Kad English Magazine Issue1

کاردۆ آنلاین
کاردۆ آنلاینEnglish Learning آموزش انگلیسی

Monthly Magazine for English Learners By : www.kardoonline.com

Kad English Magazine Issue1
‫خدا‬ ‫نام‬ ‫به‬
:‫گفتار‬ ‫پیش‬
‫امید‬ ‫و‬ ‫است‬ ‫گردیده‬ ‫تهیه‬ ‫کاردوآنالین‬ ‫آموزشی‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫توسط‬ ‫سطوح‬ ‫تمامی‬ ‫در‬ ‫عزیزان‬ ‫شما‬ ‫زبان‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫ارتقا‬ ‫هدف‬ ‫با‬ ‫ماهنامه‬ ‫این‬
.‫گیرد‬ ‫قرار‬ ‫گرامی‬ ‫دوستان‬ ‫شما‬ ‫توجه‬ ‫مورد‬ ‫است‬
‫آدرس‬ ‫به‬ ‫ایمیل‬ ‫ارسال‬ ‫با‬ ‫توانید‬ ‫می‬ ‫شما‬ ‫نام‬ ‫با‬ ‫خود‬ ‫های‬ ‫موضوع‬ ‫انتشار‬ ‫به‬ ‫تمایل‬ ‫صورت‬ ‫در‬
.‫کنید‬ ‫منتشر‬ ‫ماهنامه‬ ‫در‬ ،‫مطلب‬ ‫هر‬ ‫کلیدی‬ ‫لغات‬ ‫معنی‬ ‫و‬ ‫عکس‬ ‫با‬ ‫همراه‬ ‫را‬ ‫خود‬ ‫مطالب‬
.‫باشید‬ ‫ارتباط‬ ‫در‬ ‫ما‬ ‫با‬ ‫ایمیل‬ ‫طریق‬ ‫از‬ ‫توانید‬ ‫می‬ ‫ماهنامه‬ ‫این‬ ‫کیفی‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫ارتقا‬ ‫برای‬ ‫پیشنهاد‬ ‫یا‬ ‫انتقاد‬ ‫هرگونه‬ ‫درصورت‬
.‫آرزومندست‬ ‫مهربان‬ ‫خداوند‬ ‫از‬ ‫را‬ ‫شما‬ ‫افزون‬ ‫روز‬ ‫موفقیت‬ ‫کاردوآنالین‬ ‫آموزشی‬ ‫گروه‬
mg.kardo.online@gmail.com
Special thanks to the followings:
Morteza Giti (Editor and Writer)
Haniye Noroozi (Writer)
Zahra Eslamian (Writer)
2
Contents
Interview With God Page 3
Music -Violin Page 4
Technology - Mercedes Corporation Page 6
Movies - Friends Series Page 5
10 Idioms About Home Page 7
Animals - Bears Page 8
20 Tips for Listening Section of IELTS Page 9
Customs of Iran - Part One: Marriage and Family Page 11
Famous Figures - Leonardo da Vinci Page 10
Sport - Ali Karimi Page 12
Vocabulary - Collocations with “Plan”
Science - Interview with Iranian ophthalmologist and inventor of LASIK
Vocabulary - Phrasal Verbs in Context
Around the World - Rome
Speaking - Find Your Tongue
Writing - Writing Business Letters
Grammar - Phrasal Verbs 1
Advertisements
Page 13
Page 14
Page 13
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
3
I dreamed I had an Interview
with god
So you would like to Interview
me? “God asked”
If you have the time “I said”
God smiled
My time is eternity
What questions do you have in
mind for me?
What surprises you most about
humankind?
God answered …
That they get bored with child-
hood
They rush to grow up and then
long to be children again
That they lose their health to
make money
And then lose their money to re-
store their health
By thinking anxiously about the
future that
They forget the present
Such that they live in neither the
present nor the future
That they live as if they will nev-
er die
And die as if they had never lived
God’s hand took mine and we were
silent for a while
And then I asked …
As the creator of people what
are some of life’s lessons you
want them to learn?
God replied with a smile
To learn they cannot make anyone
love them
What they can do is let them-
selves be loved
Learn that it is not good to com-
pare themselves to others
To learn that a rich person is not
one who has the most
But is one who needs the least
To learn that it takes only a few
seconds to open profound wounds
in persons we love
And it takes many years to heal
them
To learn to forgive by practicing
forgiveness
To learn that there are persons
who love them dearly
But simply do not know how to ex-
press or show their feelings
To learn that two people can look
at the same thing and see it dif-
ferently
To learn that it is not always
enough that they are forgiven by
others
They must forgive themselves
And to learn that I am here
Always.
Mini Health Tips
Stretch: Quick stretches no matter where you or what you are doing is relieving tension.
Drink Water: Instead of soda, coffee or juice sips water. A hydrated body is a happy
body!
Pack a Healthy Lunch: Rather than buying an overly salted or sugary lunch, pack your
own. Plus you will most likely save money too!
God didn’t promise days without pain...
Laughter, without sorrow, sun without rain...
But He did promise strength for the day, comfort for the tears...
The best cosmetic for lips is truth, for voice is prayer, for eyes is pity, for
hands is charity, for heart is love,
and for life is friendship...
4
Interview with God
Therearetwothingstoaimatinlife;firsttogetwhatyouwant,andafterthattoenjoyit.Onlythewisestofmankindhasachievedthesecond.
History
The modern violin developed from the rebec,
a three-string bowed instrument descended
from the rebab, a Middle Eastern single-string
instrument. The violin developed to assume
its present form in Italy starting in the mid
1500s. It was at this time that luthier Andrea
Amati of Cremona, started to create what are
generally considered to be the first modern
violins.
Growing Importance
Originally considered an instrument of low
social standing, the violin was not a concert instrument initially. It was often used to create a
double voice part while accompanying a singer or provided instrumental accompaniment for
dancing. With its use in Orfeo, an opera by Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi, and a 24 violin
musical ensemble for King Louis XIII of France, the violin started to gain prestige.
The Instrument
The main strings on a violin are GDA and E, in order of lowest to highest pitch. A violin is often
fitted with strings made of synthetic materials like nylon and steel.
Famous Violin Makers
Italian luthier Antonio Stradivarius created what are arguably considered the best violins in the
world. Stradivarius violins or strads, as these instruments are often called, have sold for millions
of dollars and are played by professionals. They also attract violin collectors. Andrea Amati and
Guiseppe Guarneri are the two other master violin makers who created instruments considered
to be equal or nearly equal to Stradivarius.
Electric Violins
Electric violins are manufactured by makers such as MSI, Zeta and John Jordan. Prices may start
as low as about $150 and can be as high as $3,000 or more.
Many professional violinists choose to play the Stradivarius.
Stradivarius violins can go for millions of dollars.
The modern violin has been around for roughly 500 years. It was designed in the 1500s.
The violin used to be known as the "kit" in Italy.
The violin is part of the violin family which also includes the cello, the bass viol and the viola.
The violin is the smallest member of the violin family.
The violin is the most popular instrument among children.
Playing the violin burns 170 calories an hour.
Violins can be electric or non-electric.
Violins are generally either maple or spruce.
Violins these days are constructed from over 70 pieces of wood.
Violins range in size. The smallest being just 37 millimeters.
Violin strings are generally tuned to G, D, A, and E.
Violinists are able to use both sides of the brain better than most non-violinists.
Though the violin used to be an instrument for the lower class, today it is highly regarded and respected as a
difficult instrument to learn.
Some Facts About Violins
Violin
descend: to have devel-
oped from sth else
initially: at the begin-
ning
accompaniment: back-
ground music
equal: the same in value,
size, number, etc.
manufacture: to produce
5
Don’tjudgeeachdaybytheharvestyoureap,butbytheseedsyouplant.
interwoven: closely related
tribulation: great trouble or suffer-
ing
come up with sth: think of sth such
as a plan, etc.
undergo: to experience
sarcastic: saying things that are the
opposite of what you mean
aspiring: hoping to be successful in
a particular job
idiosyncrasy: an unusual habit
compulsion: the act of forcing or sb
to do sth they don’t want
lampoon: to criticize sb or sth in
a humorous way that makes them
seem stupid.
quirks: a strange habit or feature of
sb’s character
6
No one-not even its creators-thought that the world would care about the interwoven lives, loves and tribulations of a close-
knit group of impossibly attractive and witty twenty something New Yorkers. But there’s no doubt ‹Friends› has become more
than just a successful situation comedy-it has established itself as arguably one of the last great television phenomenon›s of the
last century. Along the way, it has made its half-dozen lead actors household names; sparked trends in clothing and fashion;
helped Chronicling the strong, near self contained friendship between a disparate group of three men and three women who
frequently gather at each other›s apartments and at Greenwich Village›s Central Perk coffee-house, Friends (originally to be
called «Friends Like Us»; then «Six Of One», «Across The Hall» or «Insomnia Cafe») was created by television producers David
Crane and Marta Kauffman (who came up with the surrealistic sitcom ‹Dream On› for Home Box Office). In 1993, the pair met
producer Kevin S. Bright; the three became partners and got a deal to produce a new comedy for Warner Brothers. What they
came up with was based on Crane and Kauffman›s after college years, where pals hung out at the local coffee house and in-
volved themselves into every aspect of their lives.
Debuting in 1994, the long-running, Emmy-winning sitcom FRIENDS centers on six
Manhattan-dwelling friends as they undergo their twenties and become thirty some-
thing. The sextet consists of neat-freak chef Monica (Courteney Cox), her thrice-di-
vorced brother Ross (David Schwimmer), sarcastic quipster Chandler (Matthew Perry),
batty singer/massage therapist Phoebe (Lisa Kudrow), aspiring actor Joey (Matt LeB-
lanc), and former suburban princess Rachel (Jennifer Aniston). Storylines range from
standard sitcom fare (hilarious misunderstandings, dating nightmares, etc.) to weight-
ier plots involving lesbian ex-wives, friend hook-ups, unexpected pregnancies, and
more. As the series progressed, episodes became more dramatic and less situational,
wisely capitalizing on viewers› decade-long relationship with the characters.
Is it any good?
While the characters take on careers and a bit more responsibility over the course of the
series, in most ways the friends remain slaves to their idiosyncrasies and compulsions
rather than display more maturity.Too many jokes that lampoon personality traits such
as Joey›s libido or Chandler›s wispiness (he›s sometimes made fun of for seeming gay)
are one of the series› weaknesses. Many of the juicier plot developments were obvious-
ly thrown in to boost ratings and sometimes seem borrowed from soap operas.Still, the
writing is often intelligent, and the acting is skillful. Long-time fans are often rewarded
with jokes that reference past episodes and personality quirks; familiarity makes this
show all the funnier.
There are trade-offs for families to consider.The comedy may be inappropriate for kids,
and yet the storytelling can be more original and thought-provoking than in sitcoms
geared specifically to younger viewers. Characters› contradictions and mistakes make
them questionable role models but also account for why so many viewers relate to
them.The friends frequently talk through their problems openly and honestly with one
another, which could be viewed as a model for communication within families.
F.R.I.E.N.D.S A group of friends share life in the Manhattan area of New York
Noonecanclimbtheladderofsuccess,withbothhandsinthepocket!
unveil: to show or tell people
about a new product.
urban: relating to cities
consumption: the amount of
energy, oil, etc. that is used
confirm: to show that sth is
definitely true
release: to make news public
propulsion: the force that
drives a vehicle forward
announce: to officially tell
people about sth
Every second that you live you are never going to get back….. You are never going to get
to change what you said, didn’t say, did, or didn’t do. Live how you want to live. Act how
you want to be remembered, because you never know how long or short you are going to
be here……
7
Technology
TheGerman automaker BMW in 2013 will launch a new elec-
tric model i3, which are within its sub-brand new BMW i, the
company unveiled the new concepts of models i3 (electric)
and i8 (plug-in hybrid) .
