2. Noticing Task 1
Read the conversation between two sisters , then answer the questions which follow.
1 Yara Jane, you are always dropping something!
2 Jane (Sheepishly) I know, I seem to be all thumbs this week.
3 Yara Are you still thinking about the results of your exams?
4 Jane I guess I am. Dad is going to be angry.
5 Yara Well, you should have been studying that week but instead,
you kept on going out with your friends.
6 Jane I agree with you. I would not have failed my exams if I just
spent more time studying.
7 Yara There is nothing you can do about your exams now. Instead,
focus on how you can improve your grades in the future.
In line 5, what does Yara tell Jane she should have been doing?
In line 7, what does Yara tell Jane she should do?
3. Language Focus
•What are verbs?
! Remember, verbs are action or state of being words.
Ex. The boy kicked the ball. (action)
Ex. The book is interesting. (state of being)
Auxiliary verbs are sometimes called helping verbs because they help
us conjugate other verbs (change a verb from its basic form). They are
also used when making negative statements or asking questions with
Ex. I did not see Ali yesterday. (negative)
Ex. Can you please close the door? (Asking a question)
Auxiliary verbs are also used to express shades of time and mood (what
the speaker thinks about something).
Ex. I was studying for the Math exam yesterday. (time—Past
Ex. I do not like apples. (mood)
4. Usage 2.1
Do, Does & Did
It is also common to use do, does and did as auxiliary verbs (or helping verbs)
together with another verb in its base form to make negative sentences, ask
questions, or for adding emphasis.
• Make negative sentences with don’t, doesn’t and didn’t
Ex. I didn’t sleep early.
Ex. Your friends didn’t get the e-mail.
• Use do, does and did to add emphasis in the same way you answer a
question. To do this, place do, did or does before the main verb.
Ex. I do play the guitar.
Ex. I did get to class on time yesterday.
Ex. My brother does need help with his homework.
5. Rules 2.1
1. Rule 1. Follow the structure below when forming negative statements
with Do, Does & Did.
6. Usage 2.2
Do, Does & Did
• Yes/No Questions with Do, Does, & Did
To make a question that can be answered with a yes or no, start the question with
Do, Does or Did, (Doesn’t, Don’t, Didn’t for a negative question) + subject (the
person or thing that does the action) + base form of the verb + the rest of the
Ex. Do you remember Ali’s message? (positive)
Ex. Don’t you remember the agreement we had? (negative)
•You may add a one-word time expression, such as always, usually, or often
between the subject and the verb.
Ex. Do you always take the bus?
•You may use a negative question with a time expression such as ‘ever’.
Ex. Does she ever remember her appointments? (Shows she never remember
7. Rules 2.2
1. Rule 1. Follow the structure below when forming Yes/No questions with
Do, Does & Did.
8. Quick Practice 1
Direction: Write Yes/No questions with the these words.
1. they/study (present tense) / biology at school
2. your grandfather/ come (past tense) / here from Spain in the 1900s
3. Andrew/ have (present tense) / a twin brother
4. he / want (present tense) / go to Ireland next week
9. Usage 2.3
Do, Does & Did
• Wh-questions (information) with Do, Does
Wh- questions are questions that require more
information in their answers. Typical wh- words are
what, where, when, why, who, how, how many,
Ex. What does it take to succeed at PYD?
Ex. How do you fix this problem?
Ex. Who did you see for that?
Ex. Why did Hussain do that kind of thing?
In Simple Present and in Simple Past, the main
verb is in base form, as in the examples above:
travel, come, succeed, fix, see, and do.
10. Rules 2.3
1. Rule 1. Follow the structure below when forming Information (W&H)
questions with Do, Does & Did.
12. Noticing Task 3
Read the statements below , then answer the questions which follow.
What does Ali say he can do?
What does Yousef say he now understands?
Ali: “I can get the
pizza for us. I'm
Yousef: “I can
polar bears need
13. Usage 3.1
The modal auxiliary Can is used to:
• Express ability (in the sense of being able to do something or knowing how
to do something).
Ex. He can speak Spanish, but he can't write it very well.
• Express permission (in the sense of being allowed or permitted to do
Ex. Can I talk to my friends in the library waiting room? (Note that can is less
formal than may. Also, some writers will object to the use of can in this context.).
•Express theoretical possibility
Ex. American automobile makers can make better cars if they think there's a profit
14. Rule 3. 1
The modal auxiliary Can
• Expressing ability
Structure: Subject + can + base form of verb + the rest of the sentence
Ex. She can recite the Holy Quran by memory.
• Expressing permission
Structure: Can + Subject + main verb + the rest of the sentence.
Ex. Can Hannah come to you later to discuss the project?
•Expressing theoretical possibility
Structure: Subject + can + base form of verb + if statement
Ex. I can bake a cake if I have all the ingredients.
15. Quick Practice 3
Direction: Look at the pictures and write what people can or can’t do.
1. _______________________________________________ (Abner, play football)
2. _______________________________________________ (Alice, skate)
3. _______________________________________________ (Tom and Tim, play
4. _______________________________________________ (John, run fast)
5. _______________________________________________ (Peter, draw)
16. Usage 4
Modal auxiliary verbs May and Must
• Use may for granting or seeking permission.
Ex. May I go to the washroom? (Seeking permission- present)
Ex. I may let you leave early if you finish your chores. (Granting permission- future)
• Use may to express possibility.
Ex. She may be my advisor next semester. (future)
• "Must" is most commonly used to express certainty.
Ex. You've been driving all day. You must be exhausted!
• Use must to express necessity or strong recommendation.
Ex. You must take some time off and get some rest.
• Use must not to prohibit an action (although this sounds very severe; speakers prefer
to use softer modal verbs such as "should not" or "ought not" to dissuade rather than
Ex. Ali, you must not play in the street!
17. Quick Practice 4
Speaking Activity: In pairs, choose one of
the tasks below and create a dialogue with
your partner. Check for grammar and
vocabulary accuracy and then present in front
of the class.
1. Create a dialogue with your partner, use
should and shouldn t.
2. With your partner, present a dialogue using
negative sentences using don’t, doesn’t
and didn’t .
3. Use may to ask for permission or express
possibilities in a dialogue with your partner.
4. Use must to give an advice or strong
recommendation to your partner about
his/her bad habit.
5. Use must to describe a time when you
prohibited your younger sibling from doing
something. Tell your partner’s story to the