
•Corrosion of the RFID reader due to weather conditions.
•RFID tags can be stolen.
In future this paper can be expanding further with
fingerprint recognition also. In this paper we can add GPS to
trace the vehicle’s exact location. Data can be sent to a
remote location using mobile or internet.
•Other related modules like fire sensor, GSM modem can be
implemented.
•It can be permanently installed next to the handle bar in the
two-wheeler, with an environment friendly body design.
•In the future, smartphone can be interfaced by using
Bluetooth or Wi-Fi connectivity.
•This can be further implemented in four-wheelers as well.
Limitations
• Spacing to be done, in required part of the vehicle.
• Corrosion of the RFID reader due to weather conditions.
• RFID tags can be stolen.
•RFID technology gains time more than other security
system such as password and key.
Sample paragraph Define abbreviations and acronyms the
first time they are used in the text, even after they have
been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE,
SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do
not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are
unavoidable.
• RFID technology gains time more than other security
system such as password and key.
The Prototype of the model is as shown below
Fig: Prototype of the model
• Step 1: - RFID tag is placed on the RFID reader.
Working Prototype of the model
• Step 2: - If Input is matched, red light glows and
ignition starts.
• Step 3: - If the input is not matched, when step 1 is
carriedout. The LED will not glow, which indicates using
unauthorized RFID tag.
The result is that the bike will be ignited only when the
authorized RFID is scanned on the RFID reader. The digital
data of the authorized tags is stored in the RFID reader.
When any person places authorized tag on the RFID reader,
then the data of the placed tag is matched with the stored
data in the module. If the RFID data is found in the module,
then match condition occurs and the microcontroller ignites
the bike otherwise bike will not start.
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1062
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
5. CONCLUSIONS
The prototype of a RFID-based ignition system developed
has a specific sequence that must be followed before it can
be used to ignite a vehicle. Basically, the RFID recognition
software must be first initialized before frequency data can
be loaded from a file of sample frequency. The last acquired
RFID is then analyzed and its minutiae identified, extracted
and stored as a template. The next step involves either
enrolling the template or matching the template with other
templates. The enrolment process button saves the last
extracted template into the database. The identity number
of the enrolled template is displayed in the log window. The
identification process compares the query template against
reference templates in a database. For verification, the
identity number of the reference template to be matched
with the query template must be supplied. In the results, it
can be deduced that the use of RFID security systems offers
a much better and fool proof means of restricting the
ignition of vehicles by unauthorized users. Furthermore, it
can be logically derived from the findings of this research
work that RFID signal can be used for motor vehicle ignition
system control. Parallel port control codes used with RFID
analysis codes can provide capabilities for allowing only
authorized users, authenticated through their RFID tags to
ignite a vehicle.
Now-a-days thefts and accidents are increasing. To
prevent from these problems this paper is implemented.
The theft is controlled by the RFID matching process.
REFERENCES
[4] Visa M. Ibrahim “Microcontroller Based Anti-theft
Security System Using GSM Networks with Text Message as
Feedback” Published in International Journal of
Engineering Research and Development e-ISSN: 2278-
067X, p-ISSN: 2278-800X, www.ijerd.com Volume 2, Issue
10 (August 2012), PP. 18-22
[5] Lin Hong. "Automatic Personal Identification Using
Fingerprints", Ph.D. Thesis, 1998.
[6] Yang S. and Verbauwhede I. (2003) “A Secure RFID
Matching Technique”,
http://www.emsec.ee.ucla.edu./pdf/2003acm.pdf
[7] http://auto.howstuffworks.com/ignitionsystem.htm,
“How Automobile Ignition Systems Work “
[8]
[1] “Radio frequency identification”
https://www.fda.gov/radiation-emitting-
products/electromagnetic-compatibility-emc/radio-
frequency-identification-rfid
[2] https://www.techopedia.com/definition/26992/radio-
frequency-identification-reader-rfid-reader
[3] https://www.atlasrfidstore.com/rfid-beginners-guide/
http://www.RFIDinfo.org/.htm,“RFID Information
Resource” [9]
http://www.crimtrac.gov.au/RFIDanalysis.htm, “RFID
Analysis – The Basics” [10] R. K. Singh, “Crime in India 2011
- Statistics”, for National Crime Records Bureau 2011 [11]
http//www.gogle/Ebedtronics.