“We are conducting another milestone in the history of the
BMW Group. As the leading premium manufacturer in the
world, our goal is to also offer electric vehicles to custom-
ers,” added company President Germanic, Norbert Re-
ithofer.
The concept car BMW i3 has a range of 150 miles without
recharging the batteries and is designed for use in urban en-
vironments. This vehicle has a 167 hp engine and has four
seats and a payload of 200 kilograms.
For his part, the BMW plug-in hybrid electric drive riding a i8 that develops a maximum power of 348 horses, which
allows the car accelerates from zero to sixty miles per hour in under five seconds and has a fuel consumption of less
than three liters per hundred kilometers.
This vehicle, which was launched in 2014, is capable of traveling up to 35 miles in electric and gasoline engine three
cylinders, in combination with mechanical power, allows the car to a top speed of 250 kilometers per hour.
The 2013 Kia Soul hasn›t really registered with those of us concerned about fuel economy and emissions. That’s
despite the Soul Eco achieving a respectable 36 mpg highway and 32 combined in EPA testing. However, the Soul
could get a lot greener in 2014, as Kia has apparently confirmed an electric version will make production in a few
years.
According to Autocar, the electric model will be based on the all-new Soul set to be launched next Spring at either
theChicago or NewYork auto shows.Very few details have been released at this stage, but given the currentSoul›s
chunky, youthful styling, an electric version could end up being one of the more distinctive EVs on the roads--and
increase the cars› appeal with younger buyers .Kia is no stranger to electric propulsion.
It previewed the fantastic electric Pop concept at the 2010 Paris Auto Show, while last year it announced the Kia
Ray, a home-market minicar, would be its first production EV.
Currently, Kia›s most efficient model is the $25,700 KiaOptima Hybrid.The 2.4-liter hybrid sedan manages 40 mpg
on the highway, and 37 combined.
10 idioms about home
1.) Go home to get beauty sleep
Here’s an example.
Jamie needs to get up early. We’d better let her go home to get
her beauty sleep.
2.) Run home to mama
When someone runs home to mama, it means they are giving up
something important like marriage to return to a comfortable
place. Here’s an example.
Whenever Paul gets hurt, he runs home to mama.
3.) Close to home
When something is uncomfortably near or real, it’s close to home. Here’s an example.
John’s remarks about distracted drivers hit Mary close to home because her mother died in a car accident.
4.) Coming home to roost
Mistakes from the past often come back to haunt people. Here’s an example.
Jerry tore his pants climbing over a fence. He knew the chickens would come home to roost when his mom noticed the
tear.
5.) Until the cows come home
A herd of cows does what it wants on its own schedule.There’s no predicting their actions. They will return from the pas-
ture in an indefinite period of time. Here’s an example.
Mark told Miranda he would love her until the cows came home.
6.)The lights are on, but nobody’s home
This humorous idiom does not mean that a family has gone out and left the lights blazing. It traditionally means someone
is attractive but not very smart. Here’s an example.
The male model was handsome but stupid. His lights are on, but nobody’s home.
7.) Eaten out of house and home
This idiom is frequently applied to guests or children who are prone to raiding refrigerators and pantries. Here’s an ex-
ample.
When Irene visits her grandparents, she always eats them out of house and home.
8.) A home away from home
Some people have vacation homes, and other people have stomping grounds that they know intimately. Here’s an ex-
ample.
Mike goes to Baltimore every weekend. It’s his home away from home.
9.) It’s nothing to write home about
If something is particularly boring or mundane, it is nothing to write home about. Here’s an example.
The meal was okay, but it was nothing to write home about.
10.) Home is where the heart is
In some cases, a home is an intangible location based on emotions.This idiom signifies individuals who follow their hearts,
or it can describe individuals who wish to return to their beloved home. Here’s an example.
Josephine decided to travel to China with her boyfriend. After all, home is where the heart is.
Sunriseseverywherebutcropgrowsonlywherethefarmerhasworkedhard.SimilarlyGODiseverywherebuthisgraceisfortheonewhoworkshard…
A man just got married and was returning home with his wife. They were crossing a lake in a boat, when
suddenly a great storm arose. The man was a warrior, but the woman became very much afraid because it
seemed almost hopeless.
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8
Imagine sticking your nose in the air and sniffing
the smell of a hamburger cooking a mile away.
Some bears can do just that. Bears have a keen
sense of smell. They use this sense to help them
find food. Bears are meat eaters, or carnivores.
But most bears also eat fruits, nuts, and other
foods. Bears live in North America, South Amer-
ica, Europe, and Asia. They do not live in Africa,
Australia, or Antarctica.
WHAT MAKES A BEAR A BEAR?
Bears are powerful animals with lots of thick fur
and a short, stumpy tail. They have big heads
with a long snout (nose and mouth) and small
ears and eyes.They have four short legs that end
in paws, each with five sharp claws. They use
their claws to climb trees, dig up roots, or catch
prey. Male bears are much bigger than female
bears.
BEARS ARE LONERS
Bears usually live alone unless they are mothers with cubs. Each bear claims an area, or territory, as its own. It chases other
bears away. A bear stands up on its hind legs to look frightening. It uses its claws to slash at enemies.
Bears roam over large areas looking for food.They need to eat a lot of food for energy.
Most bears can climb trees to find honey in a bee’s nest or other food. Polar bears and
brown bears are too heavy to climb trees.These bears are the biggest of all the bears.
They can weigh up to 1,760 pounds (800 kilograms).
WINTER SLEEP
Bears that live in cold places go into dens and sleep through most of the winter.They
make their dens in caves, trees trunks, and other hollow places. They eat plenty of
food during the summer to store up body fat. Their body fat gives them energy to
sleep through the cold winter.
BEAR CUBS
Bears mate in the spring after they wake up from winter sleep. The cubs are born the
next winter in the mother’s den. Females usually have between one and three cubs at
a time.The newborn cubs are tiny, blind, and helpless.They have no teeth or hair. But
they are warm and safe in the mother bear’s den. They feed on their mother’s milk.
The milk is rich and helps the baby bears grow quickly. When they are three months
old, the cubs are ready to go outside the den and look for food.The cubs stay close by
their mother, however.
Cubs live with their mother until they are two or three years old. During this time, they
learn what to eat and where to find food.Then they go off and find their own territory.
When females are between four and seven years old, they are ready to have cubs of
their own. Bears in the wild may live to be from 25 to 40 years old, but scientists do
not know for sure.
Bears Animals
MindsarelikeParachutes;theyonlyfunctionwhentheyareopen.
Vocabulary
9
sniff: to breathe air into your nose
noisily
keen: sharp
fur: the soft thick mass of hair that
grows on the body of some ani-
mals
tail: the part that sticks out and
can be moved at the back of the
body of a bird, an animal, or a fish
claw: one of the sharp, curved
nails on the end of an animal’s
or a bird’s foot.
cub: a young animal, such as a
young bear, lion ,
fox , etc.
territory: the area that an animal,
bird etc regards as its own and
will defend against other animals
slash: to cut or try to cut some-
thing violently
roam: to walk or travel around an
area without any definite aim or
direction.
den: the home of some animals
like lions, foxes, etc.
go off: to leave a place
20TipsforListeningSectionofIELTS
1. In Listening, use the example at the beginning of the first section to familiarize
yourself with the sound, the situation, and the speakers.
2. Keep listening until the recording stops, looking only at the questions that relate
to the part being played.
3. There are often pauses in the recording between different sections. Use these
to prepare for the next set of questions.
4. Answer listening questions in the order they appear on the Question Paper. Re-
member that they normally follow the order of the information in the recording.
5. At the end of the recording you have some time to transfer your answers to the
Answer Sheet. Check your grammar and spelling as you do so.
6. In Academic Reading, begin by going quickly through each passage to identify
features such as the topic, the style, the likely source, the writer’s purpose and the
intended reader.
7. As you read, don’t try to understand the precise meaning of every word or phrase.
You don’t have time, and those parts of the text might not be tested anyway.
8. Reading tasks sometimes have an example answer. If this is the case, study it and
decide why it is correct.
9. Some tasks require you to use words from the text in the answer; in others you
should use your own words. Check the instructions carefully.
10. The instructions may also include a word limit, e.g. Use no more than three
words. Keep to this by avoiding unnecessary words in your answer.
11. In Academic Writing, you must always keep to the topic set. Never try to pre-
pare sections of text before the exam.
12. Keep to the suggested timing: there are more marks possible for Task 2 than
Task 1.
13. Organize and link your ideas and sentences appropriately, using a wide range of
language and showing your ability (in Task 2) to discuss ideas and express opinions.
14. If you write less than 150 words in Task 1 or less than 250 in Task 2 you will lose
marks, but there is no maximum number of words for either.
15. When you plan your essay, allow plenty of time at the end to check your work.
16. In Speaking, don’t try to give a prepared speech, or talk about a different topic
from the one you are asked to discuss.
17. Always speak directly to the Examiner, not to the recording equipment.
18. Whenever you reply ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ to the Examiner’s questions, add more details
to. your answer. In each case, aim to explain at least one point.
19. Remember that you are not being tested on your general knowledge but on your
ability to communicate effectively.
20. Organize and link your ideas and sentences appropriately, talking clearly at nor-
mal speed and using a wide range of structures and vocabulary.
Thebestcosmeticforlipsistruth,forvoiceisprayer,foreyesispity,forhandsischarity,forheartislove,andforlifeisfriendship.
to familiarize: to learn
about sth
to prepare: make sth,
sb ready
to transfer: to move
from one place to an-
other
to identify: recognize sb
or sth
purpose: the aim of sth
intended: the particular
reason
precise: clear and ac-
curate
to require: to need sth
to avoid: to prevent sth
bad from happening
appropriately: in a suit-
able way
equipment: the things
that are needed for an
activity
aim: to try to achieve
sth
communicate: to ex-
change information
10
11
Leonardo da Vinci excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, engi-
neer, and scientist. He had endless curiosity. Leonardo wanted to
understand how things worked. He wanted to put down on paper
what he saw. He left thousands of pages of drawings and notes
that recorded his thoughts.
GOOD AT EVERYTHING
Leonardo was born in 1452 in the small town of Vinci, near Flor-
ence, Italy. He had little schooling and was largely self-taught.TheMonaLisawaspaintedbyItalianartistLeon-
ardodaVinci.Thewoman’smysterioussmilehas
madethepaintingoneofthemostfamouspieces
ofartintheworld.
Leonardo da Vinci’s mural The Last Supper shows Jesus
telling his disciples that one of them will betray him. This
mural appears on the wall of a church in Milan, Italy.Leonardo seemed to be good at everything he tried. He was hand-
some, a good speaker, and a fine musician. He trained as a painter with Andrea del Verrocchio, a leading artist
in Florence. Leonardo later worked for dukes and kings.
HIS MOST FAMOUS PAINTINGS
Leonardo produced a relatively small number of paintings, and he left some of them unfinished. But he had
original ideas that influenced Italian artists long after his death. Leonardo believed painting was a science. He ap-
plied scientific thinking in his art so that his paintings looked more like the real world. One of his most important
painting techniques was sfumato, a blending of one area of color into another so there are no sharp outlines.
Leonardo used sfumato in one of his most famous paintings, the Mona Lisa. When you look at this portrait,
notice how colors shade into each other on her face and hands. See how Leonardo has blurred the edges of
her mouth to give her the hint of a smile. This mysterious smile has fascinated people for centuries. It looks as
if Mona Lisa’s expression might change at any moment because of the way Leonardo has softened the edges
of the mouth, eyes, and cheeks. She seems almost alive.
