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Globalization: Definition, Perspectives and Theories

Globalization: Definition, Perspectives and Theories

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Globalization: Definition, Perspectives and Theories

  1. 1. Globalization Prepared by: Mr. Antonio Delgado Faculty, Social Science Department General De Jesus College
  2. 2. Globalized World
  3. 3. Contemporary World
  4. 4. FOCUS QUESTIONS 1. Define globalization. 2. What are the key dynamics of globalization? 3. Name some theories of globalization and describe each. 4. Name some perspectives on globalization. 5. Differentiate westernization from glocalization. 7
  5. 5. Definition
  6. 6. Globalization defined ▪Globalization refers to time- space compressions (Harvey, 1989). ▪Globalization refers to the integration of the world-economy (Glipin, 2001). ▪Globalization is the de-territorialization – or ….the growth of supraterritorial relations between people (Scholte, 2002). 9
  7. 7. Globalization defined ▪Globalization refers to the expansion and intensification of social relations and consciousness across world-time and world-space (Steger, 2010). 10
  8. 8. Globalization defined ▪Globalization is the inexorable integration of markets, transportation systems, and communication systems to a degree never witnessed before – in a way that is enabling corporations, countries, and individuals to reach around the world farther, faster, deeper, and cheaper than ever before, and in a way that is enabling the world to reach into corporations, countries, and individuals farther, faster, deeper, and cheaper than ever before (Friedman, 1999). 11
  9. 9. Globalization defined ▪Globalization refers to the worldwide intensification of interactions and increased movement of money, people, goods, and ideas within and across national borders (Guest, 2017). 12
  10. 10. Key Dynamics of Globalization
  11. 11. 1. Time-Space Compression ▪According to the theory of time- space compression, the rapid innovation of communication and transportation technologies has transformed the way we think about space (distances) and time. ▪Can you think of examples of time-space compression? 14
  12. 12. 15
  13. 13. 16
  14. 14. 2. Flexible Accumulation ▪reflects the fact that advances in transportation and communication have enabled companies to move their production facilities and activities around the world ▪Why do you think companies would want to move production facilities around the world? 17
  15. 15. 18
  16. 16. 2. Flexible Accumulation ▪reflects the fact that advances in transportation and communication have enabled companies to move their production facilities and activities around the world ▪Reasons: cheaper labor, lower taxes, and fewer environmental regulations 19
  17. 17. 2. Flexible Accumulation a) Offshoring – is the relocation of a business process from one country to another—typically an operational process, such as manufacturing, or supporting processes, such as accounting. b) Outsourcing - is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company. It involves the contracting out of a business process and operational, and/or non-core functions to another party. 20
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  19. 19. 3. Increasing Migration ▪There is an accelerated movement of people both within countries and between countries. ▪How does this affect the Philippines? 22
  20. 20. 23
  21. 21. 5,460 OFWs Left the Philippines daily in 2017 24
  22. 22. 2.3 million Number of OFWs (PSA, 2018) 25
  23. 23. 4. Uneven Development ▪Although many people associate globalization with rapid economic development and progress, globalization has not brought equal benefits to the world’s people. ▪Why is this so? 26
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  26. 26. Theories of Globalization
  27. 27. 30
  28. 28. 1. Modernization Theory (Rostow) ▪Based on stages of economic growth and modernization a) Traditional society b) Pre-conditions for take-off c) Take-off d) Drive to maturity e) The age of mass consumption 31
  29. 29. 32
  30. 30. 2. Dependency Theory (Frank) ▪An approach based on the periphery’s dependence to the core. ▪the core exploits resources in the periphery resulting in the periphery’s dependence on the core as it imports the core’s finished products. 33
  31. 31. 3. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein) ▪There is only one world – a complex world-systems theory – in which nation-states compete for capital and labor. ▪The global economy is a market system with a fluid and dynamic flow of countries and economies from periphery to semi-periphery to core 34
  32. 32. 35
  33. 33. Information Arbitrage (Friedman) ▪To understand the complex system of globalization a multi- lens perspective is needed. ▪Six dimensional information arbitrage is the best way to see the system of globalization; politics, culture, national security, financial markets, technology, environmentalism. 36
  34. 34. Perspectives on Globalization
  35. 35. 1. Hyperglobalist Perspective ▪This is an approach which sees globalization as a new epoch in human history. ▪This new epoch is characterized by the declining relevance and authority of nation-states, brought about largely through the economic logic of a global market. 38
  36. 36. 2. Skeptical Perspective ▪This views current international processes as more by fragmented and regionalized than globalized. ▪Current processes show, at best, a regionalization. ▪Authors with a skeptical perspective reject the notions of the development of a global culture or a global governance structure. 39
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  38. 38. 3. Transformationalist Perspective ▪This perspective differs fundamentally from the other two perspectives in that: a) there is no single cause (that is, the market or economic logic) behind globalization; and that b) the outcome of processes of globalization is not determined. 41
  39. 39. Globalization as Westernization
  40. 40. Westernization ▪Westernization is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, politics, economics, lifestyle, law, norms, mores, customs, traditions, values, mentality, perceptions, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, and philosophy. 43
  41. 41. 44
  42. 42. Americanization ▪Americanization refers to the import by non - Americans of products, images, technologies, practices and behavior that are closely associated with America/Americans. 45
  43. 43. Globalization as Glocalization
  44. 44. Glocalization ▪Glocalization is the simultaneous occurrence of both universalizing and particularizing tendencies in contemporary social, political, and economic systems. 47
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  47. 47. Globalization
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  49. 49. 52 THANKS! ANY QUESTIONS? You can find me at: ▪ twitter.com/SirTonyDelgado ▪ facebook.com/kazekage15 ▪ facebook.com/GJCconworld
  50. 50. References ▪Guest, K.J. (2017). Cultural Anthropology : A Toolkit for a Global Age. New York, NY :W.W. Norton & Company ▪Friedman, T.L. ( 2000). The Lexus and the Olive Tree. New York: Anchor Books ▪Ritzer, G. (2011). Globalization: The Essentials. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell ▪Martell, L. (Summer 2007). The Third Wave in Globalization Theory. International Studies Review, 9(2), pp. 173-196. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/4621804?seq=1 53

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