[9] AlphaSigmaura Team (2005) “Computer Interfacing
and control”, Paper presented at the workshop on
Computer Interfacing and Control, LadokeAkintola
University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
[10] Anton S. (2002) “Sorting it out: Machine learning
and fingerprints”, Paper presented at the seminar on
Telematik fingerprint, Siemens Corporate Technology,
Munich, Germany.
[11] Engdahl T. (2005) “Parallel port interfacing made
easy”, http://www.epanorama.net
[12] Graevenitz G.A. (2003) “Introduction to RFID
technology”, A&S International, Vol. 53, pp. 84 – 86.
[13] http://auto.howstuffworks.com/ignitionsystem.htm,
“How Automobile Ignition Systems Work “
[14] http://www.biometricinfo.org/fingerprintrecognition
.htm ,“RFID Information Resource”
BIOGRAPHIES
Karibasavaraja D, Assistant
Professor, Department of I&P
Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore
Chirag , Undergraduate ,
Department of I&P Engineering,
JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore
Deepak A, Undergraduate ,
Department of I&P Engineering,
JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore
Dhanush G M, Undergraduate ,
Department of I&P Engineering,
JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore
Praveen Kumar K, Undergraduate ,
Department of I&P Engineering,
JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1063

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Design and Analysis of Ignition based on RFID by Arduino Nano Compiler

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1056 Design and Analysis of Ignition based on RFID by Arduino Nano Compiler Karibasavaraja D1, Chirag2, Deepak A3, Dhanush G M4, Praveen Kumar K5 1Assistant Professor, Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore 2Undergraduate, Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore 3Undergraduate, Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore 4Undergraduate, Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore 5Undergraduatex, Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Key Words: Micro Controller, RFID Reader, Relay Drive, Regulated power source, Ignition system 1.INTRODUCTION This paper is a fine combination of RFID technology and “Engine Ignition technology”. It makes use of RFID reader to detect RFID tags. RFID reader uses various types of techniques like object detection and modulating and demodulating radio frequency. In this paper we have used RFID technology. Main blocks of this paper are Microcontroller, RFID reader, Relay, LED and RPS. User has to place authorised RFID tag on the RFID reader. The main feature or specialty of RFID Tag is that it is unique. It gives this paper the high-level security than other security systems, such as Password based security system. As RFID card are ergonomically designed in such a way that it can be carried in a wallet. Authorized RFID tag is read by a special type of sensor. RFID Reader can be interfaced with a microcontroller. Through software we can add activate new RFID tags and deactivate the existing user, also identify the user by selecting corresponding option through the software. ABSTRACT - The ultimate goal of this paper is incorporating of keyless security system for two-Wheeler vehicle in order to have reliable, secured mechanism to safeguard two-wheeler vehicles from thieves. The other secondary objectives of this attempt are to develop keyless, user friendly, conventional locking system. As per our literature survey study, it’s clearly indicating that now a days a lot of two wheelers vehicle has been stolen, average 10 to 15 vehicles per day have been stolen reported in Mysore district alone. Therefore, there is scope to develop the highly anti-theft security system to secure the best guarantee to protect the two-wheeler vehicle from different kinds of theft cases. In this paper, two-wheeler vehicles have been chosen, due to readily available with us. The methodology of this paper is the first stage will be the understanding the present unsafe locking mechanism. The second stage will be understanding complete keyless concepts and compatibility with existing product without changing major systems. By implementing this keyless highly secured system in two- wheeler vehicle it will protect the vehicles from thieves, gives 100% confident to user for safe guarding of their vehicles, easy handling, user friendly concept, saving natural resources by making of keys through this cost saving can be achieved. Easy handling and cost saving system. This system has many advantages over the present. The main aim of this paper is to develop an authentication system on two-wheelers based on RFID thatcan be used to secure the two-wheeler from theft. In this paper we use a RFID reader to read once identity to turn onignition system. For this, we use a microcontroller to enable the ignition system. If the matching between scanned data and the already existing data is correct, Ignition turns ON. This paper will utilize RFID reader as the input to acquire digital data and to ignite the engine. 2. Literature Survey (IGNITION BASED ON PASSWORD) Many times, we hear the cases of bikes getting stolen from the parking area. Or sometimes we forgot to remove the keys from the bike by mistake. In these cases, it is really difficult to get the bike back. “Password based Lock for Bike security with ignition key” paper is designed to solve this purpose. The main concept behind this paper is a bike security system using a password entered through a keypad. This system turns on the Buzzer when the wrong passwordis entered 3 times. Whenever user inserts key in ignition lock, LCD displayshows message as “Enter Password:”. User has to enter password using Keypad provided with this electronics paper. If the entered password is correct then Relay and DCmotor is turned on. User can change this password anytime he/she wishes using a keypad. This changed password is stored in external EEPROM memory IC. Thus, bike security system paper can store the changed password even if there is power cut.