Many people consider a mural by Leonardo known as The Last Supper to be his masterpiece. Christ, seated
in the middle of The Last Supper, has just an-
nounced that one of his 12 apostles will betray
him. Leonardo places the figures in this paint-
ing in a way that increases the drama of the
announcement. Christ is the calm center. His
body, which is set slightly apart from the oth-
ers, forms a stable triangle. The apostles are
arranged in four groups, some leaning toward
Christ and some leaning away. Their gestures
and the expressions on their faces reveal their
reactions to Christ’s words.
HIS DRAWINGS AND NOTEBOOKS
Drawing was Leonardo’s favorite tool. He said that drawing was a better way of
communicating ideas than words were. He drew catapults and war machines. He
drew the muscles and skeletons of human beings and other animals. He drew clouds,
swirling water, and storms. He designed churches that were never built.
Leonardo’s drawings and theories are contained in numerous notebooks. His ideas
were far in advance of what other people were thinking at the time. But the note-
books were not published during his lifetime. Had his notebooks been published,
they might have revolutionized scientific thinking in the 1500s. Leonardo’s deep love
of research was the key to both his artistic and scientific endeavors. Leonardo died
in 1519.
Leonardo da Vinci
TheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness.
excel: to do sth very well.
influence: to affect
fascinate: to attract or
interest extremely
mural: a painting that is
painted on a wall
masterpiece: a work of art
of very high quality
leaning: to bend your
body in a particular direc-
tion
reveal: to make known a
secret
communicate: to ex-
change information using
signs, words, etc
edndeavour: an attempt
to do sth new or difficult
Thebestcosmeticforlipsistruth,forvoiceisprayer,foreyesispity,forhandsischarity,forheartislove,andforlifeisfriendship.
The boat was small and the storm was really huge, and any moment they were going to be drowned. But
the man sat silently, calm and quiet, as if nothing was happening.
The woman was trembling and she said, “Are you not afraid ?”. This may be our last moment of life! It
doesn’t seem that we will be able to reach the other shore.
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12
Marriage and Family
Children usually live with their
parents until they marry, regard-
less of their age. Women marry
between the ages of 16 and 25;
men marry somewhat later be-
cause of military service or be-
cause they are not yet earning
enough money to start a family.
Most marriages are arranged by
families. In the past, this meant
that many young females mar-
ried their cousins. More liberal
attitudes have emerged in some
areas regarding education, work,
and freedom in selecting marriage
Customs of Iran - Part One
regardless of: paying
no attention to sth or
sb
liberal: respecting
other opinions
regarding: about sb or
sth
conventional: ordinary
oppose: to disagree
strongly
privilege: a special
right or advantage
consent: permission
to do sth
commitment: a prom-
ise to support sb or sth
blurred: not clear
flourish: to develop
quickly
compromise: an
agreement
partners. Weddings are occasions for elaborate celebrations. It is legal for a man to have
up to four wives if he can provide for each equally; most men, however, choose to have
only one wife. Divorce is rare.
In some cases, a couple may choose to have a temporary marriage (sigheh) that can last
between a few days and 99 years. Couples might choose the sigheh as a trial marriage or
because it is much less expensive than a conventional wedding. However, this type of
marriage is not common, as many women oppose the practice. Under this arrangement,
the woman and any children born to the marriage do not have the same rights and privi-
leges as conventional wives and children, but the children are accepted as legitimate.
Both a man and woman must consent to a sigheh, and a woman marrying for the first
time must have the consent of her parents.
The father is usually considered the head of the household. The elderly are respected
and cared for by younger members of the extended family. Relatives remain very close
to one another. Parents feel a lifelong commitment to children, often providing them
with financial support well after marriage. Distinctions between upper and lower social
classes were blurred during the costly war with Iraq in the 1980s, but recent economic changes have
allowed a small business class to flourish.
Before the rule of Reza Shah Pahlavi (1925–1941), people were identified by their given name and anoth-
er name that was usually the name of their father or a description of their craft. The Shah required that
people have both a given name and a family name. In the process of selecting these family names, some
families chose the same surname. If the families could not compromise on which family should have
the name, they could choose a second family name, which was usually a reference to their birthplace.
For example, former president Rafsanjani’s name is Ali Akbar; his first family name is Hashemi; and his
second family name is Rafsanjani because he was born near the town of Rafsanjān. People are referred
to by the last part of the family name.
Thebestcosmeticforlipsistruth,forvoiceisprayer,foreyesispity,forhandsischarity,forheartislove,andforlifeisfriendship.
Only some miracle can save us; otherwise death is certain.
The man laughed and took the sword out of its sheath. The woman was even more puzzled: What he was
doing? Then he brought the naked sword close to the woman’s neck, so close that just a small gap was
there, it was almost touching her neck.
							
Continue Reading on Page 14
13
Ali Karimi to Pursue Children's Rights after Parting from Professional Soccer
promote: to help sth to hap-
pen or develop
exclusive: to be used by or
given to a particular person
or group
lament: to express great sad-
ness about sb/sth
chivalry: rules and customs
of knights
notion: opinion
deceit: cheat
glory: fame, praise or hon-
our
contender: person who tries
to win sth
"I like to continue my activities after soccer in
other social fields like defending the children's
basic rights and clean sports and I hope to be
able to attain this goal," Karimi said in an exclu-
sive interview with FNA in Tehran on Thursday.
Asked about his general view of soccer and
sports, he said, "Sports is an arena for health and
healthiness and it should, thus, be at the service
of public health."
He stressed that borders, colors and races can-
not set any limitation or restriction in sports and
all people from healthy men and women to para-
lytic can enter the field without any limitation.
Karimi lamented that a number of athletes try
forbidden means like doping materials to em-
brace victory and attain their goals. "I have been
active in this sport (football) for years and my
mind has always been busy with issues related to
it. We should move on the right path in our sport
activities and I believe that sports is a scene for
chivalry, fairness, truthfulness and closeness of
hearts."
"What is important is to always pursue honesty during our sports activities
and avoid going after short-term results."
"I believe the notion of peace and a world free from lies and deceits are
vital and essential concepts which should always be in our mind, and we
should avoid thinking about short-term subjects," the Iranian legend said.
As regards his plans after retiring from the soccer world, Karimi said, "I am
willing to focus my efforts on social issues such as children's basic rights and
clean sports after my professional soccer life and I hope to reach my goal."
Asked to comment about his nomination as one of the three finalists for the
2012 Asian player of the year title, he said, "I thank God for being in the list of the finalists and this nomination is
really sweet to me because I know that my people, the people of my country are glad too. I hope to gladden people's
hearts with better matches in future, and I hope that our country's football community will win another honor and
glory in the final ceremony of the 2012 Asian player of the year."
Ali Karimi of Iran has been nominated for the 2012 AFC Player of the Year award. Korea Republic and China have a
player each in the list.
Ali Karimi, 2004 AFC Player of the Year, returned to the list of contenders while Lee Keun-ho, who helped Korea
Republic side Ulsan Hyundai win the AFC Champions League this year, and Evergrande's defender ZhengZhi have
also found a place in the top three.
Asian wizard Ali Karimi, who is
one of the three nominees for the
2012 Asian player of the year af-
ter winning the same title in 2004,
said that he hopes to expand and
boost his social activities to defend
children’s rights and promote clean
sports in Iran and the world after
retiring from his professional soccer
career. Asian wizard Ali Karimi, who
is one of the three nominees for the
2012 Asian player of the year af-
ter winning the same title in 2004,
said that he hopes to expand and
boost his social activities to defend
children’s rights and promote clean
sports in Iran and the world after
retiring from his professional soccer
career.
14
have plans I have no plans to retire yet.
change your plans We had to change our plans at the last minute.
abandon/give up your plans The city authorities have abandoned their plans to host the Super Bowl.
cancel your plans The weather got worse, and we had to cancel our plans to have the party outdoors.
shelve a plan (= cancel your plan, although you may do it later ) The plan had to be shelved because of lack of
money.
have a plan Don’t worry – I have a plan.
make plans (= prepare for something ) Mary has been busy making plans for her wedding.
come up with a plan (= think of a plan ) The chairman must come up with a plan to get the club back on its
feet.
devise/formulate/draw up a plan (= make a detailed plan, especially after considering something carefully )
He devised a daring plan to steal two million dollars. | The company has already drawn up plans to develop the
site.
carry out a plan (= do what has been planned ) The bombers were arrested by the security forces before they
could carry out their plans.
keep to/stick to a plan We’re sticking to our original plan.
abandon/scrap a plan (= decide not to continue with it ) The plan was scrapped because it was too expensive.
announce/unveil a plan (= officially tell people about it ) The government unveiled its plans for a shake-up of
the health system.
approve a plan The plan was approved at a board meeting on 24 December.
reject a plan The plan was rejected on the grounds that it would cost too much money.
outline a plan (= describe it in a general way ) They listened as he outlined his plan.
Vocabulary
Collocations with Plan
Pharsal Verbs In Context
Last year, Jack Peterson found out that he had come into a
small fortune after his uncle Fester had passed on. His uncle
had been a heavy smoker for many years and hadn’t been
able to cut down on his smoking. Jack got on well with him,
and often dropped in on him to see what he was up to. He
had often told Uncle Fester off in vain. Then, he came up
with a brilliant idea to make him give up this nasty habit. He
had the local Cancer Society telephone Uncle Fester. When
they called, he told them to hold on and then put his uncle
through. They proceeded to make out that they were look-
ing for a volunteer to take on to help look after the patients.
Well, that frightened Uncle Fester, and he immediately
swore to give up smoking. In fact, he took up jogging in or-
der to help him feel better and he began to look down on
other smokers. He also went for a cute Dalmatian, and ended
up taking on this new responsibility. Now, three years later,
Jack had come into the “small fortune” which reminded him
every day of his wonderful, if not wise, Uncle Fester.
find out: to get information
come into: to inherit property
pass on: to die
cut down on: to reduce
get on well with: to have a friendly relationship
drop in on: to visit sb
tell off: to speak to sb angrily
come up with: to think of an idea
give up: to stop doing sth
hold on: to wait
put through: to connect sb to sb else on the telephone
make out: to pretend
look for: to try to find sth
take on: to agree to do sth
look after: to take care of sth
look down on: to think that you are better than sb else
go for: to try to get sth
end up: to be in a particular situation after a series of
events
come into: to move towards you
TheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness.
He said,” Are you afraid ?”
She started to laugh and said,” Why should I be afraid ?,If the sword is in your hands, why I should be
afraid? I know you love me.
”He put the sword back and said, This is my answer”. I know God Loves me, and the storm is in His hands
SO WHATSOEVER IS GOING TO HAPPEN IS GOING TO BE GOOD. If we survive, good; if we don’t survive,
good ,because everything is in His hands and He cannot do anything wrong.
Moral: Develop Trust. This is the trust which one needs to imbibe. and which is capable of transforming your
whole life. Any less won’t do!
												
		 										 The End
15
general practitioner: doctor
trained in general medicine
accomplish: to succeed in
doing sth
patent: toobtain an official
right for an invention
outstanding: excellent
innovation: new idea or
method
cooperation: working
together with a common
purpose
cure: to heal
assuage: to relieve
Interview with Iranian ophthalmologist and inventor of LASIK
Born in Shiraz, Iran, Peyman left the country for Germany
to study medicine at the age of 19. He received his MD as
general practitioner from the University of Duisburg-Essen
in 1962. In 1969 he accomplished his Specialist Doctorate
course in ophthalmology at Essen. Then he moved to the
US for a postdoctoral fellowship and was made Assistant
Professor of ophthalmology at UCLA.
He is currently Professor of Basic Medical Sciences at the
University of Arizona. In December 2012 he was nominated
for receiving the National Medal of Technology and Innova-
tion for his innovation, LASIK. He will receive the medal
officially from the President of the United States next month.
Peyman revolutionized ophthalmological surgery when he
patented his innovation LASIK in 1989. In 2005, he was recognized by over 30,000 world
ophthalmologists as a member of the Ophthalmology House of Fame.
He holds patent for more than 135 innovations.
Following Peyman's globally outstanding achievements, Mehr News Agency's Modern Tech-
nologies group conducted an interview with him.
MNA: Is your innovation LASIK likely to bring back sight to the non-congenitally blind?
Peyman: This technology can correct the eyesight of the myopic, long-sighted, and the as-
tigmatic. This is to say that LASIK can correct the visual abnormalities of the eye, whereas
blindness relates to the function of the retina.
MNA: Have you recently registered an innovation or are you doing some new research? If yes, explain a bit, please.
Peyman: As a general question, the answer is yes. The innovations make a long list and do not relate to LASIK.
MNA: Are you willing to cooperate with Iranian universities and researchers?
Peyman: Sure enough I like working with Iranian researchers and institutions. I've had long cooperations with physicians
at LabbafiNejad Hospital in Tehran and my colleagues at Farabi Hospital.
MNA: Can we expect a day when there is no blind?
Peyman: I have no doubt that we will see the day, when we prevent or treat major diseases that affect the eyesight and
lead to blindness.
MNA: What do you think of the role of stem cells in eye diseases? Have you conducted any studies in this regard?
Peyman: Since the New Orleans' Hurricane Katrina, I lost my laboratory and I have not been able to follow my interests in
this field. But I know this field is very promising. Currently, the role of stem cells in curing retina diseases and astigmatism
is under study. Some promising results are also reached at for patients with systemic Lymphoma.
MNA: What is your ultimate goal in medical research?
Peyman: My goal, like any other ophthalmologists', is to prevent or cure disease which leads to blindness, so we may as-
suage some of our patients' suffering.
TheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness.
sprawl: to spread over a
large area
monument: a large
structure that is built in
memory of sb or sth
mighty: powerful.
conquer: to take control
of a country or city and
its people by force.
spread: to exist across a
large area
awesome: extremely
impressive
landmarks: very large
building.
dedicate: to give a build-
ing sb’s name in order to
show respect
stare: to look at sb or sth
for long time.
worldwide: every where
in world
independent: not owned
or controlled by sb
legend: an ancient story
raise: to help childern
gow up. sys: bring up
overthrow: to remove a
leader or a government
from a position of power
by force
Around the World
16
Rome is the capital of Italy. This sprawling modern city has many an-
cient monuments. Rome’s history goes back more than 2,500 years. Be-
cause of its age, Rome is often called the Eternal City. Rome’s many art
treasures and historic buildings make the city an important center of
European culture.
ALL ROADS LEAD TO ROME
In ancient times, Rome was the center of a mighty Roman empire. The
empire lasted nearly 500 years, into the ad 400s. Roman armies con-
quered the lands that are now Italy, Greece, Great Britain, France, and
Egypt. The Romans built many roads from Rome to distant parts of
their empire. This network of roads led to a saying that “All roads lead
to Rome.”
Rome is one of the world’s most majestic and historic cities. As
the capital city of Italy, it is home to about 2.7 million people.
The Colosseum is one of Rome’s landmarks. Parts of
this ancient stadium, built almost 2,000 years ago, still
stand today. During the Roman Empire it was used for
festivals and sporting contests, including battles to the
death between Roman gladiators.
The Roman Empire’s influence is still present. The Romans spread their language, Latin, through-
out Europe. Latin is the basis for Italian, French, Spanish, and other European languages.
AWESOME ARCHITECTURE
The ancient Romans were great builders. Several of their buildings still stand today. They are
among Rome’s famous landmarks.
The Pantheon is a temple dedicated to the many Roman gods of mythology. The Roman Colos-
seum is a four-story amphitheater. An amphitheater is like a football stadium. The Colosseum
is where Roman citizens once watched gladiators fight to the death. The Roman Forum was the
political center of ancient Rome. The senate building and law courts were there, along with shops
and religious buildings.
GREAT ART
Many artists painted in Rome. The most famous
of them is Michelangelo. He lived 500 years ago.
Thousands of people visit Rome each year to see
his art.
Visitors to the Vatican stare in wonder at the beau-
tiful murals that Michelangelo painted on the ceil-
ing of the Sistine Chapel. The murals show scenes
from the first book of the Bible, the Book of Gen-
esis.
VATICAN CITY
Vatican City is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church. The pope lives at the Vatican. He
is the head of the Catholic Church. There are more than a billion Catholics worldwide, making
Roman Catholicism the largest Christian religion.
Vatican City is an independent country within Rome. It is the smallest country in the world.
LEGENDARY BEGINNING
Did you know that a wolf is the official symbol for the city of Rome?
Legend says that an evil king tried to kill twin baby boys called Romulus and Remus by throw-
ing them into the Tiber River. A female wolf found the boys washed ashore. She raised the twins.
When the boys grew to be young men, they overthrew the evil king.
Romulus then founded the city of Rome on the banks of the Tiber. That was over 2,500 years ago.
RomeTheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness.
Conversation Time
A: All right, people. We’re holding this meeting today because we’ve got to
do something about our sales, and we need to do it NOW! I want concrete
solutions. How do you intend to drive sales...Roger?
B: Well, in fact, we’re the most expensive in the market, so maybe we
need to lower our prices to match the competitors?
A: Lower our prices? Not very creative. It’ll never fly with Swan. What
kind of thinking is that? Geez. Anybody else have a better plan? Natalie?
C: Um, perhaps, um, a sales promotion. Maybe a two-for-one offer, or
something like that!
A: What? That’s the same thing. Bad idea. Really bad idea. Dammit people
come on! Think! The CEO will be here any minute.
D: Do we have any ideas yet?
C: Yes Mr. Swan, we were kind of considering a two-for-one offer to get
more competitive.
D: A two-for-one promotion? Hmm. I kind of like the sound of that. It
sounds like something we should consider.
A: Yeah, exactly. Just what I was thinking! In fact, that’s a brilliant idea!
I’m glad we thought of that. Very creative.
Words
concrete solutions Phrase a
real or specific solution to
a problem
drive sales Preposition
increase sales
in the market Phrase in the
industry
to match the competitors
to be the as good as or bet-
ter than others companies
in the same industry
will never fly Phrase will
not work, will not be ap-
proved
promotion Phrase some-
thing done to make people
aware of a product
be here any minute Phrase
will arrive very soon
to consider verb to think
about
“Butterfliesinmystomach”:Tobenervous
Liamhadbutterfliesinhisstomachbeforehewentonstagetoplaytheviolin.
“Twowrongsdon’tmakearight.”
Whensomeonehasdonesomethingbadtoyou,tryingtogetrevengewillonlymakethingsworse.
English Idiom
English Slang
English Phrasal Verb
English Proverb
Find Your Tongue...
Guts:Courage
Jimhadrealgutstofightamantwiceasbigashimself.
Callsomethingoff:Tocancel
Thebosscalledthemettingoff.
TheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness.
17
WRITINGBUSINESSLETTERS
TakeYourPens...
	 Salutation
	 Dear Mr Brown
	 Dear MsWhite
	 Dear Sir
	 Dear Sirs
	 Dear Madam
	 Dear Sir or Madam
	 Gentlemen
	 Starting
	 We are writing to inform you that … to confirm …
	 to request …
	 to enquire about …
	 I am contacting you for the following reason.
	 I recently read/heard about . . . and would like to know . . .
	 Having seen your advertisement in … , I would like to …
	 I would be interested in (obtaining/receiving) …
	 I received your address from … and would like to …
	 I am writing to tell you about …
	
	 Referring to previous contact
	 Thank you for your letter of March 15 …
	 Thank you for contacting us.
	 In reply to your request …
	 Thank you for your letter regarding …
	 With reference to our telephone conversation yesterday …
	 Further to our meeting last week …
	 It was a pleasure meeting you in London last month.
	 I enjoyed having lunch with you last week inTokyo.
	 I would just like to confirm the main points we discussed onTuesday . . .
	 Making Request
	 We would appreciate it if you would …
	 I would be grateful if you could…
	 Could you please send me . . .
	 Could you possibly tell us/let us have…
	 In addition, I would like to receive …
	 It would be helpful if you could send us …
	 I am interested in (obtaining/receiving…)
	 I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter.
	 Please let me know what action you propose to take.
SuccessisavehiclewhichmovesonawheelcalledHARDWORK.ButthejourneyisimpossiblewithoutfuelcalledSELFCONFIDENCE.
18
‫وند‬ ‫چند‬ ‫یا‬ ‫یک‬ ‫همراه‬ ‫به‬ ‫اصلی‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫یک‬ ‫شامل‬ ‫که‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫اشاره‬ ‫‌ای‬‫ه‬‫‌واژ‬‫ه‬‫گرو‬ ‫یا‬ ‫عبارت‬ ‫به‬ ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫انگلیسی‬ ‫زبان‬ ‫در‬
‫معنای‬ ‫با‬ ‫است‬ ‫ممکن‬ ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫‌های‬‫ل‬‫فع‬ ‫معنای‬ .‫هستند‬ ‫قیدها‬ ‫یا‬ ‫اضافه‬ ‫‌های‬‫ف‬‫حر‬ ، ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫‌های‬‫ل‬‫فع‬ ‫در‬ ‫وندها‬ .‫است‬
‫سه‬ ‫به‬ ‫ای‬ ‫واژه‬ ‫چند‬ ‫هستند.افعال‬ ‫ای‬ ‫واژه‬ ‫چند‬ ‫افعال‬ ‫از‬ ‫بزرگی‬ ‫جز‬ ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫باشد.افعال‬ ‫متفاوت‬ ‫‌شان‬‫ی‬‫اصل‬ ‫فعل‬
:‫شوند‬ ‫می‬ ‫تقسیم‬ ‫دسته‬
Phrasal Verbs
Prepositional Verbs
Phrasal-prepositional Verbs
Who is looking after the baby?‫بودن‬ ‫مراقب‬
‫بودن‬ ‫مواظب‬
‫به‬ ‫داشتن‬ ‫توجه‬
look afterPrepositional Verb
You can look up my number in the
telephone directory.
‫کردن‬ ‫جستجو‬look upPhrasal Verb
I look forward to meeting you.‫بودن‬ ‫مشتاق‬look forward toPhrasal-PrepositionalVerb
‫های‬ ‫شماره‬ ‫در‬ ‫دیگر‬ ‫ی‬ ‫دسته‬ ‫دو‬ ‫به‬ ‫و‬ ‫پردازیم‬ ‫می‬ ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫افعال‬ ‫یا‬ phrasal verbs ‫یعنی‬ ‫اول‬ ‫دسته‬ ‫به‬ ‫شماره‬ ‫این‬ ‫در‬
.‫پرداخت‬ ‫خواهیم‬ ‫مجله‬ ‫این‬ ‫بعدی‬
:‫شوند‬ ‫تقسم‬ ‫زیر‬ ‫ی‬ ‫دسته‬ ‫دو‬ ‫به‬ ‫توانند‬ ‫می‬ ‫که‬ ‫اند‬ ‫شده‬ ‫تشکیل‬ ‫قید‬ + ‫فعل‬ ‫از‬ Phrasal Verbs
Intransitive: No Direct Object 	•
Transitive: Direct Object 	•
:‫کنید‬ ‫توجه‬ ‫زیر‬ ‫های‬ ‫مثال‬ ‫به‬
ExampleMeaningPhrasal Verb
I don’t like to get up.‫شدن‬ ‫بیدار‬get upIntransitive
He was late because his car broke
down.