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1057 2.1 Description in detail: Password lock for bike paper mainly consists 1.Microcontroller: This is the CPU of electronic lock for bike paper. Here microcontroller of 8051 family is used. The various functions of microcontroller are I. Reading the digital input from Keypad II. Sending this data to LCD, so that the person operating this paper should read the password III. Sensing the password using keypad and to check whether it is a correct password or a wrong password and rotate the motor if the password entered is a correct password. 2. LCD: Here 16×2 alphanumeric Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) is used, which means it can display alphabets along with numbers on 2 lines each containing 16 characters. 3. Buzzer: Here buzzer is used to indicate the wrong password to open the ignition. 4. Keypad: User will enter the password using the keypad. Various keys of keypad are as following, I. 0 to 9 II. Enter. II. Escape. 2.2 Pictures of “Electronic lock for bike: 2.3Applications and Advantages: 1. Password based Lock for Bike security with ignition key paper can be used in various bikes. 2. The password detector paper can be used to automate the ignition locking process, so the user need not to carry the ignition lock keys along with them, they can just remember the password and use it later to open the ignition. Ignition with key Keypad Micro- Controller LCD Stepper Motor Motor Driver Buzzer Fig: Block diagram of “Electronic lock for bike” 3. PRESENT WORK From the block diagram with the help of RFID reader and the input is provided to the microcontroller and on the basis of the input received from the RFID reader, microcontroller drives the output devices i.e., ignition system of the bike and the LED. Scanning and checking of the RFID tag is done with the help of the RFID reader and on the basis of the output of the module microcontroller drive the ignition system of bike. Only authorized RFID tag is stored in the module. If match condition occur ignition system of the bike is turned on.
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1058 •Vehicle Battery Source: - The power is supplied to the Arduino through a micro-USB cable. •RPS: - Used for constant voltage and regulation. The minimum input voltage is between 6.8V – 24V. •Microcontroller: - It is used for serial communication and execution of the program. •RFID Reader: - Used to gather information from RFID tag. •Relay Drive: - Switching the Relay for Current Amplification. •Relay: - Used for High voltage and Low voltage Isolation. •LED: - LED is used, the red-light glows when the input is matched with the stored data and allows ignition to turn on. 3.1 METHODOLOGY Fig: Block diagram prototype Relay Drive RPS LED Micro controller Ignition Coil Relay RFID Reader Power source Vehicle Battery Source:- The power is supplied to the Arduino through a micro USB cable. RPS: - Used for constant voltage and regulation. The minimum input voltage is between 6.8V – 24V. Microcontroller: - It is used for serial communication and execution of the program. RFID Reader: - Used to gather information from RFID tag. Relay Drive: - Switching the Relay for Current Amplification. Relay: - Used for High voltage and Low voltage Isolation. LED: - LED is used, the red-light glows when the input is matched with the stored data and allows ignition to turn on. 3.2 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION From the block diagram with the help of RFID reader and the input is provided to the microcontroller and on the basis of the input received from the RFID reader, microcontroller drives the output devices i.e., ignition system of the bike and the LED. Scanning and checking of the RFID tag is done with the help of the RFID reader and on the basis of the output of the module microcontroller drive the ignition system of bike. Only authorized RFID tag is stored in the module. If match condition occur ignition system of the bike is turned on. Programming language (Embedded System) An embedded system is an application that contains at least one programmable computer (typically in the form of a microcontroller, a microprocessor or digital signal processor chip) and which is used by individuals who are, in the main, unaware that the system is computer-based. This type of embedded system is all around us. Use of embedded processors in passenger cars, mobile phones, medical equipment, aerospace systems and defence systems are widespread, and even everyday domestic appliances such as dishwashers, televisions, washing machines and video recorders now include at least one such device. Arduino Software The Arduino programming language is a simplified version of C/C++. If you know C, programming the Arduino will be familiar. If you do not know C, no need to worry as only a few commands are needed to perform useful functions. An important feature of the Arduino is that you can create a control program on the host PC, download it to the Arduino and it will run automatically. Remove the USB cable connection to the PC, and the program will still run from the top each time you push the reset button. Remove the battery and put the Arduino board in a closet for six months. When you reconnect the battery, the last program Software Components 1. Programming language (Embedded-C). 