‫،درهم‬ ‫،فروريختن‬ ‫شکننده‬
‫انداختن‬ ‫اثر‬ ‫،از‬ ‫شکستن‬
break down
We will have to put off the meeting.‫ازسرباز‬ ،‌‫ن‬‫رفت‬ ‌‫ه‬‫‌فر‬‫ط‬ ،‌‫ن‬‫كرد‬ ‫تاخير‬
‫كردن‬ ‌‫ل‬‫موكو‬ ‫ببعد‬ ،‌‫ن‬‫كرد‬
put offTransitive
They turned down my offer.‫کردن‬ ‫رد‬turn down
:‫تفکیک‬ ‫قابل‬ ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫افعال‬
‫ها‬ ‫آن‬ ‫بین‬ ‫در‬ ‫را‬ ‫مفعول‬ ‫و‬ ‫کرده‬ ‫جدا‬ ‫هم‬ ‫از‬ ‫ها‬ ‫آن‬ ‫توانیم‬ ‫می‬ ‫معموال‬ ‫هستند‬ ‫متعدی‬ ‫نوع‬ ‫از‬ ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫افعال‬ ‫که‬ ‫زمانی‬
:‫مانند‬ .‫بیاوریم‬
They turned down my offer.
They turned my offer down.
Bestlessonoflifeislistentoeveryoneandlearnfromeveryone,becausenobodyknowseverythingandeveryoneknowssomething.
19
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Kad English Magazine Issue1

  • 2. ‫خدا‬ ‫نام‬ ‫به‬ :‫گفتار‬ ‫پیش‬ ‫امید‬ ‫و‬ ‫است‬ ‫گردیده‬ ‫تهیه‬ ‫کاردوآنالین‬ ‫آموزشی‬ ‫گروه‬ ‫توسط‬ ‫سطوح‬ ‫تمامی‬ ‫در‬ ‫عزیزان‬ ‫شما‬ ‫زبان‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫ارتقا‬ ‫هدف‬ ‫با‬ ‫ماهنامه‬ ‫این‬ .‫گیرد‬ ‫قرار‬ ‫گرامی‬ ‫دوستان‬ ‫شما‬ ‫توجه‬ ‫مورد‬ ‫است‬ ‫آدرس‬ ‫به‬ ‫ایمیل‬ ‫ارسال‬ ‫با‬ ‫توانید‬ ‫می‬ ‫شما‬ ‫نام‬ ‫با‬ ‫خود‬ ‫های‬ ‫موضوع‬ ‫انتشار‬ ‫به‬ ‫تمایل‬ ‫صورت‬ ‫در‬ .‫کنید‬ ‫منتشر‬ ‫ماهنامه‬ ‫در‬ ،‫مطلب‬ ‫هر‬ ‫کلیدی‬ ‫لغات‬ ‫معنی‬ ‫و‬ ‫عکس‬ ‫با‬ ‫همراه‬ ‫را‬ ‫خود‬ ‫مطالب‬ .‫باشید‬ ‫ارتباط‬ ‫در‬ ‫ما‬ ‫با‬ ‫ایمیل‬ ‫طریق‬ ‫از‬ ‫توانید‬ ‫می‬ ‫ماهنامه‬ ‫این‬ ‫کیفی‬ ‫سطح‬ ‫ارتقا‬ ‫برای‬ ‫پیشنهاد‬ ‫یا‬ ‫انتقاد‬ ‫هرگونه‬ ‫درصورت‬ .‫آرزومندست‬ ‫مهربان‬ ‫خداوند‬ ‫از‬ ‫را‬ ‫شما‬ ‫افزون‬ ‫روز‬ ‫موفقیت‬ ‫کاردوآنالین‬ ‫آموزشی‬ ‫گروه‬ mg.kardo.online@gmail.com Special thanks to the followings: Morteza Giti (Editor and Writer) Haniye Noroozi (Writer) Zahra Eslamian (Writer) 2
  • 3. Contents Interview With God Page 3 Music -Violin Page 4 Technology - Mercedes Corporation Page 6 Movies - Friends Series Page 5 10 Idioms About Home Page 7 Animals - Bears Page 8 20 Tips for Listening Section of IELTS Page 9 Customs of Iran - Part One: Marriage and Family Page 11 Famous Figures - Leonardo da Vinci Page 10 Sport - Ali Karimi Page 12 Vocabulary - Collocations with “Plan” Science - Interview with Iranian ophthalmologist and inventor of LASIK Vocabulary - Phrasal Verbs in Context Around the World - Rome Speaking - Find Your Tongue Writing - Writing Business Letters Grammar - Phrasal Verbs 1 Advertisements Page 13 Page 14 Page 13 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 3
  • 4. I dreamed I had an Interview with god So you would like to Interview me? “God asked” If you have the time “I said” God smiled My time is eternity What questions do you have in mind for me? What surprises you most about humankind? God answered … That they get bored with child- hood They rush to grow up and then long to be children again That they lose their health to make money And then lose their money to re- store their health By thinking anxiously about the future that They forget the present Such that they live in neither the present nor the future That they live as if they will nev- er die And die as if they had never lived God’s hand took mine and we were silent for a while And then I asked … As the creator of people what are some of life’s lessons you want them to learn? God replied with a smile To learn they cannot make anyone love them What they can do is let them- selves be loved Learn that it is not good to com- pare themselves to others To learn that a rich person is not one who has the most But is one who needs the least To learn that it takes only a few seconds to open profound wounds in persons we love And it takes many years to heal them To learn to forgive by practicing forgiveness To learn that there are persons who love them dearly But simply do not know how to ex- press or show their feelings To learn that two people can look at the same thing and see it dif- ferently To learn that it is not always enough that they are forgiven by others They must forgive themselves And to learn that I am here Always. Mini Health Tips Stretch: Quick stretches no matter where you or what you are doing is relieving tension. Drink Water: Instead of soda, coffee or juice sips water. A hydrated body is a happy body! Pack a Healthy Lunch: Rather than buying an overly salted or sugary lunch, pack your own. Plus you will most likely save money too! God didn’t promise days without pain... Laughter, without sorrow, sun without rain... But He did promise strength for the day, comfort for the tears... The best cosmetic for lips is truth, for voice is prayer, for eyes is pity, for hands is charity, for heart is love, and for life is friendship... 4 Interview with God
  • 5. Therearetwothingstoaimatinlife;firsttogetwhatyouwant,andafterthattoenjoyit.Onlythewisestofmankindhasachievedthesecond. History The modern violin developed from the rebec, a three-string bowed instrument descended from the rebab, a Middle Eastern single-string instrument. The violin developed to assume its present form in Italy starting in the mid 1500s. It was at this time that luthier Andrea Amati of Cremona, started to create what are generally considered to be the first modern violins. Growing Importance Originally considered an instrument of low social standing, the violin was not a concert instrument initially. It was often used to create a double voice part while accompanying a singer or provided instrumental accompaniment for dancing. With its use in Orfeo, an opera by Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi, and a 24 violin musical ensemble for King Louis XIII of France, the violin started to gain prestige. The Instrument The main strings on a violin are GDA and E, in order of lowest to highest pitch. A violin is often fitted with strings made of synthetic materials like nylon and steel. Famous Violin Makers Italian luthier Antonio Stradivarius created what are arguably considered the best violins in the world. Stradivarius violins or strads, as these instruments are often called, have sold for millions of dollars and are played by professionals. They also attract violin collectors. Andrea Amati and Guiseppe Guarneri are the two other master violin makers who created instruments considered to be equal or nearly equal to Stradivarius. Electric Violins Electric violins are manufactured by makers such as MSI, Zeta and John Jordan. Prices may start as low as about $150 and can be as high as $3,000 or more. Many professional violinists choose to play the Stradivarius. Stradivarius violins can go for millions of dollars. The modern violin has been around for roughly 500 years. It was designed in the 1500s. The violin used to be known as the "kit" in Italy. The violin is part of the violin family which also includes the cello, the bass viol and the viola. The violin is the smallest member of the violin family. The violin is the most popular instrument among children. Playing the violin burns 170 calories an hour. Violins can be electric or non-electric. Violins are generally either maple or spruce. Violins these days are constructed from over 70 pieces of wood. Violins range in size. The smallest being just 37 millimeters. Violin strings are generally tuned to G, D, A, and E. Violinists are able to use both sides of the brain better than most non-violinists. Though the violin used to be an instrument for the lower class, today it is highly regarded and respected as a difficult instrument to learn. Some Facts About Violins Violin descend: to have devel- oped from sth else initially: at the begin- ning accompaniment: back- ground music equal: the same in value, size, number, etc. manufacture: to produce 5
  • 6. Don’tjudgeeachdaybytheharvestyoureap,butbytheseedsyouplant. interwoven: closely related tribulation: great trouble or suffer- ing come up with sth: think of sth such as a plan, etc. undergo: to experience sarcastic: saying things that are the opposite of what you mean aspiring: hoping to be successful in a particular job idiosyncrasy: an unusual habit compulsion: the act of forcing or sb to do sth they don’t want lampoon: to criticize sb or sth in a humorous way that makes them seem stupid. quirks: a strange habit or feature of sb’s character 6 No one-not even its creators-thought that the world would care about the interwoven lives, loves and tribulations of a close- knit group of impossibly attractive and witty twenty something New Yorkers. But there’s no doubt ‹Friends› has become more than just a successful situation comedy-it has established itself as arguably one of the last great television phenomenon›s of the last century. Along the way, it has made its half-dozen lead actors household names; sparked trends in clothing and fashion; helped Chronicling the strong, near self contained friendship between a disparate group of three men and three women who frequently gather at each other›s apartments and at Greenwich Village›s Central Perk coffee-house, Friends (originally to be called «Friends Like Us»; then «Six Of One», «Across The Hall» or «Insomnia Cafe») was created by television producers David Crane and Marta Kauffman (who came up with the surrealistic sitcom ‹Dream On› for Home Box Office). In 1993, the pair met producer Kevin S. Bright; the three became partners and got a deal to produce a new comedy for Warner Brothers. What they came up with was based on Crane and Kauffman›s after college years, where pals hung out at the local coffee house and in- volved themselves into every aspect of their lives. Debuting in 1994, the long-running, Emmy-winning sitcom FRIENDS centers on six Manhattan-dwelling friends as they undergo their twenties and become thirty some- thing. The sextet consists of neat-freak chef Monica (Courteney Cox), her thrice-di- vorced brother Ross (David Schwimmer), sarcastic quipster Chandler (Matthew Perry), batty singer/massage therapist Phoebe (Lisa Kudrow), aspiring actor Joey (Matt LeB- lanc), and former suburban princess Rachel (Jennifer Aniston). Storylines range from standard sitcom fare (hilarious misunderstandings, dating nightmares, etc.) to weight- ier plots involving lesbian ex-wives, friend hook-ups, unexpected pregnancies, and more. As the series progressed, episodes became more dramatic and less situational, wisely capitalizing on viewers› decade-long relationship with the characters. Is it any good? While the characters take on careers and a bit more responsibility over the course of the series, in most ways the friends remain slaves to their idiosyncrasies and compulsions rather than display more maturity.Too many jokes that lampoon personality traits such as Joey›s libido or Chandler›s wispiness (he›s sometimes made fun of for seeming gay) are one of the series› weaknesses. Many of the juicier plot developments were obvious- ly thrown in to boost ratings and sometimes seem borrowed from soap operas.Still, the writing is often intelligent, and the acting is skillful. Long-time fans are often rewarded with jokes that reference past episodes and personality quirks; familiarity makes this show all the funnier. There are trade-offs for families to consider.The comedy may be inappropriate for kids, and yet the storytelling can be more original and thought-provoking than in sitcoms geared specifically to younger viewers. Characters› contradictions and mistakes make them questionable role models but also account for why so many viewers relate to them.The friends frequently talk through their problems openly and honestly with one another, which could be viewed as a model for communication within families. F.R.I.E.N.D.S A group of friends share life in the Manhattan area of New York
  • 7. Noonecanclimbtheladderofsuccess,withbothhandsinthepocket! unveil: to show or tell people about a new product. urban: relating to cities consumption: the amount of energy, oil, etc. that is used confirm: to show that sth is definitely true release: to make news public propulsion: the force that drives a vehicle forward announce: to officially tell people about sth Every second that you live you are never going to get back….. You are never going to get to change what you said, didn’t say, did, or didn’t do. Live how you want to live. Act how you want to be remembered, because you never know how long or short you are going to be here…… 7 Technology TheGerman automaker BMW in 2013 will launch a new elec- tric model i3, which are within its sub-brand new BMW i, the company unveiled the new concepts of models i3 (electric) and i8 (plug-in hybrid) . “We are conducting another milestone in the history of the BMW Group. As the leading premium manufacturer in the world, our goal is to also offer electric vehicles to custom- ers,” added company President Germanic, Norbert Re- ithofer. The concept car BMW i3 has a range of 150 miles without recharging the batteries and is designed for use in urban en- vironments. This vehicle has a 167 hp engine and has four seats and a payload of 200 kilograms. For his part, the BMW plug-in hybrid electric drive riding a i8 that develops a maximum power of 348 horses, which allows the car accelerates from zero to sixty miles per hour in under five seconds and has a fuel consumption of less than three liters per hundred kilometers. This vehicle, which was launched in 2014, is capable of traveling up to 35 miles in electric and gasoline engine three cylinders, in combination with mechanical power, allows the car to a top speed of 250 kilometers per hour. The 2013 Kia Soul hasn›t really registered with those of us concerned about fuel economy and emissions. That’s despite the Soul Eco achieving a respectable 36 mpg highway and 32 combined in EPA testing. However, the Soul could get a lot greener in 2014, as Kia has apparently confirmed an electric version will make production in a few years. According to Autocar, the electric model will be based on the all-new Soul set to be launched next Spring at either theChicago or NewYork auto shows.Very few details have been released at this stage, but given the currentSoul›s chunky, youthful styling, an electric version could end up being one of the more distinctive EVs on the roads--and increase the cars› appeal with younger buyers .Kia is no stranger to electric propulsion. It previewed the fantastic electric Pop concept at the 2010 Paris Auto Show, while last year it announced the Kia Ray, a home-market minicar, would be its first production EV. Currently, Kia›s most efficient model is the $25,700 KiaOptima Hybrid.The 2.4-liter hybrid sedan manages 40 mpg on the highway, and 37 combined.
  • 8. 10 idioms about home 1.) Go home to get beauty sleep Here’s an example. Jamie needs to get up early. We’d better let her go home to get her beauty sleep. 2.) Run home to mama When someone runs home to mama, it means they are giving up something important like marriage to return to a comfortable place. Here’s an example. Whenever Paul gets hurt, he runs home to mama. 3.) Close to home When something is uncomfortably near or real, it’s close to home. Here’s an example. John’s remarks about distracted drivers hit Mary close to home because her mother died in a car accident. 4.) Coming home to roost Mistakes from the past often come back to haunt people. Here’s an example. Jerry tore his pants climbing over a fence. He knew the chickens would come home to roost when his mom noticed the tear. 5.) Until the cows come home A herd of cows does what it wants on its own schedule.There’s no predicting their actions. They will return from the pas- ture in an indefinite period of time. Here’s an example. Mark told Miranda he would love her until the cows came home. 6.)The lights are on, but nobody’s home This humorous idiom does not mean that a family has gone out and left the lights blazing. It traditionally means someone is attractive but not very smart. Here’s an example. The male model was handsome but stupid. His lights are on, but nobody’s home. 7.) Eaten out of house and home This idiom is frequently applied to guests or children who are prone to raiding refrigerators and pantries. Here’s an ex- ample. When Irene visits her grandparents, she always eats them out of house and home. 8.) A home away from home Some people have vacation homes, and other people have stomping grounds that they know intimately. Here’s an ex- ample. Mike goes to Baltimore every weekend. It’s his home away from home. 9.) It’s nothing to write home about If something is particularly boring or mundane, it is nothing to write home about. Here’s an example. The meal was okay, but it was nothing to write home about. 10.) Home is where the heart is In some cases, a home is an intangible location based on emotions.This idiom signifies individuals who follow their hearts, or it can describe individuals who wish to return to their beloved home. Here’s an example. Josephine decided to travel to China with her boyfriend. After all, home is where the heart is. Sunriseseverywherebutcropgrowsonlywherethefarmerhasworkedhard.SimilarlyGODiseverywherebuthisgraceisfortheonewhoworkshard… A man just got married and was returning home with his wife. They were crossing a lake in a boat, when suddenly a great storm arose. The man was a warrior, but the woman became very much afraid because it seemed almost hopeless. Continue Reading on Page 11 8
  • 9. Imagine sticking your nose in the air and sniffing the smell of a hamburger cooking a mile away. Some bears can do just that. Bears have a keen sense of smell. They use this sense to help them find food. Bears are meat eaters, or carnivores. But most bears also eat fruits, nuts, and other foods. Bears live in North America, South Amer- ica, Europe, and Asia. They do not live in Africa, Australia, or Antarctica. WHAT MAKES A BEAR A BEAR? Bears are powerful animals with lots of thick fur and a short, stumpy tail. They have big heads with a long snout (nose and mouth) and small ears and eyes.They have four short legs that end in paws, each with five sharp claws. They use their claws to climb trees, dig up roots, or catch prey. Male bears are much bigger than female bears. BEARS ARE LONERS Bears usually live alone unless they are mothers with cubs. Each bear claims an area, or territory, as its own. It chases other bears away. A bear stands up on its hind legs to look frightening. It uses its claws to slash at enemies. Bears roam over large areas looking for food.They need to eat a lot of food for energy. Most bears can climb trees to find honey in a bee’s nest or other food. Polar bears and brown bears are too heavy to climb trees.These bears are the biggest of all the bears. They can weigh up to 1,760 pounds (800 kilograms). WINTER SLEEP Bears that live in cold places go into dens and sleep through most of the winter.They make their dens in caves, trees trunks, and other hollow places. They eat plenty of food during the summer to store up body fat. Their body fat gives them energy to sleep through the cold winter. BEAR CUBS Bears mate in the spring after they wake up from winter sleep. The cubs are born the next winter in the mother’s den. Females usually have between one and three cubs at a time.The newborn cubs are tiny, blind, and helpless.They have no teeth or hair. But they are warm and safe in the mother bear’s den. They feed on their mother’s milk. The milk is rich and helps the baby bears grow quickly. When they are three months old, the cubs are ready to go outside the den and look for food.The cubs stay close by their mother, however. Cubs live with their mother until they are two or three years old. During this time, they learn what to eat and where to find food.Then they go off and find their own territory. When females are between four and seven years old, they are ready to have cubs of their own. Bears in the wild may live to be from 25 to 40 years old, but scientists do not know for sure. Bears Animals MindsarelikeParachutes;theyonlyfunctionwhentheyareopen. Vocabulary 9 sniff: to breathe air into your nose noisily keen: sharp fur: the soft thick mass of hair that grows on the body of some ani- mals tail: the part that sticks out and can be moved at the back of the body of a bird, an animal, or a fish claw: one of the sharp, curved nails on the end of an animal’s or a bird’s foot. cub: a young animal, such as a young bear, lion , fox , etc. territory: the area that an animal, bird etc regards as its own and will defend against other animals slash: to cut or try to cut some- thing violently roam: to walk or travel around an area without any definite aim or direction. den: the home of some animals like lions, foxes, etc. go off: to leave a place
  • 10. 20TipsforListeningSectionofIELTS 1. In Listening, use the example at the beginning of the first section to familiarize yourself with the sound, the situation, and the speakers. 2. Keep listening until the recording stops, looking only at the questions that relate to the part being played. 3. There are often pauses in the recording between different sections. Use these to prepare for the next set of questions. 4. Answer listening questions in the order they appear on the Question Paper. Re- member that they normally follow the order of the information in the recording. 5. At the end of the recording you have some time to transfer your answers to the Answer Sheet. Check your grammar and spelling as you do so. 6. In Academic Reading, begin by going quickly through each passage to identify features such as the topic, the style, the likely source, the writer’s purpose and the intended reader. 7. As you read, don’t try to understand the precise meaning of every word or phrase. You don’t have time, and those parts of the text might not be tested anyway. 8. Reading tasks sometimes have an example answer. If this is the case, study it and decide why it is correct. 9. Some tasks require you to use words from the text in the answer; in others you should use your own words. Check the instructions carefully. 10. The instructions may also include a word limit, e.g. Use no more than three words. Keep to this by avoiding unnecessary words in your answer. 11. In Academic Writing, you must always keep to the topic set. Never try to pre- pare sections of text before the exam. 12. Keep to the suggested timing: there are more marks possible for Task 2 than Task 1. 13. Organize and link your ideas and sentences appropriately, using a wide range of language and showing your ability (in Task 2) to discuss ideas and express opinions. 14. If you write less than 150 words in Task 1 or less than 250 in Task 2 you will lose marks, but there is no maximum number of words for either. 15. When you plan your essay, allow plenty of time at the end to check your work. 16. In Speaking, don’t try to give a prepared speech, or talk about a different topic from the one you are asked to discuss. 17. Always speak directly to the Examiner, not to the recording equipment. 18. Whenever you reply ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ to the Examiner’s questions, add more details to. your answer. In each case, aim to explain at least one point. 19. Remember that you are not being tested on your general knowledge but on your ability to communicate effectively. 20. Organize and link your ideas and sentences appropriately, talking clearly at nor- mal speed and using a wide range of structures and vocabulary. Thebestcosmeticforlipsistruth,forvoiceisprayer,foreyesispity,forhandsischarity,forheartislove,andforlifeisfriendship. to familiarize: to learn about sth to prepare: make sth, sb ready to transfer: to move from one place to an- other to identify: recognize sb or sth purpose: the aim of sth intended: the particular reason precise: clear and ac- curate to require: to need sth to avoid: to prevent sth bad from happening appropriately: in a suit- able way equipment: the things that are needed for an activity aim: to try to achieve sth communicate: to ex- change information 10
  • 11. 11 Leonardo da Vinci excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, engi- neer, and scientist. He had endless curiosity. Leonardo wanted to understand how things worked. He wanted to put down on paper what he saw. He left thousands of pages of drawings and notes that recorded his thoughts. GOOD AT EVERYTHING Leonardo was born in 1452 in the small town of Vinci, near Flor- ence, Italy. He had little schooling and was largely self-taught.TheMonaLisawaspaintedbyItalianartistLeon- ardodaVinci.Thewoman’smysterioussmilehas madethepaintingoneofthemostfamouspieces ofartintheworld. Leonardo da Vinci’s mural The Last Supper shows Jesus telling his disciples that one of them will betray him. This mural appears on the wall of a church in Milan, Italy.Leonardo seemed to be good at everything he tried. He was hand- some, a good speaker, and a fine musician. He trained as a painter with Andrea del Verrocchio, a leading artist in Florence. Leonardo later worked for dukes and kings. HIS MOST FAMOUS PAINTINGS Leonardo produced a relatively small number of paintings, and he left some of them unfinished. But he had original ideas that influenced Italian artists long after his death. Leonardo believed painting was a science. He ap- plied scientific thinking in his art so that his paintings looked more like the real world. One of his most important painting techniques was sfumato, a blending of one area of color into another so there are no sharp outlines. Leonardo used sfumato in one of his most famous paintings, the Mona Lisa. When you look at this portrait, notice how colors shade into each other on her face and hands. See how Leonardo has blurred the edges of her mouth to give her the hint of a smile. This mysterious smile has fascinated people for centuries. It looks as if Mona Lisa’s expression might change at any moment because of the way Leonardo has softened the edges of the mouth, eyes, and cheeks. She seems almost alive. Many people consider a mural by Leonardo known as The Last Supper to be his masterpiece. Christ, seated in the middle of The Last Supper, has just an- nounced that one of his 12 apostles will betray him. Leonardo places the figures in this paint- ing in a way that increases the drama of the announcement. Christ is the calm center. His body, which is set slightly apart from the oth- ers, forms a stable triangle. The apostles are arranged in four groups, some leaning toward Christ and some leaning away. Their gestures and the expressions on their faces reveal their reactions to Christ’s words. HIS DRAWINGS AND NOTEBOOKS Drawing was Leonardo’s favorite tool. He said that drawing was a better way of communicating ideas than words were. He drew catapults and war machines. He drew the muscles and skeletons of human beings and other animals. He drew clouds, swirling water, and storms. He designed churches that were never built. Leonardo’s drawings and theories are contained in numerous notebooks. His ideas were far in advance of what other people were thinking at the time. But the note- books were not published during his lifetime. Had his notebooks been published, they might have revolutionized scientific thinking in the 1500s. Leonardo’s deep love of research was the key to both his artistic and scientific endeavors. Leonardo died in 1519. Leonardo da Vinci TheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness. excel: to do sth very well. influence: to affect fascinate: to attract or interest extremely mural: a painting that is painted on a wall masterpiece: a work of art of very high quality leaning: to bend your body in a particular direc- tion reveal: to make known a secret communicate: to ex- change information using signs, words, etc edndeavour: an attempt to do sth new or difficult