2. Arduino nano Compiler. you stored will run. This means that you connect the board to the host PC to develop and debug your program, but once that is done, you no longer need the PC to run the program. Hardware Components 1. Regulated Power Supply 2. Relay 3. Relay Drive 4. RFID reader 5. Arduino 6. LED
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 1. Regulated Power Supply A Regulated Power Supply is an embedded circuit; it coverts unregulated AC into constant DC. Fig: RPS With the help of a rectifier, it converts AC Supply into DC. Its function is to supply a stable voltage (or less often current), to a circuit or a device that must be operated within certain power supply limits. The output from the regulated power supply may be alternating or unidirectional, but is nearly always DC. The type of stabilization used may be restricted to ensuring that the output remains within certain limits under various load conditions, or it may also include compensation for variations in its own supply source. The latter is much morecommon today. 2. Relay A Relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. Fig: Relay which can be completely separate from the first. For example, a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits; the link is magnetic and mechanical. The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification. The coil current can be on or off, so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit The relay’s switch connections are usually labelled COM, NC and NO: COM = Common, always connect to this; it is the moving part of the switch. NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off. NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on. 3. Relay Drive Relay driver circuit, is a circuit which can drive, or operate, a relay so that it can function appropriately in a circuit. The driven relay can then operate as a switch in the circuit which can open or close, according to the needs of the circuit and its operation. Fig: Relay Drive 4. RFID Fig: RFID reader and tag 6. LED © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1059
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method of automatic identification and data capture (AIDC). 5. Arduino The Arduino microcontroller is an easy to use yet Fig: Arduino Radio-frequency identification (RFID)uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. An RFID system consists of a tiny radio transponder, a radio receiver and transmitter. When triggered by an electromagnetic interrogation pulse from a nearby RFID reader device, the tag transmits digital data, usually an identifying inventory number, back to the reader. This number can be used to track inventory goods. Passive tags are powered by energy from the RFID reader's interrogating radio waves. Active tags are powered by a battery and thus can be read at a greater range from the RFID reader, up to hundreds of meters. Unlike a barcode, the tag does not need to be within the powerful single board computer that has gained considerable traction in the hobby and professional market. The Arduino is open-source, which means hardware is reasonably priced and development software is free. This is what Arduino Board looks like. The Arduin o board feature s an Atmel ATmeg a328 microcontroller operating at 5 V with 2 Kb of RAM, 32 K of flash memory for storing programs and 1 Kb of EEPROM for storing parame ters. The clock speed is 16 MHz, which transla tes to about executi ng about 300,00 0 lines of C source code per second. The board has 14 digital I/O pins and 6 analog input pins. There is a USB connector for talking to the host computer and a DC power jack for connecting an external 6-20 V power source, for example a 9 V battery, when running a program while not connected to the host computer. Headers are provided for interfacing to the I/O pins using 22 g solid wire or header connectors. A Light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semi conductor light source. 6. LED Fig: LED The switching ON of the device is indicated when LED (Red) glows. Needs for Working System 1. Arduino Duemilanove board. 2. USB programming cable (A to B.) 3. 9V battery or external power supply (for stand-alone operation.) 4. Solder less breadboard for external circuits, and 22 g solid wire for connections. 5. Host PC running the Arduino development environment. Versions exist for Windows, Mac and Linux 1.3 Installing the Software Follow the instructions on the Getting Started section of the Arduino web site, Go all the way through the steps to where you see the pin 13 LED blinking. This is the indication that you have all software and drivers successfully installed and can start exploring with your own programs. 1.4 Connecting a Battery For stand-alone operation, the board is powered by a battery rather than through the USB connection to the computer. While the external power can be anywhere in the range of 6 to 24 V (for example, you could use a car battery), a standard 9 V battery is convenient. While you could jam the leads of a battery snap into the Vin and Gnd connections on the board, it is better to solder the battery snap leads to a DC power plug and connect to the power jack on the board. Disconnect your Arduino from the computer. Connect a 9 V battery to the Arduino power jack using the battery snap adapter. Confirm that the blinking program runs. This shows that you can power the Arduino from a battery and that the program you download runs without needing a connection to the host PC. © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1060
  • 6. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 Fig: Working system of Arduino Connect your Arduino to the computer with the USB cable. You do not need the battery for now. The green PWR LED will light. If there was already a program burned into the Arduino, it will run. Start the Arduino development environment. In Arduino-speak, programs are called “sketches”, but here we will just call them programs. In the editing window that comes up, enter the following program, paying attention to where semi- colons appear at the end of command lines. Click the Upload button or Ctrl-U to compile the program and load on the Arduino board. Click the Serial Monitor button. If all has gone well, the monitor window will show your message and look something like this. Click the Upload button or Ctrl-U to compile the program and load on the Arduino board. Click the Serial Monitor button. If all has gone well, the monitor window will show your message and look something like this. theArduino program again If you continue to have problems, try these ideas Run Push the Arduino reset button a few times and see what happens. If there is a syntax error in the program caused by a mistake in typing, an error message will appear in the bottom of theprogram window. Generally, staring at the error will reveal the problem. • Check that the USB cable is secure at both ends. • Reboot your PC because sometimes the serial port can lock up • If a “Serial port…already in use” error appears when uploading 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS •RFID technology automates data collection and vastly reduces human effort and error. •There is no need to remember the password or any Pin number. •One of the main advantages is that this system remembers the stored data, even if the power supply is turned off. •It is a compact circuit which makes it very easy to install in the two-wheeler. •It can be used in moped as well as in gear bikes. •User friendly. © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1061
  • 7. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 •Spacing to be done, in required part of the vehicle. •Corrosion of the RFID reader due to weather conditions. •RFID tags can be stolen. In future this paper can be expanding further with fingerprint recognition also. In this paper we can add GPS to trace the vehicle’s exact location. Data can be sent to a remote location using mobile or internet. •Other related modules like fire sensor, GSM modem can be implemented. •It can be permanently installed next to the handle bar in the two-wheeler, with an environment friendly body design. •In the future, smartphone can be interfaced by using Bluetooth or Wi-Fi connectivity. •This can be further implemented in four-wheelers as well. Limitations • Spacing to be done, in required part of the vehicle. • Corrosion of the RFID reader due to weather conditions. • RFID tags can be stolen. •RFID technology gains time more than other security system such as password and key. Sample paragraph Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable. • RFID technology gains time more than other security system such as password and key. The Prototype of the model is as shown below Fig: Prototype of the model • Step 1: - RFID tag is placed on the RFID reader. Working Prototype of the model • Step 2: - If Input is matched, red light glows and ignition starts. • Step 3: - If the input is not matched, when step 1 is carriedout. The LED will not glow, which indicates using unauthorized RFID tag. The result is that the bike will be ignited only when the authorized RFID is scanned on the RFID reader. The digital data of the authorized tags is stored in the RFID reader. When any person places authorized tag on the RFID reader, then the data of the placed tag is matched with the stored data in the module. If the RFID data is found in the module, then match condition occurs and the microcontroller ignites the bike otherwise bike will not start. © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1062