  • 12. Thebestcosmeticforlipsistruth,forvoiceisprayer,foreyesispity,forhandsischarity,forheartislove,andforlifeisfriendship. The boat was small and the storm was really huge, and any moment they were going to be drowned. But the man sat silently, calm and quiet, as if nothing was happening. The woman was trembling and she said, “Are you not afraid ?”. This may be our last moment of life! It doesn’t seem that we will be able to reach the other shore. Continue Reading on Page 12 12 Marriage and Family Children usually live with their parents until they marry, regard- less of their age. Women marry between the ages of 16 and 25; men marry somewhat later be- cause of military service or be- cause they are not yet earning enough money to start a family. Most marriages are arranged by families. In the past, this meant that many young females mar- ried their cousins. More liberal attitudes have emerged in some areas regarding education, work, and freedom in selecting marriage Customs of Iran - Part One regardless of: paying no attention to sth or sb liberal: respecting other opinions regarding: about sb or sth conventional: ordinary oppose: to disagree strongly privilege: a special right or advantage consent: permission to do sth commitment: a prom- ise to support sb or sth blurred: not clear flourish: to develop quickly compromise: an agreement partners. Weddings are occasions for elaborate celebrations. It is legal for a man to have up to four wives if he can provide for each equally; most men, however, choose to have only one wife. Divorce is rare. In some cases, a couple may choose to have a temporary marriage (sigheh) that can last between a few days and 99 years. Couples might choose the sigheh as a trial marriage or because it is much less expensive than a conventional wedding. However, this type of marriage is not common, as many women oppose the practice. Under this arrangement, the woman and any children born to the marriage do not have the same rights and privi- leges as conventional wives and children, but the children are accepted as legitimate. Both a man and woman must consent to a sigheh, and a woman marrying for the first time must have the consent of her parents. The father is usually considered the head of the household. The elderly are respected and cared for by younger members of the extended family. Relatives remain very close to one another. Parents feel a lifelong commitment to children, often providing them with financial support well after marriage. Distinctions between upper and lower social classes were blurred during the costly war with Iraq in the 1980s, but recent economic changes have allowed a small business class to flourish. Before the rule of Reza Shah Pahlavi (1925–1941), people were identified by their given name and anoth- er name that was usually the name of their father or a description of their craft. The Shah required that people have both a given name and a family name. In the process of selecting these family names, some families chose the same surname. If the families could not compromise on which family should have the name, they could choose a second family name, which was usually a reference to their birthplace. For example, former president Rafsanjani’s name is Ali Akbar; his first family name is Hashemi; and his second family name is Rafsanjani because he was born near the town of Rafsanjān. People are referred to by the last part of the family name.
  • 13. Thebestcosmeticforlipsistruth,forvoiceisprayer,foreyesispity,forhandsischarity,forheartislove,andforlifeisfriendship. Only some miracle can save us; otherwise death is certain. The man laughed and took the sword out of its sheath. The woman was even more puzzled: What he was doing? Then he brought the naked sword close to the woman’s neck, so close that just a small gap was there, it was almost touching her neck. Continue Reading on Page 14 13 Ali Karimi to Pursue Children's Rights after Parting from Professional Soccer promote: to help sth to hap- pen or develop exclusive: to be used by or given to a particular person or group lament: to express great sad- ness about sb/sth chivalry: rules and customs of knights notion: opinion deceit: cheat glory: fame, praise or hon- our contender: person who tries to win sth "I like to continue my activities after soccer in other social fields like defending the children's basic rights and clean sports and I hope to be able to attain this goal," Karimi said in an exclu- sive interview with FNA in Tehran on Thursday. Asked about his general view of soccer and sports, he said, "Sports is an arena for health and healthiness and it should, thus, be at the service of public health." He stressed that borders, colors and races can- not set any limitation or restriction in sports and all people from healthy men and women to para- lytic can enter the field without any limitation. Karimi lamented that a number of athletes try forbidden means like doping materials to em- brace victory and attain their goals. "I have been active in this sport (football) for years and my mind has always been busy with issues related to it. We should move on the right path in our sport activities and I believe that sports is a scene for chivalry, fairness, truthfulness and closeness of hearts." "What is important is to always pursue honesty during our sports activities and avoid going after short-term results." "I believe the notion of peace and a world free from lies and deceits are vital and essential concepts which should always be in our mind, and we should avoid thinking about short-term subjects," the Iranian legend said. As regards his plans after retiring from the soccer world, Karimi said, "I am willing to focus my efforts on social issues such as children's basic rights and clean sports after my professional soccer life and I hope to reach my goal." Asked to comment about his nomination as one of the three finalists for the 2012 Asian player of the year title, he said, "I thank God for being in the list of the finalists and this nomination is really sweet to me because I know that my people, the people of my country are glad too. I hope to gladden people's hearts with better matches in future, and I hope that our country's football community will win another honor and glory in the final ceremony of the 2012 Asian player of the year." Ali Karimi of Iran has been nominated for the 2012 AFC Player of the Year award. Korea Republic and China have a player each in the list. Ali Karimi, 2004 AFC Player of the Year, returned to the list of contenders while Lee Keun-ho, who helped Korea Republic side Ulsan Hyundai win the AFC Champions League this year, and Evergrande's defender ZhengZhi have also found a place in the top three. Asian wizard Ali Karimi, who is one of the three nominees for the 2012 Asian player of the year af- ter winning the same title in 2004, said that he hopes to expand and boost his social activities to defend children’s rights and promote clean sports in Iran and the world after retiring from his professional soccer career. Asian wizard Ali Karimi, who is one of the three nominees for the 2012 Asian player of the year af- ter winning the same title in 2004, said that he hopes to expand and boost his social activities to defend children’s rights and promote clean sports in Iran and the world after retiring from his professional soccer career.
  • 14. 14 have plans I have no plans to retire yet. change your plans We had to change our plans at the last minute. abandon/give up your plans The city authorities have abandoned their plans to host the Super Bowl. cancel your plans The weather got worse, and we had to cancel our plans to have the party outdoors. shelve a plan (= cancel your plan, although you may do it later ) The plan had to be shelved because of lack of money. have a plan Don’t worry – I have a plan. make plans (= prepare for something ) Mary has been busy making plans for her wedding. come up with a plan (= think of a plan ) The chairman must come up with a plan to get the club back on its feet. devise/formulate/draw up a plan (= make a detailed plan, especially after considering something carefully ) He devised a daring plan to steal two million dollars. | The company has already drawn up plans to develop the site. carry out a plan (= do what has been planned ) The bombers were arrested by the security forces before they could carry out their plans. keep to/stick to a plan We’re sticking to our original plan. abandon/scrap a plan (= decide not to continue with it ) The plan was scrapped because it was too expensive. announce/unveil a plan (= officially tell people about it ) The government unveiled its plans for a shake-up of the health system. approve a plan The plan was approved at a board meeting on 24 December. reject a plan The plan was rejected on the grounds that it would cost too much money. outline a plan (= describe it in a general way ) They listened as he outlined his plan. Vocabulary Collocations with Plan Pharsal Verbs In Context Last year, Jack Peterson found out that he had come into a small fortune after his uncle Fester had passed on. His uncle had been a heavy smoker for many years and hadn’t been able to cut down on his smoking. Jack got on well with him, and often dropped in on him to see what he was up to. He had often told Uncle Fester off in vain. Then, he came up with a brilliant idea to make him give up this nasty habit. He had the local Cancer Society telephone Uncle Fester. When they called, he told them to hold on and then put his uncle through. They proceeded to make out that they were look- ing for a volunteer to take on to help look after the patients. Well, that frightened Uncle Fester, and he immediately swore to give up smoking. In fact, he took up jogging in or- der to help him feel better and he began to look down on other smokers. He also went for a cute Dalmatian, and ended up taking on this new responsibility. Now, three years later, Jack had come into the “small fortune” which reminded him every day of his wonderful, if not wise, Uncle Fester. find out: to get information come into: to inherit property pass on: to die cut down on: to reduce get on well with: to have a friendly relationship drop in on: to visit sb tell off: to speak to sb angrily come up with: to think of an idea give up: to stop doing sth hold on: to wait put through: to connect sb to sb else on the telephone make out: to pretend look for: to try to find sth take on: to agree to do sth look after: to take care of sth look down on: to think that you are better than sb else go for: to try to get sth end up: to be in a particular situation after a series of events come into: to move towards you TheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness.
  • 15. He said,” Are you afraid ?” She started to laugh and said,” Why should I be afraid ?,If the sword is in your hands, why I should be afraid? I know you love me. ”He put the sword back and said, This is my answer”. I know God Loves me, and the storm is in His hands SO WHATSOEVER IS GOING TO HAPPEN IS GOING TO BE GOOD. If we survive, good; if we don’t survive, good ,because everything is in His hands and He cannot do anything wrong. Moral: Develop Trust. This is the trust which one needs to imbibe. and which is capable of transforming your whole life. Any less won’t do! The End 15 general practitioner: doctor trained in general medicine accomplish: to succeed in doing sth patent: toobtain an official right for an invention outstanding: excellent innovation: new idea or method cooperation: working together with a common purpose cure: to heal assuage: to relieve Interview with Iranian ophthalmologist and inventor of LASIK Born in Shiraz, Iran, Peyman left the country for Germany to study medicine at the age of 19. He received his MD as general practitioner from the University of Duisburg-Essen in 1962. In 1969 he accomplished his Specialist Doctorate course in ophthalmology at Essen. Then he moved to the US for a postdoctoral fellowship and was made Assistant Professor of ophthalmology at UCLA. He is currently Professor of Basic Medical Sciences at the University of Arizona. In December 2012 he was nominated for receiving the National Medal of Technology and Innova- tion for his innovation, LASIK. He will receive the medal officially from the President of the United States next month. Peyman revolutionized ophthalmological surgery when he patented his innovation LASIK in 1989. In 2005, he was recognized by over 30,000 world ophthalmologists as a member of the Ophthalmology House of Fame. He holds patent for more than 135 innovations. Following Peyman's globally outstanding achievements, Mehr News Agency's Modern Tech- nologies group conducted an interview with him. MNA: Is your innovation LASIK likely to bring back sight to the non-congenitally blind? Peyman: This technology can correct the eyesight of the myopic, long-sighted, and the as- tigmatic. This is to say that LASIK can correct the visual abnormalities of the eye, whereas blindness relates to the function of the retina. MNA: Have you recently registered an innovation or are you doing some new research? If yes, explain a bit, please. Peyman: As a general question, the answer is yes. The innovations make a long list and do not relate to LASIK. MNA: Are you willing to cooperate with Iranian universities and researchers? Peyman: Sure enough I like working with Iranian researchers and institutions. I've had long cooperations with physicians at LabbafiNejad Hospital in Tehran and my colleagues at Farabi Hospital. MNA: Can we expect a day when there is no blind? Peyman: I have no doubt that we will see the day, when we prevent or treat major diseases that affect the eyesight and lead to blindness. MNA: What do you think of the role of stem cells in eye diseases? Have you conducted any studies in this regard? Peyman: Since the New Orleans' Hurricane Katrina, I lost my laboratory and I have not been able to follow my interests in this field. But I know this field is very promising. Currently, the role of stem cells in curing retina diseases and astigmatism is under study. Some promising results are also reached at for patients with systemic Lymphoma. MNA: What is your ultimate goal in medical research? Peyman: My goal, like any other ophthalmologists', is to prevent or cure disease which leads to blindness, so we may as- suage some of our patients' suffering. TheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness.