  • 8. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 01 | Jan 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 5. CONCLUSIONS The prototype of a RFID-based ignition system developed has a specific sequence that must be followed before it can be used to ignite a vehicle. Basically, the RFID recognition software must be first initialized before frequency data can be loaded from a file of sample frequency. The last acquired RFID is then analyzed and its minutiae identified, extracted and stored as a template. The next step involves either enrolling the template or matching the template with other templates. The enrolment process button saves the last extracted template into the database. The identity number of the enrolled template is displayed in the log window. The identification process compares the query template against reference templates in a database. For verification, the identity number of the reference template to be matched with the query template must be supplied. In the results, it can be deduced that the use of RFID security systems offers a much better and fool proof means of restricting the ignition of vehicles by unauthorized users. Furthermore, it can be logically derived from the findings of this research work that RFID signal can be used for motor vehicle ignition system control. Parallel port control codes used with RFID analysis codes can provide capabilities for allowing only authorized users, authenticated through their RFID tags to ignite a vehicle. Now-a-days thefts and accidents are increasing. To prevent from these problems this paper is implemented. The theft is controlled by the RFID matching process. REFERENCES [4] Visa M. Ibrahim “Microcontroller Based Anti-theft Security System Using GSM Networks with Text Message as Feedback” Published in International Journal of Engineering Research and Development e-ISSN: 2278- 067X, p-ISSN: 2278-800X, www.ijerd.com Volume 2, Issue 10 (August 2012), PP. 18-22 [5] Lin Hong. "Automatic Personal Identification Using Fingerprints", Ph.D. Thesis, 1998. [6] Yang S. and Verbauwhede I. (2003) “A Secure RFID Matching Technique”, http://www.emsec.ee.ucla.edu./pdf/2003acm.pdf [7] http://auto.howstuffworks.com/ignitionsystem.htm, “How Automobile Ignition Systems Work “ [8] [1] “Radio frequency identification” https://www.fda.gov/radiation-emitting- products/electromagnetic-compatibility-emc/radio- frequency-identification-rfid [2] https://www.techopedia.com/definition/26992/radio- frequency-identification-reader-rfid-reader [3] https://www.atlasrfidstore.com/rfid-beginners-guide/ http://www.RFIDinfo.org/.htm,“RFID Information Resource” [9] http://www.crimtrac.gov.au/RFIDanalysis.htm, “RFID Analysis – The Basics” [10] R. K. Singh, “Crime in India 2011 - Statistics”, for National Crime Records Bureau 2011 [11] http//www.gogle/Ebedtronics. [9] AlphaSigmaura Team (2005) “Computer Interfacing and control”, Paper presented at the workshop on Computer Interfacing and Control, LadokeAkintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. [10] Anton S. (2002) “Sorting it out: Machine learning and fingerprints”, Paper presented at the seminar on Telematik fingerprint, Siemens Corporate Technology, Munich, Germany. [11] Engdahl T. (2005) “Parallel port interfacing made easy”, http://www.epanorama.net [12] Graevenitz G.A. (2003) “Introduction to RFID technology”, A&S International, Vol. 53, pp. 84 – 86. [13] http://auto.howstuffworks.com/ignitionsystem.htm, “How Automobile Ignition Systems Work “ [14] http://www.biometricinfo.org/fingerprintrecognition .htm ,“RFID Information Resource” BIOGRAPHIES Karibasavaraja D, Assistant Professor, Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore Chirag , Undergraduate , Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore Deepak A, Undergraduate , Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore Dhanush G M, Undergraduate , Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore Praveen Kumar K, Undergraduate , Department of I&P Engineering, JSSTU, SJCE, Mysore © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1063