  • 16. sprawl: to spread over a large area monument: a large structure that is built in memory of sb or sth mighty: powerful. conquer: to take control of a country or city and its people by force. spread: to exist across a large area awesome: extremely impressive landmarks: very large building. dedicate: to give a build- ing sb’s name in order to show respect stare: to look at sb or sth for long time. worldwide: every where in world independent: not owned or controlled by sb legend: an ancient story raise: to help childern gow up. sys: bring up overthrow: to remove a leader or a government from a position of power by force Around the World 16 Rome is the capital of Italy. This sprawling modern city has many an- cient monuments. Rome’s history goes back more than 2,500 years. Be- cause of its age, Rome is often called the Eternal City. Rome’s many art treasures and historic buildings make the city an important center of European culture. ALL ROADS LEAD TO ROME In ancient times, Rome was the center of a mighty Roman empire. The empire lasted nearly 500 years, into the ad 400s. Roman armies con- quered the lands that are now Italy, Greece, Great Britain, France, and Egypt. The Romans built many roads from Rome to distant parts of their empire. This network of roads led to a saying that “All roads lead to Rome.” Rome is one of the world’s most majestic and historic cities. As the capital city of Italy, it is home to about 2.7 million people. The Colosseum is one of Rome’s landmarks. Parts of this ancient stadium, built almost 2,000 years ago, still stand today. During the Roman Empire it was used for festivals and sporting contests, including battles to the death between Roman gladiators. The Roman Empire’s influence is still present. The Romans spread their language, Latin, through- out Europe. Latin is the basis for Italian, French, Spanish, and other European languages. AWESOME ARCHITECTURE The ancient Romans were great builders. Several of their buildings still stand today. They are among Rome’s famous landmarks. The Pantheon is a temple dedicated to the many Roman gods of mythology. The Roman Colos- seum is a four-story amphitheater. An amphitheater is like a football stadium. The Colosseum is where Roman citizens once watched gladiators fight to the death. The Roman Forum was the political center of ancient Rome. The senate building and law courts were there, along with shops and religious buildings. GREAT ART Many artists painted in Rome. The most famous of them is Michelangelo. He lived 500 years ago. Thousands of people visit Rome each year to see his art. Visitors to the Vatican stare in wonder at the beau- tiful murals that Michelangelo painted on the ceil- ing of the Sistine Chapel. The murals show scenes from the first book of the Bible, the Book of Gen- esis. VATICAN CITY Vatican City is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church. The pope lives at the Vatican. He is the head of the Catholic Church. There are more than a billion Catholics worldwide, making Roman Catholicism the largest Christian religion. Vatican City is an independent country within Rome. It is the smallest country in the world. LEGENDARY BEGINNING Did you know that a wolf is the official symbol for the city of Rome? Legend says that an evil king tried to kill twin baby boys called Romulus and Remus by throw- ing them into the Tiber River. A female wolf found the boys washed ashore. She raised the twins. When the boys grew to be young men, they overthrew the evil king. Romulus then founded the city of Rome on the banks of the Tiber. That was over 2,500 years ago. RomeTheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness.
  • 17. Conversation Time A: All right, people. We’re holding this meeting today because we’ve got to do something about our sales, and we need to do it NOW! I want concrete solutions. How do you intend to drive sales...Roger? B: Well, in fact, we’re the most expensive in the market, so maybe we need to lower our prices to match the competitors? A: Lower our prices? Not very creative. It’ll never fly with Swan. What kind of thinking is that? Geez. Anybody else have a better plan? Natalie? C: Um, perhaps, um, a sales promotion. Maybe a two-for-one offer, or something like that! A: What? That’s the same thing. Bad idea. Really bad idea. Dammit people come on! Think! The CEO will be here any minute. D: Do we have any ideas yet? C: Yes Mr. Swan, we were kind of considering a two-for-one offer to get more competitive. D: A two-for-one promotion? Hmm. I kind of like the sound of that. It sounds like something we should consider. A: Yeah, exactly. Just what I was thinking! In fact, that’s a brilliant idea! I’m glad we thought of that. Very creative. Words concrete solutions Phrase a real or specific solution to a problem drive sales Preposition increase sales in the market Phrase in the industry to match the competitors to be the as good as or bet- ter than others companies in the same industry will never fly Phrase will not work, will not be ap- proved promotion Phrase some- thing done to make people aware of a product be here any minute Phrase will arrive very soon to consider verb to think about “Butterfliesinmystomach”:Tobenervous Liamhadbutterfliesinhisstomachbeforehewentonstagetoplaytheviolin. “Twowrongsdon’tmakearight.” Whensomeonehasdonesomethingbadtoyou,tryingtogetrevengewillonlymakethingsworse. English Idiom English Slang English Phrasal Verb English Proverb Find Your Tongue... Guts:Courage Jimhadrealgutstofightamantwiceasbigashimself. Callsomethingoff:Tocancel Thebosscalledthemettingoff. TheSizeOfCandlesMayDifferButTheyYieldTheSameBrightness. 17
  • 18. WRITINGBUSINESSLETTERS TakeYourPens... Salutation Dear Mr Brown Dear MsWhite Dear Sir Dear Sirs Dear Madam Dear Sir or Madam Gentlemen Starting We are writing to inform you that … to confirm … to request … to enquire about … I am contacting you for the following reason. I recently read/heard about . . . and would like to know . . . Having seen your advertisement in … , I would like to … I would be interested in (obtaining/receiving) … I received your address from … and would like to … I am writing to tell you about … Referring to previous contact Thank you for your letter of March 15 … Thank you for contacting us. In reply to your request … Thank you for your letter regarding … With reference to our telephone conversation yesterday … Further to our meeting last week … It was a pleasure meeting you in London last month. I enjoyed having lunch with you last week inTokyo. I would just like to confirm the main points we discussed onTuesday . . . Making Request We would appreciate it if you would … I would be grateful if you could… Could you please send me . . . Could you possibly tell us/let us have… In addition, I would like to receive … It would be helpful if you could send us … I am interested in (obtaining/receiving…) I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter. Please let me know what action you propose to take. SuccessisavehiclewhichmovesonawheelcalledHARDWORK.ButthejourneyisimpossiblewithoutfuelcalledSELFCONFIDENCE. 18
  • 19. ‫وند‬ ‫چند‬ ‫یا‬ ‫یک‬ ‫همراه‬ ‫به‬ ‫اصلی‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫یک‬ ‫شامل‬ ‫که‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫اشاره‬ ‫‌ای‬‫ه‬‫‌واژ‬‫ه‬‫گرو‬ ‫یا‬ ‫عبارت‬ ‫به‬ ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫انگلیسی‬ ‫زبان‬ ‫در‬ ‫معنای‬ ‫با‬ ‫است‬ ‫ممکن‬ ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫‌های‬‫ل‬‫فع‬ ‫معنای‬ .‫هستند‬ ‫قیدها‬ ‫یا‬ ‫اضافه‬ ‫‌های‬‫ف‬‫حر‬ ، ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫‌های‬‫ل‬‫فع‬ ‫در‬ ‫وندها‬ .‫است‬ ‫سه‬ ‫به‬ ‫ای‬ ‫واژه‬ ‫چند‬ ‫هستند.افعال‬ ‫ای‬ ‫واژه‬ ‫چند‬ ‫افعال‬ ‫از‬ ‫بزرگی‬ ‫جز‬ ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫باشد.افعال‬ ‫متفاوت‬ ‫‌شان‬‫ی‬‫اصل‬ ‫فعل‬ :‫شوند‬ ‫می‬ ‫تقسیم‬ ‫دسته‬ Phrasal Verbs Prepositional Verbs Phrasal-prepositional Verbs Who is looking after the baby?‫بودن‬ ‫مراقب‬ ‫بودن‬ ‫مواظب‬ ‫به‬ ‫داشتن‬ ‫توجه‬ look afterPrepositional Verb You can look up my number in the telephone directory. ‫کردن‬ ‫جستجو‬look upPhrasal Verb I look forward to meeting you.‫بودن‬ ‫مشتاق‬look forward toPhrasal-PrepositionalVerb ‫های‬ ‫شماره‬ ‫در‬ ‫دیگر‬ ‫ی‬ ‫دسته‬ ‫دو‬ ‫به‬ ‫و‬ ‫پردازیم‬ ‫می‬ ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫افعال‬ ‫یا‬ phrasal verbs ‫یعنی‬ ‫اول‬ ‫دسته‬ ‫به‬ ‫شماره‬ ‫این‬ ‫در‬ .‫پرداخت‬ ‫خواهیم‬ ‫مجله‬ ‫این‬ ‫بعدی‬ :‫شوند‬ ‫تقسم‬ ‫زیر‬ ‫ی‬ ‫دسته‬ ‫دو‬ ‫به‬ ‫توانند‬ ‫می‬ ‫که‬ ‫اند‬ ‫شده‬ ‫تشکیل‬ ‫قید‬ + ‫فعل‬ ‫از‬ Phrasal Verbs Intransitive: No Direct Object • Transitive: Direct Object • :‫کنید‬ ‫توجه‬ ‫زیر‬ ‫های‬ ‫مثال‬ ‫به‬ ExampleMeaningPhrasal Verb I don’t like to get up.‫شدن‬ ‫بیدار‬get upIntransitive He was late because his car broke down. ‫،درهم‬ ‫،فروريختن‬ ‫شکننده‬ ‫انداختن‬ ‫اثر‬ ‫،از‬ ‫شکستن‬ break down We will have to put off the meeting.‫ازسرباز‬ ،‌‫ن‬‫رفت‬ ‌‫ه‬‫‌فر‬‫ط‬ ،‌‫ن‬‫كرد‬ ‫تاخير‬ ‫كردن‬ ‌‫ل‬‫موكو‬ ‫ببعد‬ ،‌‫ن‬‫كرد‬ put offTransitive They turned down my offer.‫کردن‬ ‫رد‬turn down :‫تفکیک‬ ‫قابل‬ ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫افعال‬ ‫ها‬ ‫آن‬ ‫بین‬ ‫در‬ ‫را‬ ‫مفعول‬ ‫و‬ ‫کرده‬ ‫جدا‬ ‫هم‬ ‫از‬ ‫ها‬ ‫آن‬ ‫توانیم‬ ‫می‬ ‫معموال‬ ‫هستند‬ ‫متعدی‬ ‫نوع‬ ‫از‬ ‫ترکیبی‬ ‫افعال‬ ‫که‬ ‫زمانی‬ :‫مانند‬ .‫بیاوریم‬ They turned down my offer. They turned my offer down. Bestlessonoflifeislistentoeveryoneandlearnfromeveryone,becausenobodyknowseverythingandeveryoneknowssomething. 19